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Pnce Seven Sliillmys and Sixpence, hound in ck-A- 



Th* Right Han. LORD BROUGHAM. F.K.S.. kmnt of tae KaOoftal loatttnta V Frttc* 

/FMr-CMraaa— JOHN WOOD Eaq. 

A. A lager. Esq. 

w. Al:*«. Km|., F.R. tad R.A 8. 

Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.8., 

Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 
George Brk beck. M D. 
O. Harrow*, M.I). 
Peter Stafford Carey, Esq., A.M. 
John Cooolly. M.D. 
William Coulson, Rsq. . 
R. D. Craig, Rsq. 
J. P. Davit, Rao., F.R.8. 
H . T. Dela Heche. Esq., P.R.8. 
The Right Hon. Lord Denman. 
Samuel Duckworth, Baq. 
The Ittght Iter, the Hlshop of Durham, D.D. 
Sir Henry Kill*. Prln. Lib. Brit. Mae. 
T. P. Rill*. Kaq.. A.M.. F.R. A.St. 
John Rlllotson, M.D.. F.R.8. 
George Evans, Esq., M.P. 
Thoma* Falconer. Esq. 
L L. GoidemJd.Eaq, F.R, and R.A.S. 

rreower— WILLIAM TOOKE, Raq., P.R.3. 

Francl* Henry Goldsmld, Raq. 

B. Gomoertt, Esq., F.R. and R.A.3. 

J. T. Grave*. Esq. A.M., F.R A. 

G. B. Greenough. Kaq., F.R. and L.8. 

M. D. Hill. Esq. 

Rowland Hill. Raq., F.R.A.S. 

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhoaae, Bart, M.P. 

T. Hodgkin. M.D. 

DaTld Jar dine, E«q. t A.M. 

Henry B. Rer. Esq. 

Ttioma* Heweit Key, Eaq., A.M. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bail, M.P. 

George C. Lewie, Eaq., A.M. 

Thomas Henry Lister, Eaq. 

Jame* Loch, K*q„ M.P., F.G.S. 

George Long, Eaq., A.M. 

H. Maiden, Raq. A.M. 

A. T. Malkln, E««| M A.M. 

James Manning. Eaq. 

R. I. Murchiaon, Ban.. F.R.R, F.GA 

The Right Hon. Lord Nugent. ' 
*W. ft. O'Brien, Baq., M.P. 
The Right Hon. Sir Henry Parnall, Bl . M.P. 
Richard Quain. Esq. 
Dr. Roget, Sec. R.3., F.R. A. 8. 
Edward Romilly, Esq., A.M. 
R. W. Botbmau, Eaq., AJI . 
The Right Hon. Lord John RueatU, M.P. 
Sir M. A. Shee, P.R.A., F.R.S. 
The Right Hon. Earl Spencer. 
Sir G. T. Stauntoo, Bart., M.P. ' 
John Taylor, Esq. F.R.S. 
Dr. A. T. Thomson, F.L.S. 
Thoma* Vanlon, Esq. 

J as. Walker, Eaq., K.R.8., Pr. loot. Civ. Bag. 
H. Waymmtth, E»q. 
Thos. Webster. Baq., A.M. 
J. Wlil« haw, Esq., A.M., F.R.S. 
The Hon. John Wrottcaley, A.M.. P.ft.A.ft,' 
J. A. Yalta, Esq., M J\ 

Attorn, Stafards fere— Rev. J. P. Jonas. 

Wag7*feii-Hev. R. William*. 

Rev. W. Johneon. . 

Mr. Miller.; 
Barnstaple.— — Bancraft, Raq. 

William Grlhhlc. Rsq. 
Belfast— Dr. Drummond. 
Birmtng'uim— J.Corrie.Esq.F.R.8. CAmVatsm. 

Paul Moon Jame*. Rsq.. Treaassrar. 
BrHport—J*me* Williams, Esq. 
Brief •/— J.N.Sander*. R-q., F.0.3. CVtenrsMA. 

J. Reynolds. Esq., Treasurer. 

J. B. Rttlln, E«m|„ F.L.8, Secretary. 
Calcutta — James Young. Raq. 

C. H. Cameron. Esq. 
Cambridge — We v. James Bowstead, M.A. 

Aev. Professor Henalow, M./L. F.L.8. At 

Rer. l*eonard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.8. 

Rev. John Lodge, M.A. 

Rer. Prof Sedgwick. M.A., F.R.S. Ac 0.8. 
Camterturtf — John Brent, Esq., Alderman. 

William Masters. Esq. 
Gaatoa— Wm. Jardlne. Esq., President. 

Robert Inelis, Esq, Trmumrer. 

Rer. C. Hridgman. ) 

Rer. <'. Gutilaff, >S*errt*riet. 

J. R. Morrison, Esq., J 
Cardigan— Her. J. Black welt. M.A. 
Varhstr— Thomas Barnes. M.D M F.R.S. E. 
Carnarvon— li. A Poole, Esq. 

William Roberta, E»q. 
CA*sfer— Henry PolU, K»q. 
C'AtcAeifer— John Forbes, M.D., F.R.S. 

C. C. Pemly, Esq. 
OrwcmeofA— Rev. J. Whltrldga. 
Corfu— John Crawford. Faq. 

Mr. Plato Petrides 
Cm*mlrf— Arthur (tregery, Raq, 
Oon*»th— Joka Madoek*, Esq. 

Tfcom** Kvan«. K»Q. 
Dor** — Joseph Simtt. Esq. 

Edward Strutt, Esq., M.P 


Di — a p ar t and 5fo***oiM*— joba Cola, Raq. 

— Norman, Kaq. 

Lt.Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.8. 
Dublin— T. Drnmmond, Eaq. R.E., F.R.A.8. 
Edinburgh— Sir C. Bell. F.R.8.L. and R. 
Btrnria— Jo*. Wedgwood, Eaq. 
Maeter—J. Tyrrell. Esq. 

John Mllford, Eaq. (Coewer.j 
Glamorganshire- Dr. Malkln, Cowbrldgn. 

W. William*, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
(Haegou—K. Flnlay, Esq. 

Professor Mylne. 

Alexander McGrigor, Eaq* 

Jame* Conner, Esq. 

A. J. D. D'Oreey, Eaq. 
r?«#nu«y— F. C. Liikis , E*q. 
Hull— 3. C. Parker, Esq. 
Leamington Spa— Dr. Loudon, M.D. 
Leeds— J. Marshall, Eaq. 
Lewes— 2, W. Woollgar, Eaq. 
Liverpool Lot, Ai.—\V. 'W. Carrie, Baq. 04. 

J. Mulleneuz, E*q., Treasurer. 

Rev. Dr. Shepherd: 
Katdenhead—K. Goolden, Eaq., F.LJ8. 
Af aid* <oiw— Clement T. Smyth, Eaq. 

John Case, Baq. 
Mlalmeebmrg—n. C. Thomas, Esq. 
Manchester I.oc. Ae.—G.W. Wood, Eaq., t'A. 

Sir Bemamln Hey wood. BL, Treasurer. 

T. W. Wlnatanley, Eaq.. Hon. See, 

Sir G. Philips, Bart., M.P. 

Benj. Gott, Esq. 
ATatham—Ker. George Waddtegtoa, M.A. 
Aterthvr TydvU—J. J. Guest, Eaq., M.P. 
A/tarAifiAamofo* — John G. Ball, Eaq. 
XvwuMth— J. H. Moggridge. Raq. 
Neath— John Rowland, Eaq. 
AcwerurVe— Rev. W. Turner. 

T. Sop with, Esq., F.G.S. 
Newport. IsUof Wight— Ah. Clarke, Baq. 

T. Cooke. Jun., Esq. 

R. G. Elrkpatiick, Eaq. 
Newport PmgmeU—J. Millar, Eaq. , 


Newtown, lfontgomert/ihire~Vr. Pagh. Baq* 
HfenvtcA— Richard Bacon, Raq. 

Wm. Forster, Rsq. 
Orsett, Ernes— Dr. Corbetf, M.D. 
Oxford— Dr. Dauheny, F.R.S. Prof, of Cham. 

Rer. Prof. Powell. 

Rev. John Jordan, R.A. 
Pesth. Hungary— Count Stechenyl. 
rtgmouth—H. Wool I com be, Raq., F.A.8., Vh. 

Snow Harris, Raq., F.R.S. 

E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S„Se*r*l«r».. 

G. Wlghtwlck, Rsq. 
Prostoign—Dr. A. W. Davis, M.D. 
Rrfjpoii— Re*. H. P. H am 1 1 ton, M . A„F. R,«./l 3. 

Rev. P. K wart. M.A. 
JtaiAia— Rev. the Warden of 

Humphrey* Jones, Esq. 
Rpde, 7. of fright— Sir Rd. Simeon, Bt. 
Salisbury— Rev. J. BarfltL 
ShefieU—S. H. Abraham*, Baq. 
Shepton ilattet—Q. F. Rurroughs, Rsq. 
Shrewsbury- R. A.SIaney, K.q., M.P. 
South Pethorton— John Nlcholctta, Raq. 
St. Asaph— Rev. George Strong. 
Stockport— }i. Maraland, Esq., Tr insurer. 

Henry Coupock. Esq^ Secretnrp. 
Sydney, New South Wales— William M. Man- 

nlng, Raq , Chairman of Quarter Sessions. 
Tavistock— Rer. W.Evana. 

John Rundle. Esq. 
Truro— Henry Sewell Stokes, Eaq. 
Tunhridge Wetlo—tir. Veats, M.D. 
VVoxetrr— Robert Blurton, Eaq. 
Firywia— Professor Tucker. 
Worcester— Dr. Haalinga, M.D. 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
PJWAant— Thomas Edgwot th, Raq. 

J. E. Bowman, Esq., F.L.8., lV*a«arfr. 

Major William Lloyd 
Yarmouth— C. E. Rumboid, Baq. 

Dawson Turner. Esq. 
For*— Rev. J. Eenrlck, M.A. 

J. Phillip*, Eaq, F.RA, F.G 8. 

THOMAS COATES, Esq, Sscratary, No. W, Iiaooln'a Inn Fmlda. 

... . 

« • • • 

« • 

itawiMi Priatad by William Clows* aad 8o*e, ShiaHbrd VtMhV 




HE sA 



M U R 

nent artist of the school of Seville, and the most distin- 
guished colourist of the Spanish painters, was horn at 
Seville in the year 1G13. As he manifested at a very early 
age an inclination to painting, he was placed under his 
uncle, Juan del Castillo, an artist of merit, whose favourite 
subjects were fairs and markets, and whose pupils, Alonso. 
Cano, Murillo, and Pedro Moya, rank as the best Andalu- 
sian artists. Under him Murillo made rapid progress, and 
painted several pictures while he remained with his uncle. 
After leaving him he continued to improve in drawing as 
well as in painting. For some time he painted in the Flo- 
rentine st vie, which then prevailed in Spain, and several 
works of this his first period are still preserved at Seville. 
In order to improve himself in drawing, he was on the point 
of going to England to see Vandyck, when he heard of the 
death of that great master. He then applied with great 
diligence to the painting of small pictures of saints, for the 
trade with America, by which he obtained funds sufficient 
to undertake, in 1643, a journey to Madrid. Here he de- 
rived great advantage from the instruction of his country- 
man Velazquez, who likewise obtained for him permission 
to copy the master-pieces of Titian, Rubens, Vandyck, and 
Kibera, in the royal collection. Returning to Seville in 
1645, he excited general admiration by his paintings in the 
convent of St Francis. They were in the style of Spagno- 
leto (Jose Ribera) and Velazquez, then unknown at Se- 
ville, ami procured him many commissions. He painted 
several historical pictures for the king of Spain, which 
gained him great reputation in his own country, and, being 
sent to Rome as a present to the pope, so highly pleased 
the Italians, that they called him a second Paul Veronese, 
lie likewise painted many grand altar-pieces for the 
churches and convents in Madrid, Seville, Cordova, Cadiz, 
and Granada. Among these are eight large pictures repre- 
senting the works of Mercy, for the church or St. George in 
the hospital ' De la Caridad' of Seville, which are distin- 
guished for their admirable composition and force of colour- 
ing. Other equally excellent works adorned the church of 
L >s Venerable* and the Capucin convent, for which latter 
he painted twenty-eight pictures, which were afterwards 
sent to America. He was engaged on an altar-piece repre- 
senting the marriage of St. Catherine, for the Capucin 
convent at Cadiz, when he met with an accident on the 
sen Holding, from which he never recovered, and he died at 
Seville, on the 3rd of April, 1685. 

But though Murillo was thus eminent in the higher de- 
partments of the art, his favourite subjects were beggar 
boys as large as life engaged in various amusements, which 
he generally designed after nature. His pictures of such 
subjects are highly esteemed for their merit, and may be 
Keen in the collections of the English nobility; but there 
arc numberless copies. Murillo excelled likewise in por- 
traits and landscapes. His works are distinguished by 
their striking character of truth, nature, and simplicity ; by 
the entire absence of the servility of imitation; and by the 
delicacy of his touch, and the mellowness of his colouring, 
which in fact seem perfect in every particular. Among his 
finest pictures are 'Moses striking the Rock,' and 'Christ 
feeding the Five Thousand,' in the convent of St. Francis', at 
Seville; and ' St Antony of Padua,' in the cathedral of that 
1\C No. 977. 

M U R 

city and in the National Museum at Madrid. Many of his 
works are in France, particularly in the collection of Mar- 
shal Soult,* and in the collections of the English nobility 
and gentry. The Dresden Gallery has a fine * Virgin and 
Child* by his hand. Several of his pictures are at Munich, 
and others at Vienna, in the possession of Prince Esterhazy. 
By the collection of several Munllos from the convents of 
Seville, a museum has recently been formed in the cathe- 
dral of that city; and there are many more in the National 
Museum at Madrid. The picture which Murillo preferred 
to all his other works was that of * St. Thomas de Villa 
Nueva distributing Alms to the Sick and the Poor.' This, 
we presume, is the picture in the possession of Mr. Well*, 
of which Dr. Waagen says,  This fine picture was for- 
merly in the church of the Franciscans at Genoa. The 
subject was a peculiarly happy one for Murillo. In the 
head of the saint, in which priestly dignity and gravity are 
admirably expressed, he proves his ability in treating such 
religious subjects from the legends of the monkish saints. 
The cripples and the sick afforded him, on the other hand, 
an ample field to show his skill in representations from com- 
mon life, which we so highly admire in his beggar boys.' Dr. 
Waagen describes likewise another picture of the same sub- 
ject, 10 feet high and 6 feet wide, now in Lord Ashburton's 
collection, purchased by his lordship of General Sebastiani, 
and which was formerly at Seville. We refer to Dr. Waagen 's 
work on ' Arts and Artists in England ' for descriptions of 
the numerous pictures by Murillo in our English collections. 
Murillo raised the art of paintiug in Spain not only by his 
own works, but by founding an academy at Seville, of which 
he was president from the year 1660 till his death. (Cean 
Bermudez, Dicctort. de Prqfes. Espano. de Bellas Artes; 
Ponz, Viage de EspaTta ; El Artista, 1835; LaRevistade 
Madrid, Enero, 1839.) 

MURPHY, ARTHUR, a dramatic and miscellaneous 
writer, was born near Elphin, in the county of Roscommon, 
Ireland, December 27, 1730. His father was a merchant 
in Dublin. In 1740, Arthur Murphy was entered at the 
college of St. Oraer, where he remained nearly seven years, 
and, on his return to Ireland, passed two years in a mer- 
chant's counting-house at Cork. From thence he came to 
London, and obtained a situation as clerk in a banking- 
bouse, shortly after which he commenced his career as a 
publio writer. On the 21st of October, 1752, he started 
' The Gray's Inn Journal,' a periodical in the style of the 
'Spectator/ which he carried on to October 12th, 1754. 
On the 18 th of the same month he tried his fortune as an 
actor on the stage of Covent Garden, and. in the character 
of Othello. His success was but moderate, and after a 
second season, during which he acted at Drury Lane, he 
quitted the boards for ever, and resumed his former occu- 
pation as a writer by commencing a periodical political 
journal called 'The Test.' He also began to study the 
law, hut was refused admission to the societies of the 
Temple and of Gray's Inn on the ground of his having been 
an actor. He succeeded finally in obtaining admission to 
Lincoln's Inn, was called to the bar, appointed a commis- 
sioner of bankrupts, and died at Knightsbridge, June 18th, 
1805, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. His principal works 

• Two of these, the ' Prodigal Son * and « Abraham and the thro* Angels 
have been purchased by the Duke of Sutherland. 

Vol. XVI.— B 


M U R 

were a translation />( Tscitos, which is in a dilate style, 
•ml is • somewhat loo** fend inaccurate performance ; the 
Li vim of Fielding f whose work* be edited), Johnson, and 
Garrick; end upward* of twenty dramatic piece*. The 
most esteemed of his dramatic pure* are the comedies of 
'The Way to keep him/ 'AH in the wrong/ 'Know your 
own Mind/ apd * Three Week* after Marriage/ Hm plays, 
poems, ami miscellanies, in 7 vol*. 8vo., edited by himself, 
were published In I7M, 

MURRAY KIVKR, [Avituaua] 

MURRAY, W fMAWiKLf*, Loan.] 

in Hr/ii ti*h history by the name of the ' Good Recent/ wan 
the eldest of three il legitimate brothers, children of King 
James V, His mother was the Lady Margaret, daughter of 
John lord Krskme of Mar, a nobleman of rank and in- 
II i ii* ore at court, and one of those to whom the custody of 
the king, when an infant, hail been committed. 

II« ta supposed to have been horn about the year 1533, 
but the precis* time of bin birth in not known, nor any par- 
tirtjlftr* of his early life, except only this, that when but a 
few yrnrs old, his father made him prior of 8t Andrew's, 
with all the revenues of that rich benefice. He after- 
wards ar/juired also the priory of Pitteiiweem, and, after 
obtaining a dispensation from the holy see to hold three be- 
jteflriM tether, that of Mascon in France in commendam; 
and in J.'# 14 he to. A the oath of fealty to Pope Paul III. In 
1 "> t H however he gave proof of that intrepidity and military 
genius for which he was afterwards so distinguished. This 
was on or ramon of the descent into Scotland by the lords 
Onvy de Wilton and Clinton. When the fleet of the latter 
landed at Ht. Monan on the coast of Fife, the lord James 
(as he was then called; collected a little band as determined 
as birnwlf, and, id.icing himself at their head, attacked 
the intaders and drove them back to their ships. Shortly 
before this he hail been in France, having gone thither in 
the retinue of his youthful sifter Queen Mary, when it was 
resolved sho should be sent over to the Continent for her 
education; and at different times afterwards we find him 
again abroad. He was also present at Mary's marriage with 
the dauphin of France- ; and was soon afterwards deputed 
to carry to the latter the crown and other ensigns of royalty. 
Circumstance* occurred however in Scotland which pre- 
vented the execution of this appointment: the Reformation 
was now rapidly diffusing itself among all classes of the com- 
munity, and dissolving in it* mighty progress the nearest 
and fenderest ties. In these struggles the prior of St. An- 
drew's joined the reformers, or, as they were called, the con- 
gregation, among whom, by his courage and military skill, 
the success of his undertakings, tlie sanctity or rather au- 
sterity of his character, and the blunt nets of his manner, 
aided by the advantages of birth, countenance, and person 
which he possessed, he gradually acquired a very high de- 
gree of consideration. The queen regent (to whom he was 
op|to«ed) of course endeavoured to destroy his influence, 
representing him in particular as an aspiring ambitious 
man who, under pretence of a reformation in religion, sought 
to overturn the existing government That argument how- 
ever had little weight, or rather it worked a contrary way : 
his influence continued to increase; and when, in the end 
of tlie year 1>VJ, the congregation revived on taking the 
government into their own hands, he was one of the coun- 
cil appointed for civil affairs. On the death of the queen 
recent tie was made one of the lords of the articles ; and on 
the dauphin's death he was directed by the convention of 
•states to proceed to France and invite Mary to return to 
her native country. Such an appointment suited the views 
of the prior well : for previous to the death of Francis the 
lord Jarnes had entered into a correspondence with the 
young queen, soliciting the renewal of his French pension, 
and in p'ply Mary had assured him not only of that, but of 
the highcit favours, civil or ecclesiastical, which could be 
conferred upon him, provided he would return to his duty. 
lie had also at the same moment applied through Throck- 
morion toOcil, the Kn^Iii»li minister, requesting home pen- 
sion or allowance in rcc 'in pence for the lomes he lad sus- 
tained in tho cause of the Reformation. He therefore 
Willingly undertook the proponed tni**ion, and setting out 
on the *mico according, reached the palace and quickly 
gained adiiiiltah'c to the queen. He then found that an 
envoy from the Roman Catholic party in Scotland had 
"* hd him; nod in the interview which the prior had 
bis sister, he learnt that the disturbed state of the 

country and his own ambit roes views bad been r.nmgly in- 
sisted on. Mary however adopted her brother's suggestions, 
and agreed to return to Scotland wuhosrt that armed force 
which the Roman Catholic envoy bad laun, su i ted as wholly 
indispensable. The lord James immediately communicated 
the result of tbe conference to Throckmorton, the English 
ambassador, bat in * secret manner ; and, eentrary to Mar; '» 
express wishes, io returning home be waited en Elizabeth, 
to strengthen, no doubt* the friendship which subsisted be- 
tween her and the reformers in Scotland, and no doubt al*o 
to acquaint her with the determination whuth Mary had 
been induced to form. It h observable that the letters from 
Throckmorton at this period strongU urge upon Elizabeth 
to secure the lord James's regard; and from one -of them it 
may even be inferred that Elizabeth had done htm some 
'good turn/ at Throckmorton exprea se a it, for this very 

The lord James returned to Edinburgh in the beginning 
of June, 1661, having been absent on bis mission about two 
months. In ten weeks after, Mary embarked from Calais, 
and after a voyage of five days arrived in the port of Leith. 
On her arrival she found tbe prior among the first men in 
tbe kingdom; and be then naturally became her prime 
minister, confidant, and adviser. In this situation he acted 
with great tact and judgment, and at the same time with 
much tenderness to the queen. He protected her in the 
exercise of her own religion, and in return obtained from her 
a proclamation highly favourable to the reformers: be re- 
strained tlie turbulence of the borders* moderated the teal 
of the people against popery, and at once kept down the 
enemies of Mary's dynasty and strengthened the attachment 
of her friends. Mary rewarded his services by conferring 
on Inm the title of Earl of Mar, and honoured bis marriage 
with the lady Agnes Keith, eldest daughter of tbe earl ma* 
rischal, which took place about the same time, with a series 
of splendid entertainments. The greatness of tbe banquet- 
ing indeed, and the vanity thereof, offended tbe more strict 
of the reformers, and Knox took occasion to read tbe loid 
James a solemn admonition ; ' Cor (said the preacher) unto 
this day the kirk of God hath received comfort by vou and 
bv your labours, in tbe which if hereafter ye be found fainter 
than before, it will be said your wife bath changed your na- 

The earldom of Mar, which the prior bad just obtained 
from Mary, having been claimed by Lard Erskine as his 
peculiar right, was soon after resigned with the property 
belonging to it; but in its place tbe prior received the earl- 
dom of Murray, which had been long the favourite object of 
his ambition. This grant was scarcely a less matter of 
jealousy to the prior's great rival, tbe Roman Catholic earl 
of Huntly, than tbe grant of Mar was to the lord Erskine. 
But all dispute on that head was soon ended: for Huntly 
was shortly after proclaimed a traitor for various overt 
acts of insubordination and rebellion, originating in disap- 
pointed ambition ; and not long after that he suddenly ex- 
pired. Murray was now left in undisputed possession of the 
chief authority in tbe kingdom next to tbe queen, who 
reposed in him almost unlimited confidence. An incident 
occurred about this period which showed the influence he 
possessed in the government, and at the same time how he 
was thought occasionally to use it His services in tlie 
cause of tbe Reformation were manifest and important, yet 
the lord James was not all that the reformers wished ; his 
religious zeal was not hot enough ; and they lamented the 

£rotcctk>n be afforded to tbe queen in her use of the mass. 
tut they were not prepared to find him now extending bis 
protection to ber and her ladies in what Knox calls ' the 
superfluities of their clothes,' which be said would bring down 
the vengeance of God ' not only on the foolish women but 
on tbe whole realm.' Knox imputed Murray's conduct on 
this occasion to a selfish fear of offending the queen, lent 
she should repent of her munificence and refuse to confirm 
her grant of the new earldom ; and denouncing such motives 
in strong terms, accused him of sacrificing truth to conve- 
nience, and tbe service of God to the interests of bis ambi- 
tion. Murray was so incensed at this attack, that for a year 
and a half Knox and be scarcely exchanged words together. 
The queen's marriage with Darnley teems to have been 
among the first things to bring them together again ; as 
it was also tbe first step in the subsequent estrangement 
between Murray and the oueen. To this marriage Murray, 
Knox, and Elizabeth, ana their respective followers, were 
all opposed. Knox and the reformers were opposed to it 

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Si u s 


Iff US' 

Mir it of the Flight u.d. $40). Ho seems to have made 
hit first campaigns under hit rather, and to have boon pro- 
■ont at oltnoit oil tbo btttloo then fought by the Moslems. 
Hit bravery and the military talents w men no displayed on 
several occasions made htm a fhvourite with 'Abd«el-*asfa 
lbn Merwen, a prince of tbo royal family, then governor of 
Kgypt, who attached him to hia person, railed htm in com- 
mand* and, having previously obtained leave from his bro- 
ther the khalif, appointed him general of the armiea destined 
to achieve the conquest of Africa, in the year 79 of the 
Plight (a.o. 698*9). What the first expeditions of Musa 
were, is not satisfactorily ascertained. The Arabian writers 
say, in vague terms, that he pushed his conquests far into 
the West, and penetrated into the interior of Africa, return- 
ing with a rion spoil and thousands of captives. But ho 
seems to have achieved nothing brilliant until the year 88 
(a.d. 707), when the khalif Al-waltd named him governor 
of Mauritania, with instructions to complete the conquest of 
the country. 

Mdsa took his departure from Egypt at the head of a 
numerous army, and, partly by persuasion, partly by force, 
suoceeded in reducing to obedience the motley tribes that 
inhabited the northern shores of Africa. He seems to 
have experienced no difficulty in uniting under his standard 
men whoso habits were not dissimilar from those of the 
Arabs, and who, relying on antient traditions current among 
them, beliovcd themselves to be sprung from the same stock 
as their invaders. [Berbers. ] Under such a belief, which 
Mdsa dexterously tried to strengthen, whole tribes docked 
to his banners, embraced the religion of the Prophet, and, 
led by his Mou ten ants, marched to new conquests. Tan- 
gier*, Arsilla, and Ccuta, three insulated fortresses which 
still hold out for the Goths, were speedily reduced ; a fleet 
commanded by Abdullah, Mdsa*s eldest son, scoured the 
Mediterranean, and ravaged the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, 
and Mallorca ; and in the year 91 of the Flight (a.d. 709) 
the whole of northern Africa, from the Pillars of Hercules 
to tbo delta of Egypt, acknowledged the laws of the 

At this critical moment, when the restless ambition of 
the African governor bad been stimulated by so much 
success, a favourable occasion presented itself to satisfy his 
appetite for conquest Gothic Spain was a prey to the 
most horrible anarchy. After the death of King Wittira, 
Roderic, the son of a provincial governor, had usurped the 
throne to tho prejudice of Kba and 8isebuto, the two sons 
of that monarch, who had taken up arms in support of their 
rights. Unable however to keep the field against Roderic, 
the sonsof Wittisa and (he noblemen who followed their 
party fraong whom was a certain Julian or Uyan) de- 
spatched a messenger to Mdsa, inviting him to invade Spain, 
and promising to aid him in his enterprise. 

No sooner was Mdsa made acquainted with the divi- 
sions among the Goths, than he eagerly seized on the oppor- 
tunity of interfering in them. By his orders Tarif lbn 
Malik, one of his servants, made a slight incursion in the 
month of Ramadhan, a.h. 91 (July, a.d. 710), and re- 
turned to Africa loaded with spoil. A second expedition, 
commandod by T&rik lbn Zeyad, landed on the coast of 
8 pain, in April, 711, and two months afterwards [Moors] 
Roderick was defeated and killed in the battle of Gua- 

On tho news of this signal victory reaching Africa, Mdsa, 
who was far from expecting so complete success, felt a 
desire to share in the laurels reaped by his lieutenant ; and 
while he hastily made tho necessary preparations to cross 
ovor into 8pain, he sent orders to Tank not to move from 
lus position, and to wait for further instructions. But the 
Arabian general had gone too fax to be stopped bv a mere 
mossage from his master. Esger for plunder, and bent on 
the subjugation of the whole country, he penetrated into 
the heart of Spain, and, before his master Mdsa had set 
his foot on the peninsula, the opulent city of Toledo, the 
capital of tho Gothic monarchy, together with an immense 
booty, had fallen into his hands. 

At this period Mdsa arrived in Spain, breathing venge- 
ance agaiust the man who, by disobeying his commands, had 
deprived him of so rich a harveat of glory and wealth. He 
landod at Algosiras, in Juno, ad. 712, at the head of 18,000 
men. He took with him threo of his sons, Abdulaxix, 
Mrrwnn, and Abdulola, leaving his eldest son Abdullah to 
govern Africa in his stead. His first step was to subdue such 
iM tovincos as, by Torik*s precipitate march upon Toledo, had 

remained untouched. Ho laid siege to Seville, which ho 
reduced in a month (July, 712). Carmona and other neigh- 
bouring oitios shared tho same fate. Thence ho passed 
into Luaitania, and, almost without halting in his rapid 
march, seized on NieUa, Beja, and other considerable 
eities (August, 712). His victorious career was stopped for 
a time before the walls of Merida, which ho reduced, after 
an obstinate defence on tho part of the garrison, towards 
the end of November, 712. From Merida Mdsa marched 
to Toledo, where, having had an interview with Tank, he 
publicly reproached him with his disobedience, caused him 
to bo beaten with rods, confiscated his property, and had 
him oast into a dungeon, where he remained until orders 
oame from the khalif to release him, and give him, as be* 
fore, tho command of one of the divisions of the army. 

The remainder of Spain was speedily subdued. Tajik, 
at tho head of his troops, marched eastwards, and, after re- 
ducing the intermediate provinces, laid siege to 8aragoesa. 
Musa took a northern direction, reduced Salamanca, ad* 
vanoed as far as Astorga, and thence, returning to the 
Douro, followed the course of that river to Seria, passed the 
mountains, and arrived in sight of 8aragossa, which Tank 
was then investing, and which surrendered in July, 713. 

From thence Tank proceeded to Valencia, which, toge- 
ther with Murviedro, Xativa, and other considerable cities 
of those districts, were reduced with amasing rapidity; 
while Musa himself, after detaching some forces under the 
command of his son Abdulazii to subdue and plunder the 
plains of Muroia, marched towards the Pyrenees, reduced 
on his passage the cities of Calahorra, Lerida, Barcelona, 
and, crossing that mountain barrier, penetrated into 

How far Mdsa advanced into that country is not satis- 
factorily ascertained. According to Al-makkari, an Arabian 
writer, who compiled a history of Spain from the best sources 
(Arab. MSS^ in the Brit Mus., 7334), Mdsa subdued not 
only Narbonne, but the greatest part of the province known 
by the name of Gallia Gothioa ; but, as other Arabian 
historians are silent on the subject, and as the Christian 
chroniclers of France have not made the slightest mention 
of this invasion, we are authorised in thinking that, if Musa 
did really cross the Pyrenees, his invasion was unattended 
with any important results. On his return from this ex- 
pedition to the Pyrenees, a messenger from the khalif AI- 
walid, who now became alarmed at Mtisa's increase of 
power, reached his camp, and summoned him, together 
with Tank, to the royal presence. 

Tank hastened to obey the orders of the khalif, and de- 
parted immediately for the East (Sept., 713); but Miisn, 
who, if any faith can be placed in the Arabian writers, had 
conceived the ambitious project of subduing Gaul, Italy, and 
Germany — and forcing his way from Spain to Constantinople, 
thus connecting the eastern and western possessions of the 
Arabs — refused to comply with the summons. Having 
prevailed upon the envoy Mugheyth to accompany him iu 
his conquests, by promising him a large share of the spoil, 
he directed his course towards Asturias and Gellicia, which 
the Moslems had not yet visited. But his reluctance to 
obey the imperial mandate added to the suspicions already 
entertained about his views, which were represented as 
aiming at independence, and a more peremptory order was 
sent for his return. The khalifa second messenger, whose 
name was Abd Nasr, reached him at Lugo, in Gallicia, 
caught the bridle of hisliorse, and, in presence of the army, 
commanded him to repair to Damascus. Mdsa did not 
venture to disobey the order of the khalif, and, entrusting 
the government of Spain to his son Abdulazii, reluctantly 
commenced his journey, in March, 714. 

On arriving in Africa, where he made some stay, he con 

firmed his son Abdullah in his government of Cairwan, 

gave to his son Abdulola the command of Tangier and 

other important fortresses on the coast, and taking the road 

to Egypt, proceeded to Syria with a numerous escort, an i 

long trains of camels heavily laden with the spoil of ths 

conquest, besides being followed by thousands of en - 

tires, among whom were 400 Gothio nobles, sumptuous 

Mdsa did not reach Syria until the end of 714 or the 
beginning of 715. "Tank had arrived many months before. 
and not only had justified himself against the charts 
brought against him, but bad succeeded in throwing all tl»* 
blame upon Mdsa. To this must be added that Al-waini 
was then suffering under an acute disease, which socc 

weighing 30, GO, tnd 80 lb*., of various colours, and of 
great diversity of form. It usually is long and narrow, 
of a pale-yellow or dark-rod colour, with a yellow farinaceous 
flesh. But in form il varies to oblong and nearly spherical ; 

and in colour it offers all the shades and ' 
that the combination of yellow and red, in different pro- 
portions, can produce. Borne sorts are said always to be of 
a bright green colour. In general, the character of the 
fruit to an European palate is that of mild insipidity ; some 
sorts are even so coarse aa not to be edible without prepa- 
ration. Hie greater number however are used in their 
raw state, and some varieties acquire by cultivation a very 
exquisite flavour, even surpassing the finest pear. In the 
better sorts the flesh has the colour of the finest yellow but- 
ter, is of a delicate taste, and melts in the mouth like mar- 
malade. To point out all the kinds that are cultivated in 
the East Indies alone would be as difficult as to describe 
the varieties of apples and peart in Europe, for the names 
vary arcording to the form, sise, taste, and colour of tlie 
fruits; sixteen principal kinds are described at length by 
Rumphiu* from which all the others seem to have diverged. 
Of these the worst are, Piiang Steangi, P. Tando, and P. 
Oabba-Oabba; and the best ore the round, soft, yellowish 
sorts, called P. Medji and P. Radja. Some cultivators at 
Batavia boast of having eighty sorts. Rheedo distinguishes 
fourteen varieties by name, as natives of Malabar. In 
Sumatra alone twenty varieties are cultivated, among which 
the Piiang Amat, or small yellow plantain, is esteemed the 
most delicate, and next to that the P. Raja, P Dingen, and 
P. Kalli. In the West Indies, plantains appear to be even 
more extensively employed than in the Eastern world. 
The modes of eating them are various. The best sorts are 
served up raw at table, as in the East Indies, and have 
been compared fur flavour to an excellent rcinette apple 
after its sweetness has been condensed by keeping through 
the winter. Sometimes they are baked in their skins, and 
then they taste like the best stewed pearsof Europe. They 
are also the principal ingredient in a variety of dishes, par- 
ticularly in one called manlegue, which is made of slices of 
them fried in butter and powdered over wilh line sugar. 
Of the many cultivated sorts, that called by tlie French 
La Bunaiie mutquie is considered the best ; it is less than 
the others, but has a more delicate flavour. There are un- 
coloured figures of the plantain fruit in Rheode 'a ' Hortua 
Mataboricus,' vol. i.. plates 12, 13, and 14; and coloured 
ones in Tussac's ' Flore des Antilles,' plates 1 and 2. All 
hat climates seem equally congenial to the growth of this 
plant: in Cuba it is even cultivated in situations where 
the thermometer descends to seven centesimal degrees (45° 
Fahrenheit), and sometimes nearly to the freezing point. 
There is a hardy variety called Cambur^ which is grown 
with success at Malaga. 

The plantain prefers a rich fat soil ; for in sandy places, 
where it flowers abundantly, it produces no fruit. 

In the climates that suit it, there is no plant more ex- 
tensively useful, independently of its being an indispensable 
article of food. A tough fibre, capable of being made into 
thread of great fineness, is obtained from its stem ; and the 
leaves, from their breadth and hardness, form an excellent 
material lor the thatch of cottages. An intoxicating liquor 
is also made from the fruits when fermented, and the young 
shoots are eaten as a delicate vegetable. 

The banana of hot countries is a more variety of the plan- 
tain, distinguished by being dwarf, with a spotted stem and 
a more delicate fruit. Botanists call it Mum paraditiaca, 
in allusion to an eld notion that it was the forbidden fruit 
of Scripture; it has also been supposed to be what was 
intended by the grapes, one bunch of which was borne 
upon a pole between two men, that the spies of Moses 
brought out of the Promised Land. The only argument 
of any importance in support of the latter opinion is, that 
there is no other fruit to which the weight of the fruit of 
Scripture will apply. 

All the genua is Asiatic ; the wild plantain is found in 
the forests of Chitlagone, where it blossoms during the 
rains; Muta coceinea, a dwarf sort, wiih a stem not more 
than three or four feet high, is found in China; M. ornata 
and tuptrba inhabit the forests of Bengal ; M. glauea is 
from fegu; M. Uxtilti is from the Philippines, where il 
furnishes the valuable thread called Manilla hemp. There 
is also in the gardens of England a plant called M. Caveit- 
oViAi't, not above three feet high, and fruiting abundantly at 
that site, the origin of which it said to be the Isle of France. 

M U S 

MUSA'CEjE are a natural order of Endogena, of which 
the last genus is the representative. They are generally 
stately and always beautiful herbaceous plants with (bo 
aspect of a plantain, and with large bracts or apatites, which 
are usually coloured of some gay tint. Hie characteristic 
marks of the order are to have an inferior ovary, with very 
irregular and unsymmetrical flowers, whose sexual appara- 
tus is not consolidated. It is chiefly by these distinctions 
that it is known from Amaryllidaceai. In some the 
fruit is fleshy, as in the plantain ; in others it is dry and 
capsular. Only four genera are known of Ibis order ; all 
consisting of species of striking beauty. The Helicr 
mat are the principal American form, nearly all the 
others being found in the Old World; of these the specie* 
are conspicuous for their brilliantly coloured rigid boat- 
shaped bracts, sometimes yellow, sometimes scarlet, and 
even a mixture of both. The Strelilxia* are Cape plant. 
with rigid glucous leaves, and singularly irregular flowers 
of considerable sise, coloured yellow and blue, or pure white. 
Finally, the Ravanala of Madagascar, Urania rpeciosa, a 
noble palm-like plant, is remarkable for the brilliant blue 
colour of the lacerated pulpy aril which envelopes the seed*; 
the latter are used for dyeing in Madagascar, but none of 
the order are of any important use to man, with the excep- 
tion of the Musaa themselves. 

6, Tin- um« eat through uuwttwly. 

MUS^'US. Two, if not more/ Greek poets of th,, 
name are known . 1. The oldest of them lived in the mi - 
thic ages of Greece, and is said to have been by birth an 
Athenian, and the son, or at least the disciple, of Orpheus. 
Plato and Herraesionax, in a passage quoted by Atlientpus 
(xiii. £97), state him to have beeu the sou 'of Selene, or the 
moon. Diogenes Lacrtius says that he was buried at> 
rum, and mentions his epitaph. His works, which arc lust, 
have been quoted by Plato, Philostralus, Pausanias, Clem on, 
Alexsndriuus, and other antient writers: they consist ed oi 
religious hymns, a poem on the war of the giants, alheogony. 
a work on mysteries, and moral precepts to his son. A f</w 
scattered lines, gathered from the quotations of tlie above 
writers, were inserted by Henri Etienne in his collection of 
philosophical poem*. 2. Muss us, styled the Grammarian 
in the MSS,, is the author of the verv interesting GtvcL 
poem entitled 'Hero and Leander.' The age in which the 
author lived baa been a subject of much dispute. Scaligt-r, 
against all probability, ascribed the poem to the Musa-ii* 
of the mythic ages. The most general opinion is, that be 
'"— * : " the lower ages of the Roman empire. SchratW. 
and other critics suppose him to have lived in the 
tury of our ajra, and to have been a contemporary 
ius, the author of the ' Dionysiacs. ' (Scliradt-r . 
his edition of M usae us, Leeu warden, 174-2.) 

lived ii 

flflh cei 
of Not 


poem of 'Hero and Leander' was first discovered abvi 


M U S 


M U S 

the thirteenth century. It consists of 340 hexameter lines, 
which contain the whole account of the beginning of the 
loves of Leander and Hero, the daring of the former in swim- 
mi ng by night across the strait from Abydos to Sestos to 
visit his mistress, and the tragical end of both lovers. Ovid 
has treated the same subject in Latin verse in one of his 
Heroidos, in which Hero writes to Leander to urge him to 
swim across the Hellespont, as formerly, although the 
winter had set in, and vet at the same time expresses her 
fears of his risking his life. The story appears to have 
been an old tradition of a real fact. 

The poem of Musjbus has been a favourite with scholars, 
and has been repeatedly published, commented on, and 
translated into various languages. Heinrich's edition, 
Hanover, 1793, and Schafer's edition, Greek and Latin, 
Leipzig, 1825, which is an improved republication of 
Schrader's edition already mentioned, are among the best. 
The poem has been translated into Italian by Salvini, 
Porapei, and others ; French by Marot, Gail, and Molle- 
vant, Paris, 1805; English, with notes by Stapylton, in 
H>4 ( j t and again in 1797; and into German by Passow, 
Leipzig, 1810. 

author of the ' Volkmiirchen der Deutschen,' or 'Popular 
Legends of Germany/ was born at Jena in 1 735, in which 
university he studied theology with the intention of taking 
orders, but did not do so. His first literary production, 
which appeared in 1760, was his 'Grandison the Second,' a 
parody on Richardson's celebrated novel, at that period ex- 
travagantly admired in Germany. This satirical perform- 
ance was so well received as to pass through several 
editions; yet, notwithstanding its success, several years 
elapsed before the author resumed his pen as a candi- 
date for literary fame ; for, in order to eke out his small 
salary as a professor at the gymnasium of Weimar, he 
took pupils into his own house, and had consequently 
little leisure for studiouB occupation. At length, after an 
interval of eighteen years, he published his ' Physiognomi- 
cal Travels,' intended, if not as a satire upon Lavater*s 
system, to correct by wholesome ridicule the extravagant 
abuse of it into which his countrymen had fallen. The 
success of this work induced him to throw off his incognito 
and avow himself the author ; whereupon he became the 
literary idol of the day, and was for awhile an object of 
attraction to ' lion-hunting * visitors anxious to have a 
sight of the retired schoolmaster who had" mystified them 
by his pleasantry. This sudden acquisition of celebrity and 
importance had no other effect upon Museus than to en- 
courage him to proceed. Accordingly, he forthwith set 
about bis ' Volksmarchen/ which were actually what they 
professed to be, for he is said, while composing them, to 
have collected all the stories Of the kind be could, from old 
women at their spinning-wheels, and even from children in 
the street. But if this circumstance in some measure deprives 
him of the merit of invention, the fascinating charm of 
narrative with which he dressed up such homely materials, 
the humour and naivete which he imparted to them, were 
all his own. The success of these popular tales was com- 
plete, for they have become a classical and standard work 
of their kind, while a legion of original novels and romances, 
all favourites with the public for awhile, have now sunk 
into utter oblivion. His next production was that entitled 
* Freund He ins Erscheinungen, in Holbeins Manier,' a 
kind of literary 'Dance of Death* (Freund Hein being a 
jocose appellation for that grim personage), where, in a 
series of moral and satirical sketches, he shows how many 
human projects and follies are suddenly cut short by the 
unwelcome yet inevitable visitor. Excepting a collection 
of novellettes and tales, entitled ' Straussfedern,' and another 
for the use of children, * Freund Hein ' was his last work, 
for he himself had his summons from him about two years 
after, October 28, 1787. 

In 1791 a collection of his posthumous pieces, to which 
was prefixed • Some Traits of the Life of the Good Musaaus,' 
was published by his pupil Augustus von Kotzebue. To 
the epithet so markedly bestowed upon him few have had 
a better claim than Muscbus : a mild philosophy, of which 
his own life furnished a practical example, together with 
shrewd good sense and quiet humour, pervades all bis writ- 

MUSCA (the Fly), a constellation so called by Lacaille, 
being the Apis of Bayer. It is situated immediately below 
Crux, and between the latter and the South Pole. 
P.O. No. 978. 

No. in 



Catalogue of 




















^Dolomite . 







MUSCAT, or MUSKAT. [Arabia.] 

MUSCHELKALK, a calcareous rock interposed in the 
midst of the new red-sandBtone system, receives this name 
in Germany, and though it is not more carboniferous than 
some other limestones, yet it is much richer in organic 
remains than the average of the strata with which it is 
associated. This rock occupies a considerable space in the 
vicinity of the Harz, Schwarzwald, and Vosges Mountains, 
but is unknown in the British Isles, though several small 
bands of calcareous rock interlaminate the variegated clays 
of the red-sandstone system. Brown (' Litheea Geognostica * j 
presents the following synopsis of the strata in this forma- 
tion, as it appears on the flanks of the Black Forest : — 

Keuper formation. 

Dolomite (Nagelfels, Malbstein). 
Pectinite limestone. 
Roge ostein (oolitic). 

{Ehcrinitic limestone. 
Encrinitic limestone. 
Dark clay and anhydrite, with 
dolomite, swinestone, and 
• Limestone and dotoraitic marls, 
with gypsum and rock-salt. 

Banter Sandstein. 

The fossil remains of the muschelkalk participate in the 
more common species of the Bunter sandstein below, and 
the Keuper above ; but among the peculiar species may be 
reckoned Encrinus moniliformis and Ammonites (ceratites) 
nodosus. Saurian reptiles occur in this rock. 

MUSCI, or MOSSES, constitute a group of cryptogamic 
or flowerless plants, of considerable extent and of great in- 
terest on account of their very singular structure. They 
are in all cases of small size, never exceeding a few inches 
in height, and though often of almost microscopical minute- 
ness, are furnished with leaves arranged over a distinct 
axis of growth, and are propagated by means of reproductive 
apparatus of a peculiar nature. They have no trace of spiral 
or other vessels in their tissue, but are formed entirely of 
cellular tissue, in the stem lengthened into tubes. For 
long time they were thought to be destitute of a breathing 
apparatus, but the apertures through which this function is 
performed have at length been discovered by Treviranus 
and Un^er, and especially by Mr. Valentine. ( Transactions 
of the Ltnnean Society, vol. xviii., p. 239.) It is however 
remarkable that they should be confined to the orgaus of 
fructification, and not found on those of vegetation. 

The organs of fructification are of two Kinds; the most 
universal and most conspicuous is the urn (sporangium, or 
theca) in which the spores, or seed-like bodies, are generated. 
If the axils of the leaves of a moss are examined at the 
proper season of the year, there will be found in some of 
them clusters of articulated filaments swollen at the base, 
from among which some one will be larger than the remain- 
der, and go on growing, while they are arrested in their de- 
velopment. After awhile this body is found to have an 
exterior membranous coating, which separates from the 
base by a circular incision, but which otherwise adheres to 
the part beneath it. The latter, which is the young urn, 
gradually acquires a stalk, called the seta, upon which it is 
elevated above the leaves, carrying the outer membrane up- 
wards on its point, so that when full grown it is covered by 
it as with a cap ; then called a calyptra. The urn itself is 
closed by a lid, or operculum, and contains the spores 
arranged in a cavity surrounding a central column, or 
columella. Its rim is bordered by a double row of processes. 

Vol. XVI^-C 

M U S 1 

oliea reaecnMiiXf jointed teeth, and called lb* peristome ; one 
set of which inctn to belong to Ibe outer shell of tbe 
ova, ud Ibe other to Ibe inner. Usaally the ara grow. 
from • fleshy 'uberck railed ibe arm?***", (he station of 
which u in meet cms it tbe hue of Ibe mU, bat in Splanch- 
nnn form* a carioo* process *l ibe apex of tbe seta, imme- 
diate); below lb* urn 

f ( > 

In tome mosses there occur organs of a second kind, by 
some supposed lo be male, but whose Die ii really unknown, 
lo which the name of anlheridia or itamiaidta has been 
applied. These are also found clustered in the axil* of 
leaves ; they consist or membranous, cylindrical, jointed 
juintless bodies, irregularly opening at the point, and dis- 
charging a mucous turbid fluid ; they are surrounded by 
parafJiytet, or jointed filaments, like the urns themselves. 

When the spore* of mosses germinate, they produce i 
Jointed filament from any part of their surface, of which om 
pari rites upwards, forming the beginning of a stem, while 
the other is directed downwards as a rout ; from the axils of 
tbe branches or the stem-filament the leaves ate eventually 

The genera of moases are principally characterised by 
peculiarities in the peristome, or by modification* of the 
relyptra, and of the position of the urn. Linnatus admitted 
fery few genera, but modem muscobigista bare elevated 
Is* number to mora than 1 20 ; concerning 

which there is ha wser aoswe difference of opinion. In (be 
most recent ennmermtkra of the genera the old order Hosci 
■a broken up into three: of which Asramcil hare id urn 
•pliumg into four valve* ; Si-bag *ick.«, a valrrleas urn, a 
caJyptra separating in the middle, and a toothed ring sur- 
rounding the peristome; Bbtacsa avalvelea* um, acalyp- 
tra aeparaimg at the base, and a ringlet* peristome. 

Moeet are among the first plant* that spring up on 
the surface of inorganic matter, at first appearing like a 
men stain, when they merely consist of germinating spores, 
but soon clothing themselves with leave* and then bj their 
decay producing the earliest portion of decomposed vegeta- 
ble matter with which tbe soil n fertilised. (Bridel, Brynl/t- 
gia Unirertatit; Hedwig, Theoria Generation**. ojc. Plan- 
tarum Cryptnsatmcarum ; Endlicber, Genera Plantar-urn 
Hooker and Taylor, Muecoiogia Brilanmca.) 

MUSCICA'PIDjB, Flycatcher*; a family of insectivorous 
nirda, so named from their mode of taking their prey. 
Thus, M. Temminck states, that tbe Flycatcher* (Gobe 

mouchet) feed entirely on flies and other winged insects, 
which they catch a* they fly (Manuel d'Orm'tkotagie) ; and 
our countryman White says, 'There is one circumstance 
characteristic of this bird (tbe Spotted Flycatcher, Mutci- 
capa gtitoM whichseems to hare escaped observation ; and 
that is, it take* it* stand on the top of some stake or post, 
from whence it springs forth on its prey, catching a fly in 
the air, and hardly ever touching the ground, but returning 
still to the same stand for many times together.* (Nat. 
Hist of Selborne.) 

Linnseus, in bis last edition of the St/itema Natur-e, 
places the genus Mtadcapa, containing the true flycatchers, 
the Tyrants (Muteieapa Tyraniuu), and several other spe- 
cies, to the amount of twenty-one, between tbe genera 
FritigtltaanA Motadlla. 

Ctirier places the Gobermiachei (Muteieapa, linn.) be- 
tween the Pitt Gritehet ( Butcher-birds, Lattiia, Linn.) and 
the Cotinga* (Ampcli*. Linn.). 

He describes the group as having tbe bill depressed hori- 
tontally, and furnished with hairs or vibrinte at its base, 
and its point more or less hooked and notched; and he 
mnkes the Flycatchers consist of the Tyrant* (Tyrannut, 
Linn-); tbe Mouekernle* (Mutcipeta, Cuv.); the Ptaty- 
rhynque* or Broad bill* ; certain species high on the legs 
and with  short tail (Tardus auritu*. Gm.~Ctmopophaga, 
Vietllot); the True Flycatcher* (Muteieapa, Cuv.); and 
other variations of form, principally in the bill, which be- 
comes more Mender in some, thus approximating to the 
Ftguiert, and, in others, has the arlte a little more elevated. 
whilst it is curved towards the point, thus leading to Sn t- 
cola. Ciivier finishes by observing that there are various 
genera or subgenera which come very near to certain links 
of the series of Flycatchers, though they much surpass those. 
birds in size, such as the Bald Tyrants (GymnoeepkaJus, 
Geoff.), and Cephalnpterut (Geoff). [Coracina, vol. viii., 
pp. 4, S.) 

M. Temminck places his genus Gobe^mouekelMutctcapa, 
Linn.) between Laniu* (Linn.) and Turdu* (Linn.). 

M. Vieillot places the Myothire* or Flycatchers between 
the ChcKdon* (Swallows and Goolsuckers) and the Caliu- 
Hon* (Butcher-birds). 

Mr. Vigors, at the commencement of the section treating 
of tbe order Dentirostrei, observes that the depressed 
bill and insect-food of the TodiAr introduce us at once t.. 
the Muicicapidce, with which they are immediately con- 
nected by the genu* FlalyrhyrKhu*. Desm. The specks 
that compose the latter group were, he remarks, originally 
included in the genus Todui, and were separated from 1* 
only on account of the comparative strength of their legs. 
"The whole of tbe Mutcicapida. indeed,' continues Mr. Vi- 
gors, * with which family Ptatyrhyneku* U now united, hav e 
a decided affinity to the last tribe, or tbe birds which fiid 
upon the wing, in their broad-based hills, the ribristtr thai 
surround them, and their similar habits of darting upor. 
their prey while on the wing. Separated from them chiettv 
by tbe strength and more perfect structure of the leg aiil 
foot, they form the extreme of the succeeding tribe, in which 
they are numbered in consequence of tbese distinguish in _■ 
characters. Tbe line of affinity between tbe two tribes mr. \ 
thus be sasumed as established.' Mr. Vigor* then stau > 
that the families composing the order Dtntirnttre* appear 
to succeed each other as follow*: — Muscicapidte; Lamia/it* : 
Merulida'; Sylviadir; Ptpridtr. Thesu ftirailiei sire thus 
grouped by him in their typical disposition :— 

M U S 


M U S 

Normal Group 

Rostris fortioribus . . 

Aberrant Group. 
Rostris debilioribus . . 

( Laniadee. 
\ Merulidve. 


He further remarks that the Muscicapidee contain a mul- 
titude of species, diffused over every quarter of the globe, 
3ml differing in many points of generic distinction ; but 
hitherto so ill-defined, and so unsatisfactorily grouped, that 
any attempt to trace them in detail through their affinities 
in their present confusion would be hopeless. They are all 
however, he adds, well united together by the essential cha- 
racters which distinguish the type of the group— the notched, 
depressed, and angular bill, and the strong hairs or vibrissa 
that surround its base. In these characters, as well as in 
their manners, they partially correspond with the Laniadce, 
from the earlier families of which they chiefly differ in their 
inferior power and robustness. Mr. Vigors then enters 
among the Laniadce by the genus Tyrannus, Cuv., which, 
in his opinion, unites them with the Muscicapidee, in which 
family indeed that genus has generally been classed, and 
from which he would separate it, chiefly on account of the 
strength of the bill, wherein the character of a Shrike is 
more conspicuous than that of a Flycatcher. 

M. Lesson makes the Muscicapidee consist of the genera 
Tyr annus, Monacha, Eurylaimus, Platyrhynchus, Todus, 
Myiagra, Muscicapa, Alectrurus, Drymophila, Formicivora, 
l\hifidura % Seisura, Psophodes, and Enicurus. 

Mr. Swainson (Classification 0/ Birds) is of opinion that 
the Water-chats (Fluvicolince) seem to connect the Tyrant 
Shrikes with the Fly catching family, or Muscicapidee, the 
most insectivorous of the Dentirostres ; a group, he re- 
marks, hardly less numerous than that of the Warblers, 
pi id composed, like them, almost entirely of small birds. 
Both families, he continues, are insectivorous, that is, 
habitual devourers of insects ; but very many of the War- 
blers (even in the more typical genera) feed also upon fruits, 
of which the robin, the blackcap, and the whitethroat are 
notable examples. 'The Flycatchers however,' adds Mr. 
Swainson, 'properly so called, seem to be strictly and ex- 
clusively insectivorous, or, at least, it has not yet been as- 
certained that any of the species composing the typical 
group Muscicapince ever partake of fruits. This peculiarity 
of diet, independent of many others, separates them from 
the warblers on one side, and from the Ampelidce, or Chat- 
terers, on the other : while another is to be found in the 
mode or manner of their feeding. The warblers fly about, 
hunting down their prey, searching among trees, and roam- 
ing from place to place after their favourite food ; hence 
they become ambulating flycatchers, and their feet are 
consequently large and strong in comparison to the size of 
their bodies. We need only look to the gold-crested and 
wood, warblers as exemplifications of this remark, even 
among those species which frequent trees ; but in such, as 
in the Stonechats, Saxicolinee, and Motacillince, as ha- 
bitually walk, the feet are much stronger and the shanks 
inure lengthened. Now, the very reverse of this structure 
is the typical distinction of the Flycatchers ; their legs are 
re 111 ark ably small and weak, — more so, perhaps, than those 
of any dentirostral birds, — showing at once that their feet 
are but little used; and such we find to be the case. The 
Kly catchers constitute the fissirostral type of form among 
the leading divisions of the Dentirostres, and they conse- 
quently exhibit all the chief indications of that primary 
type of nature, as it is exhibited in the feathered creation. 
These, as the intelligent ornithologist already knows, are 
manifested in a large and rather wide mouth and bill; 
short, feeble, and often imperfect feet; great powers of 
ii 1 <^ht and often a considerable length of wing : the develop- 
ment of this latter structure is not always apparent, but it 
is the peculiar power of their flight upon which they chiefly 
•Icpend for procuring subsistence. They are mostly seden- 
tary, and only dart upon such insects as come within a sud- 
<lcn swoop, without attempting to pursue their game further, 
if unsuccessful in the first instance: they return, in fact, 
to the spot they left, or to another very near, and there await 
patiently until another insect passes within the proper dis- 
tance. This habit of feeding at once explains the reason 
of the feet being so small ana weak, by showing that they 

are merely used to support the body ; or, at least, that they 
are not employed in constant exercise or exertion, as in the 
generality of other birds. Other characters accompany 
these, no less indicative of birds which feed exclusively upon 
the wing : the bill is always considerably depressed or flat- 
tened, particularly at its base ; and the sides of the mouth 
are defended with stiff bristles, to confine the struggles of 
their prey.' 

Mr. Swainson thinks that the primary divisions appear to 
be represented by the genera Eurylaimus, Muscicapa, 
Fluvidola, Psarts, and Querula, and these, according to his 
views, constitute the types of so many subfamilies, very un- 
equal indeed, in their contents, yet blending sufficiently 
into each other to point out their circular succession. He 
considers the first two of these to be the typical and sub- 
typical groups ; and the three next to be aberrant. 

The Prince of Musignano (Geographical and Compara- 
tive List) places the Muscicapidee between the Turdidce ana 
the Laniadce; and he makes the Muscicapidee consist of 
the following subfamilies and genera, 



Ger\em:—Setophaga,8vr. Tyrannula, Sw. Tyr annus, 
Vieill. Milvulus, Sw. Butalis, Boie. Muscicapa, Linn. 
Erythrosterna, Bonap. 



Genera* — Icteria, Vieill. Vireo, Vieill. Vireo&ylva, 

In considering this arrangement, the student should 
remember that it only applies to the birds of Surope and 
North America. 

Mr. Swainson thus defines the family:— 

Stature small. Bill considerably depressed its entire 
length, broad : the edge of the upper mandible folding over 
that of the lower ; the tip abruptly bent and notched. Ric- 
tus wide, defended with strong rigid bristles pointing for- 
wards. Feet almost always short (except in the rasorial 
types, where of course they are longer), small, and weak. 
Feed solely upon insects captured during flight Habits 

Subfamily Querulince. 

Bill strong, broad, much depressed ; gape wide. Rictus 
with strong bristles, Feet short, resembling those of the 
typical Ampelince. Lateral scales minute. (Sw.) 

Mr. Swainson is of opinion that the genus Querula is the 
type of this family, and he observes that by some of the Lin- 
nean writers this remarkable bird is classed as a Muscicapa ; 
while by others, even among the moderns, it is considered 
an Ampelis ; and he thinks that both of these opinions may 
be reconciled, by viewing it— as it stands in his arrange- 
ment—as the connecting link between these families. He 
remarks that all the other Flycatchers, according to his 
system, so far as we yet know, feed entirely upon insects ; 
but there is unquestionable testimony that this species lives 
also upon fruits, thus uniting in itself the characteristic. of 
the two families which it connects. In the bill, he adds, 
there is much of the form and strength of that of Psaris, 
but it is wide and more depressed; whilst the stiff bristles 
at the rictus betray its insectivorous habit: the feet are 
remarkably- short for the size of the bird, and are calculated 
only, like those of the Ampelidce, for perching. All these 
characters, in the opinion of Mr. Swainson, not only point 
out this genus as the fissirostral type, but perfect the union 
of the families of Muscicapidee and Ampelidce, 


Querula, Vieill. and Lathria, Sw. Of these we select the 
former as an example. 

Generic Character. — Bill large, broad, and strong. Gonys 
long and straight. Nostrils concealed by incumbent re- 
flected feathers. Wings long and broad, fourth quill longest. 
Toes unequal ; inner toe shortest, of equal length with the 
hind toe. Tail even. 

Example, Querula rubricollis, The Common Piahau. 

Description.— Black with a purple throat. It is the 
Muscicapa rubricoUis of Gmelin. 

Locality and Habits. — America, where they go in troops 
in the woods in pursuit of insects. 


M U S 


Bill Urge, thick, aubcylindrical. Culmen convex, Mid 
without any ridge ; the tip abruptly bent and notched. 
Head large, depressed. Mouth very wide. **" " 
lateral toe* unequal ; interior scales of the to 
lateral scales small, numerous. Wioga long. 

Feet weak 

Mr. Swainson (who give* the above as the characters of 
the subfamily to which, in his opinion, Alectrura imme- 
diately leads) states that in the Ptarian/z there are but 
three ascertained genera. ' Tbese birds,' saj* Mr. Swain- 
son, ' like their representative*, Monacka and Ptarisoma, 
depart considerably from the types of this family : the bill 
is less depressed than in any other of the flycatchers, and 
its structure is altogether stronger and thicker ; tbey are all 
natives of Tropical America, and are generally found only 
in thiok forests. Gubernele* is tlie genna by which they 
appear to be connected with the walerchata, through the 
medium of Alectrura. One species only is yet known, the 
Gubenutet for/lcalut, remarkable for its long forked tail: 


to this succeeds Piarit, where we Qtid nearly all the specie* 
coloured alike; that is, tbey are more or less of a grey or 
pearl white, with black bead, wings, and tail : they remind 
us immediately of the gull*, and this analogy is one of the 
most beautiful, when worked out. in the whole family. Tbe 
smaller birds of the genus Pachyrynchut immediately fol- 
Two or three already prepare us for the next* diw- 
(Queruliiice), by the great depression of their bills, and 
the singularly formed red feathers on the throat.' iClatti- 
jtcaiion of Bird*, part iii.) In the Synoptit (part iv.) only 
two genera ere given, Piarit, Cuv., and Paehyrynchut, 
Spix. Of these we select Ptari* as an example. 

Generic Character. — Bill large. The rictus smooth, often 
iked round the eve. Wings lengthened ; the first quill 
equal to or longer than the fourth. Tail short, even. Inner 
toe shorter than the outer. (Sw.) 
Example, Ptari* Cayanewi*. 

Dctcriplton.— Ash-coloured- head, wings, and tail black. 
This is the Laniut Cayanensit cintreu* of Briason ; Lamm 
Caytmut of Linnnus and' Gmelin; Pie-griiehe grite d' 
Cayenne of Buflbn ; Cayenne Shrike of Latham ; and is the 
type of Cuvier'a genus Piarit. 

Locality and Habit*. — South America . Cayenne par- 
ticularly. Cuvier says that its manners are those of the 

Legs farmed for walking. Tarsi lengthened, strong. In- 
habit the sides of marshes and rivers in Tropical America. 
Seitura alone is Australian. (Sw.) 

Mr. Swainson stales that the Fluvicotina, or walercriats, 
with the exception of one genus, whose situation is Mill 
somewhat doubtful, are entirely restricted to the warn) lati- 
tudes of America, where thoy seem to represent the stone- 
chats and the wagtails of Ihe Old World. ' They are,' con- 
tinues this author, 'strictly ambulating Flycatchers, and con- 
stitute the rasorial division of this family. Tbe legs are con- 
sequently very long, and formed especially for walking ; the 
toes are also long, quite divided to their base, and furnished 
with long and slightly curved claws. This structure enable* 
these birds to run with great celerity ; and they are gene- 
rally seen on the sides of streams and rivers, feeding upon 
flying insects which resort to such situations ; for they never 
hunt among trees, and rarely perch ; such at least are the 
manners of the typical species; but there are of course 
various modifications of habit, corresponding to those, which 
will now be glanced al, in their structure. Mr. Swainson 
exhibits some variation in bis views as to this group in tbe 
third and fourth parts of the Clattification qf Bird*. In 
the third part the first genus, with which he begins the 
series, is that of Seitura, differing only from Rhiptdura by 
its more lengthened bill and feet : indeed he by no mean< 
fuels satisfied that Seitura is naturally separated from Rhi- 
pidura, although, for the present, he adopts the group as 
proposed by Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfleld. He neverthe- 
less expresses his suspicion that all the genera of tbe Flu 
vicolinte may prove to be natives of Tropical America, and 
that Seitura is only composed of aberrant species of tthipi- 
dura which pass into the Ftuvicolina. Both these divisions 
(Seitura and Rhiptdura), as well as that of Seidrcut. have 
broad fan-shaped tails, which, he observes, plainly indicate 
the type to which they belong, although the rank tbey 
respectively bold cannot, in our present state of knowledge, 
be clearly ascertained. ' Leaving this group,' says Mr. 
Swainson in continuation, ' we reach that of Pluvieola, by 
means of certain black and glossy birds of Brazil, some of 
which have distinct crests : these latter conduct us to the 
typical Fluricota, having the legs unusually lone, tlte bill 
depressed, the tail lengthened, and tbe plumage differently 
varied with white and black. One of Ihe most charac- 
teristic of these singular birds is the Fluviooia curtoria, of 
the sue of a lark ; but some are nearly equal lo a small 
thrush. Pertpicilla, so called from the naked fleshy lobe 
which surrounds tbe eyes like spectacles, is the next genua 
this is succeeded by Aleclrura, one of the most distinct and 
well defined group* in the whole circle of ornithology : the 
remarkable development of tbe tail-feathers in this group 
only finds a parallel in the genus Vidua among the finches 
and that of Galiut on the rasorial circle. Besides these 
genera, there are several black and white coloured birds 

JO C.r lltab.' OH «.!,. 

M U S 


M U S 

having a general resemblance to the foregoing, which would 
seem to enter among the waterahats ; yet. u we have not 
sutikiently analyzed the group, we must leave this point 
undetermined : among these are the white-headed tody of 
1 lie old writers, which u either a Tyrannula or an aberrant 
Fturicola, as well as the Mutcieapa Itucodlla of Hahn, 
which, in outward appearance, so much resembles a mana- 
kin, that it may possibly prove a representative of that 
family in tbe present circle.' In the fourth part the sub- 
family is made to consist of- the following genera, arranged 
in the order here given : — 

Guhernetet, Vie.- Attetrurut, Vieill. Fluvieola, Sw. (with 
it- subgenus Blechroput, 8*. Pcpoasca, D'Arar.). Seitura, 
Horsf. and Vig. Pertpicilla, Sw. Of these we select 

Generic Character.— Bill thick, subdepressed, raised at 
the base, culmen rounded; upper mandible slightly notched 
at llie apex; nostrila rounded; the rictus furnished with 
close-set rigid vibrissa. Wingt moderate; quills, from the 
1 it to the 9lh nearly equal, the first the shortest, the second 
the longest; the external beards (pogoniisi, except the 
beards of the first feather, notched in tbe middle ; internal 
beards entire. Feet with moderate tarsi ; the acrotarsia and 
pnralarsia seutelleled; soles reticulated with oval scales. 
Tail very long and forked. (Vig.) 

Kxarople, Gubemetet Curminghami. 

Description. — Ash-coloured, longitudinally lineated with 
brown, throat and rump white, lunula ted pectoral band pur- 
plish-brown, wings and tail brownish-black; quills longi- 
tudinally banded with ferruginous. 

OotxrnelH CneolniAiml- (Vtg.,Z«d. Jom.) 

Mr. Vigor*, whose generic and specific descriptions we 
have (riven above, says that this bird, which he named after 
Colon tl Cunningham of Rio Janeiro, appears to have a 
considerable affinity to the genus Psarit of Cuvier in the 
structure of its bill and wings, but that it differs from it by 
oilier such essential characters, as to have induced Mr. 
Vigors to place it in a separate genus. Besides the differ- 
ence in the structure of the tail, en important character, be 
ub-,t:rvc*, in the group of the Lant'adtv, which still retain 
Mime of the powers of flight belonging to the Fiuirmlree, 
lie notes the following differences between the two forme. 
The i ictal bristles of his bird are strong and numerous 

while in Psaris they are scarcely perceptible. The tarn, 
though somewhat wea'ker than those of Plant, are in a 
slight degree weaker, while the toes are longer and stronger 
The lateral scales of the tarsi are square and far asunder, 
while in Pram they are rounded and numerous. The 
binder scales also are lese rounded, less close, and less con- 
spicuous than in the latter genus. {Zool. Journ., vol. il) , 

Feet weak, formed only for perching, generally short 
(excepting in Todut), but always very slender, and often 
syndactyly Bill more or less depressed. Gape with stiff 
bristles. Claws small, considerably curved. Lateral toea 
unequal. Inhabits warm and tropical latitudes, bnt ex- 
cluded from North America. (Sw.) 

This extensive subfamily contains the ordinary Flycatchers, 
the generality of which do not exceed the dimensions of 
Mutcieapa gritola. Mr. Swainson remarks that tbe bill, 
although it is rarely so broad as in the Kurylaiffiina, is 
much, more flattened, and the bristles at the gape are more 
developed. ' Their whole structure also,' continues Mr. 
Swainson, ' is more slight and delicate ; but their colouring, 
although sometimes elegant, is almost devoid of vivid tints. 
The different form and length of the bill and feet furnish 
the characters by which the genera and subgenera are dis- 
tinguished; while the species, which are exceedingly 
numerous, with the exceptwn of the genus Todui, are only 
found in tbe Old World. The typical genera are Todut 
and Mutcieapa; the aberrant are Megalophut, Mnnacha, 
and Rkipidura: the two first are so numerous in aperies aa 
to contain subgenera.' Mr. Swainson then enters into a 
lengthened notice of the different genera and subgenera; 
exhibits the circle of Todut, which ne considers to be com- 
plete with that of Mutcieapa ; and gives the following aa a 
table, showing the comparison of Todur with the orders of 
birds, and the tribes of the Perchers. 


Si] „..„ 

This illustration Mr. Swainson considers to be perfect. 
(Clattijication of Birds, part in.) 

The genera and subgenera of the Muscicapinte are, in 
the fourth part of the work last quoted, placed in the 
following order: — 

Rhipidura, Horsf. and Vie. ; Monacka, Horsf. and Vig. ; 
Megalophut, Sw. ; Todut, Auct. (with the following sub- 
genera: — Conopcphaga, Vieill.; Platyrhynchia, Desm.; 
Todut, Linn. ; Lepturut, Sw. ; Platystera, Jard. and Solby) ; 
Mutcieapa, Linn, (with the following subgenera :— Crmito- 
loplia,* Sw. ; Muteipeta, Cuv. ; Myiagra, Horsf. and Vig. ; 
Mutcieapa, Linn. ; and Hyliota, Sw.). 

Our limits will not permit more than a selection of Home 
of these forms, and we must confine ourselves in this article 
to an attempt to illustrate those of Rhipidura, Todut, and 


Generic Character.-- -Bill short, depressed, brood at the 
base, compressed at tbe apex, the culmen arched ; upper 
mandible notched at the apex; notlrilt basal, oval, nearly 
covered with bristles and plumules; rictut furnished with 
close-set bristles, generally exceeding the mandible* in 
length. Wingt moderate, subacuminate ; the first quill 
shortest, the second longer by twice, the third and fourth 
(which last is the longest J gradually longer. Tail elongated, 
patulous, rounded at the lip. Feet moderate, slender; the 
aerotartia and pvralarsia entire. (Vig. and Horsf.) 

Example, Rhipidura ftahellif era. 

Description.— Brown-black; superciliary and postocular 
spot, throat, points of the wing-coverts, and stems and tips 
of the tail-feathers white; abdomen inclining to ferruginous. 
(V. and H.) This is the Mutcieapa ftabeU\feraot Gmelin; 
the Fan-tailed Flycatcher of Latham. 

Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfteld remark that the figure of 
this species given by Dr. Latham has much more while on 

• subit ilula] tat Seidrnt. 

M V 8 1 

th, lateral tail-feathers than the bird described by thein, 
but they add that ths Dr. affirm* that the species U subject 
to much variation. 

Habit*.— Mr. Caley, speaking of tbia species under the 
name of fan-tail, says, 'There u^melhing singular in the 
habit* of this bird- It frequents the small trees and bushes, 
from whence it suddenly darta at ita prey, spreading out 
its tail like a fan, and, to appearance, turning over Tike a 
tumbler Pigtott, and then immediately reluming to the 
tame twig or bough from whence it sprung. These action* 
it continue* constantly to repeat The skin ii very tender ; 
and it is difficult, after having taken it off the body, (o 
restore it again to ita proper shape.' 

LoealitUi — Australia. Mr. Caley lays that the species 
i* very common about Paramatta, and he does not recollect 
having missed it at any period of the year. Qmelin, 
quoting Fowler, gives New Zealand at the habitat. 

M U 9 

Todies, he add*, are varv small birds of America, living 
ipon insect* which they "catch in the mud or in the water. 
They are,' says lie, ' in truth, water MoueherniUi ; their 
wide and flattened bill, furnished with asperities, or teeth, 
permit* them to sift the mud and retain their prey: they 
also seek for small insect* under the moss and on tb* 
banks of small streams.' 

The bird is placed by Mr. Vigors among the Putt- 

Locality.— The Antilles. 

Usftena art«ul*m. 

Generic Character. — Bill lengthened, broad throughout, 
contracting suddenly at the tip, very flat Bristles short, 
weak, or none. Tail short, very slender, rounded. Legs 
long, weak. Toe* short ; the outer more or less united to 
the middle one. Tropical America only. (Sw.) 
Example, Todun viridit. 
Description.— Bright-green above, whitish beneath 

vol. 2, p. 306 ; Ray, Sun. Amend., p. 1ST) ; Todu* viridit, 
pectore rubra, rottro recto uf Brown \Jam., p. 476)1 Todier 
die St. Domingae of Button; the Green Tody of English 


Habit*, Food, Sfc.— Sloano says of this specimen that the 
belly or stomach was pretty thick, and very well filled 
with eimiae* and small vermin of the like kind. It lores, 
he add*, melancholy places, and scarce will stir from any 
one till they take it ' It is,' says Sloaue in conclusion, 
' one of the most beautiful small bird* I ever saw.' Browns 
stats* that it is a very familiar and beautiful bird, and will 
often 1st a man come within a few feet, and look for minutes 
together at it, before it moves. ' It keens,' he adda, ' much 
about bouses in the country parts, flies very slow, and pro- 
bably may be easily tamed.' 

M. Lesson, who planes the genua with doubt between 
Ptatyrhynchu* and Myiagra, says that the birds composing 
the genua hare the greatest approximations to the King- 
fishers, near which, and in the syndactylous tribe, Cuvier 
has arranged them. M. Lesson is of opinion that they are 
united to the Kingfisher* by his genus Todiramphui, 
though he at the same lime observes that M. Temminck 
admits only one Tody, vis. Todu* viridit, placing it near 
Piaiwrkynchut and before the Moucheroilee, an opinion 
which appears I " ' " " ™" 

Muscicapa. (Butali; Boie.) 

Generic Character.—Bill moderate, triangular, and nst 

much dilated at the base, which is furnished with long and 

stiff hairs. Nostril* basal, lateral, ovoid, partially covered 

with hairs directed forwards. Wing* rather pointed ; ar> 

3 oil! small and spurious, second rather shorter than th« 
lird and fourth, which are the longest. Tail rather sbo:; 
or moderate, even or slightly forked. Feet rather strong 
tarsus and middle toe lengthened ; inner toe almost as Ion. - 
as the outer toe. 

Example, Muteieapa griiola. 

Description. — All the upper parts ash-brown ; forehen : 
approaching to whitish ; a longitudinal stripe of a d«y 
brown on the head ; throat and middle of the belly white 
sides of the neck, breast and aides sprinkled with longuu- 
dinal stains of ash-brown. 

This is the Gobe-mouehe propremeat dit of BubVi- 
Gobe-mouche gri* of Temminck ; Ftiegenfdnger and (*■>- 
Jttcktef Fticgenfanger of the Germans; Stoparola of \\&n>- 
vundus ana Ray; y Gtoybedog of the antient British. 
Spotted Flycatcher and (provincial) Beam-bird, Raflc 
Poet-bird, &c, of the modern British. 

Geographical Distribution, Food, Habit*. Rcproducti.*- 
— The Spotted Flycatcher, one of the latest of our sumnw-r 
visitants, rarely arrives in those islands before the latter psr. 
of May, when its insect food, which consists principally ■.' 
fliea and other dipterous insects, abounds. Ita mode of esp- 
turing them is well described by White in the rsassan 
quoted at the commencement of this article. Temmmck 
say* that it rarely eats caterpillars and ants. Pennant atalr- 
tbat it is very fond of cherries ; but Mr. Selby say a that ti 
has not been able to verify this, and that he is inclined '>' 
believe that the Greater Petty chaps {Sylvia hortenstn, i 

. Lesson to be well founded. The 


keen devonrer of all the smaller fruit*, has in most in- 
stances been mistaken for the present bird. Toe same 
author tells us that it is of rare occurrence in Scotland; Mr. 
Gould Bays that it is found throughout England and a por- 
tion at Scotland, wherever there exists a locality suitable to 
its economy. It quits us in September and October, having 
bred and brought up its young here. M. Temminck says 
that it is spread in Europe as far as Sweden, and that it is 
found in tha temperate provinces of Russia; but that it f 
rare in Holland. Mr. Selby states that its summer or poll 
migration extends as far as Sweden and Norway. Tt 
Prince of Husignano ISpecchio Comparative) notes il t 
rare in the summer near Rome ; and as found in Europ 

generally. {Geographical and Comparative Litt.) Ml 
ould says, 'The Spotted Flycatcher appears to enjoy a 
wide range over the continent of Europe, being generally 
dispersed from the border of the Arctic circle to its most 
southern boundary: and we have also frequently observed 
it among collections from India.' The nest, loosely con- 
structed of moss, fibres, catkins of the haiel, or small twigs 
lined with straw and wool or hair and feathers, is often 

E laced upon the jutting ends of beams and rafters in tool- 
ouses, or other garden or farm buildings, whence its name 
of Beam-bird. The four or five eggs are greyish-white, 
with pale orange-brown spots. When the young are able 
to leave the nest, the parents lead them to some place where 
insects abound. There the young soon learn to capture 
their prey after the manner of the old birds. 

The sexes are alike in plumage. The young, for a short 
time after they begin to fly, have the feathers tipped with 
yellowish- white, which gives them a mottled appearance. 
The chirp of (bis Flycatcher, its only note, a weak. 

broad; the upper mandible convex above, dilated 
base, and the margins folding over those of the upper man- 
dible; the tip abruptly hooked. Wings rather short. Feet 
strong, moderate. The outer toe connected for half its 
length to tbe middle toe ; hinder toe long ; inner toe 

Mr. Swainson, who gives this as the character of the sub- 
family, observes that the Eurylaimina are the most re- 
markable birds of the whole family ; the species are very 
few, and thair geographical limits seem to be restricted to 
the hottest parts of India, where they inhabit tha forests. 
' In fiie,' continues Mr. Swainson, ' they exceed all others, 
>ave the genus Querula, in this family, being about the size 
of starlings, while the enormous breadth of their bills and 
the peculiar brightness of their colouring render it impos- 
sible for the student to mistake them for any other genus. 
Tbe bill is not only excessively broad, hut the margins of 
the base are so dilated that they often project over those of 
lbs lower mandible, while its substance seems much more 
■olid than in the ordinary Flycatcher*. Although very few 
iper.ies have hitherto been discovered, it is quite clear that 

tho Ave leading tvpea have come to light, although only 
one example of the genera Serihphut, Ptoritoma, and 
Platystoma, are yet known. It may here be observed that 
notwithstanding the great width of the bill In all these 
birds, it is nevertheless much more convex above, and in 
some instances is even more raised on the culmen than any 
of the others ; the feet also and tbe whole structure of the 
body are more robust Hence, although the width of the 
mouth and tbe great siie of the head would indicate this to 
be the pre-eminent typical group, yet all tbe other charac- 
ters would place it as the typical. Scrilophu* is evidently 
tne rasorial or crested type; and it departs considerably 
from the others by the only species yet known being very 
fond of fruits; this is in conformity with the strong and 
remarkable analogy it shows, even in its outward appear- 
ance, to the wax-winged chatterers (Bombyalla}.' 

The genera given by Mr. Swainson in the 'Synopsis' are- . 
— Btayiaimiu, Horsf. ; Cymbirhynchui, Vig. ; Platyttomut, 
Sw. (both of which are placed by M. Lesson in his genus 
EroUa); Piaritomut, Sw.; and Serilaphu*. 6w. Mr. 
Swainson considers Eurylaimus to be the pre-eminent 
type; Cymbirhynchui the subtypical type; Platystomu* the 
nssirostral type ; and Senlophut the rasorial type ; by which 
and Megalophut regiut he considers that tbe Eurylai 
v and Sbudoapina are united. Of these genera we 


Generic Character. — Bill broader than tbe head; under 

mandible very thin, particularly at the base. Nostrils basal, 

transverse, oval; the aperture naked. First quill* slightly, 

id almost imperceptibly graduated. Tail short, rounded. 

fc UU t* BanbfeM Janata M I* urnSl.1 t, M 
itariortweftti* una, loituw Unit [e1*|I» «»«*«. { 

Example, Eurylaimus Jdvaniciu (EuryU 
Jteldii, Temm.). 

Description.— Entire length eight inches. Head, si 

of the neck, and the whole of the neck and body underneath 
violet, or rather vinous, varying in intensity. The part of 
the forehead around the bill nearly black. Upper part of 
the neck brown, darker towards the back, where the tint is 
sooty. Wings very deep blackish-brown above, more in- 
tense near lb* shoulder, and lighter towards the extremity. 
A yellow streak between the coverts and secondary quills. 
Wings beneath from the aiillaa to the shoulder yellow, 
which borders the wing externally. Tail-coverts black at 
the base and yellow at tbe tips, so that the rump appears 
yellow, which is the colour at the vent. Two intermediate 
tail-feathers black, four next on each side black, with a 
white transverse band near the extremity. On tbe two 
external feathers tbe band is near tbe middle, and rather 
broader. Bill reddish-brown at tbe base, with both man- 
dibles irregularly variegated, and striped towards the ex- 
tremity; culmen yellowish; cutting-edges intensely black 
and shining. Tarsi and toes dusky yellowish; claws brown, 
inclining to black. 

Geographical Distribution and Habiti.—Dr. Horetkld 
is of opinion that from tho observations of Sir Stamford 

*mv W *•*■«• ■» ** *** *•■'■• f -c^wni. T- «• a- alt m Hkal. r to, 

•f U • . R i 'imi[» if '-ntiRnna nmr-i if t» mane- > Tie MMBUmT fim nullum. u<a(mi wl! 

/•■■■• awl li» /j<ii« vf .w! j*.m or irtnacrt 

• J .\- wm I11.-1 war if j« m.'«u» hi rrtyijr servirfc untax "J" ibna. TW» i-ere-t 

'■■ «.i ,j».-jr.,.v» -, w rwwi in»ir'i Ta,:rt » Sir -a* KrTOl if asm rfcofk »fc«* tt< 
at. *r  »i,i«mi m -S* rvm* nrbre; if swf i:i» am be n.-rosi 

it 1/ -i« «w Tubk rf Em\ wiro in. a in* f«M of <■=! ! 

r.n Tv; «,,Bi -,, aw, taen «.-rfo» m:^ yr knirtw awi Bui ctr 

--w tnr^ui« ,„ -urn i:tt3 j -^u iW-mndv km pMnlh Wn:. 

1« Jfu-£* i.M«r:j«e«Bi«f Mln,a«!«tWAt*MMrijf i.- 

ILllMif Koif 1 lrT «■ l:t-.»e. a WnJ < af fci uJ| - 

»-w r . 

r *■ j.'-v. «■„ 

«••? rf vitr-a tiie ra«f are maaaiiiii ca waadi taw «&- 

-.t.^ »m;.a«- inwsr. TW p mw q»ho 

•inririu wa aa»- B im*— . B 1 in I |ii i|iinii  In Ihi i|iatili if >>| mi I 
""• '"** " '- ar ** * Mm; asd tka Bar iwnllt b- J**B i d W V 
'  i. - - 1- M»mfc»lr»jipiMfarlh»: Wwiw— « atri 
. !»» a* tW kmIm af aatolt taaaa *fji»t aiiiaail t 




of those parts of animals which are most exercised ; though 
for cooking it is necessary to avoid the toughness of fibre 
which usually coincides with great strength and a large 
quantity of fibrine. 

The colour of the muscles is dependent partly on the 
blood which they contain, but chiefly on a peculiar colouring 
matter, very similar to that of the blood, which is fixed in 
their tissue. Their colour is distinctly though remotely 
connected with the quantity and condition of red blood in 
the system, and its depth is one of the best signs of robustness 
nnd lull health. Thus in all quadrupeds and birds the mus- 
cles are more or less red, and the colour is deepest in the 
parts which are most actively employed, but pale and scarcely 
perceptible in those which nave not been frequently exerted, 
and also in those animals which, by being closely stalled and 
stabled, are killed in a condition of great debility ; hence 
the difference between red and white meats. In amphibia, 
which have less red blood than mammalia and birds, the 
muscles are usually pale: in fish, which have still less, they 
are, with the exception of the heart, and those which move 
the fins and are particularly exerted, quite white. There 
are however some exceptions, as the salmon and tunny. 
In animals of a still lower order, the muscles, though still 
preserving the same structure, are all quite white. 

The peculiar vital power of the muscular tissue is its con- 
tractility ; that is, the power which its fibres possess, when 
stimulated by the will or other means, of shortening them- 
selves, and thus approximating the points to which their ex- 
tremities are attached. 'When muscles contract, they become 
shorter, harder, and thicker, but their actual size remains 
the same, for what they lose in length they exactly gain in 
breadth and thickness. The fasciculi are also wrinkled 
or thrown into undulated lines, which are most visible when 
the contraction is least powerful and rather trembling, and 
the fibres vibrate so as to produce a distinct sound. The 
more powerful the contraction, the more rapid are the vibra- 
tions of the muscular fibres, the higher the note which they 
produce, and the greater the difficulty of perceiving them 
with the eye. The simplest method of observing the sound 
of muscular contraction is that which Dr. Woliaston pointed 
out (' Croonian Lecture,' 1809) ; when the tip of the thumb 
or of one of the fingers is put into the external ear, while 
some of the muscles of the former are in a state of contraction, 
a sound is heard like that of carriages running rapidly over 
a distant stone pavement This sound is not heard when the 
same degree of pressure is applied to the same part by any 
ot her means than those in which muscular contraction is con- 
cerned. By rubbing a piece of stick over the notched edge 
of a board so as to produce a similar sound, and counting 
the number of notches whose edges were struck in a given 
time, Dr. Woliaston concluded that the number of vibra- 
tions of a contracted muscle is between twenty and thirty 
in a second. The sound thus produced has acquired great 
importance from its application in auscultation. It is the 
cause of the first sound of the heart [Heart], and as some 
modification in its tone and intensity must be produced by 
the morbid changes to which that organ is subject, it affords 
one of the indications for the diagnosis of its diseases. 

The relaxation of a muscle presents jphenoraena exactly 
the converse of those of its contraction. The power by which 
the voluntary muscles are lengthened after having contracted 
is generally the extension to which, when they cease to act, 
they are subjected by some other muscles (their antagonists), 
whose action is the opposite of their own. The hollow in- 
voluntary muscles are usually extended after contraction by 
lie accumulation of fluids or other substances forced into 
heir cavities by some external power. It maybe yet a 
juestion whether muscles have a vital and independent 
>ower of dilatation as well as of contraction, but on the 
vliole the evidence is in favour of their possessing such a 
tower, for the heart will contract and dilate when empty, if 
xfernal stimuli are applied, and the hearts of reptiles when 
iiing in the air will sometimes go on contracting and dilat- 
n'jr till they are nearly dry and stiff. Were there no vital 
ower of dilatation, it is difficult to conceive how the heart 
r any other muscle when separated from the body should, 
fier having once contracted, be dilated so as to be able to 
i ii tract again. 

When muscles shorten however it is not always by an 
Kt-rciso of their peculiar vital contractility, but often by 
ieir elasticity, by which, like all the other tissues, they are 
[ways maintained in a certain degree of tension. Thus 
lion a muscle is divided, its ends retract as well after 
P. C, No. 979. 

death, or when its nerves are cut, as during life and health. 
It is by this power that muscles, after having been much 
extended, generally return to their natural size ; thus when 
a muscle on one side of the joint of any limb shortens, it is 
evident that its antagonist on the opposite side. must be 
lengthened in the same proportion, and when the contract- 
ing muscle ceases to act, the elasticity of the extended one 
(increased by the tension to which it haB been subjected) 
will be alone sufficient in most cases to restore the limb to 
its position of rest. 

The actual power with which a muscle contracts is in 
direct proportion to the number of its fibres and inversely as 
their length. Hence in all the muscles in which great 
strength is required, as in the chief muscles of the shoulder 
and hip, the fibres do not run straight from the general point 
of origin to that of insertion, but the whole mass of the muscle 
is divided into a number of small portions, in which a multi- 
tude of short fibres are attached to separate points within 
the muscle, so that they may act separately, or, when great 
exertion is necessary, altogether, and with far greater power 
than a smaller number of long straight fibres could. The 
strength of a muscle is very commonly increased by its 
fibres not running parallel to the line in which the muscle 
has to draw the part to which it is attached, but with vari- 
ous degrees of obliquity to that line. Thus in many muscles 
the fibres and fasciculi are attached obliquely to one or 
both sides of a tendon, as the fibres of a feather are attached 
to its shaft ; by which arrangement, though each muscular 
fibre contracts in its own direction, the general result of 
their contraction and the direction in which the resistance 
will act upon them forms an oblique angle with their direc- 
tion and much of the danger of their being ruptured is 
removed. There are indeed but few instances of rectilineal 
muscles in the body ; in nearly all, the fibres are placed 
more or less obliquely to the line in which they have to 
draw the part to which they are attached ; a plan by which, 
though individually they lose in active power, they gain in 
resistance, and by which a far greater number may in the 
the same space be brought to bear upon a given point. 

An almost infinite variety of arrangement is found in 
the muscular fibres adapted to the especial purpose which 
each muscle has to fulfil, whether it be chiefly strength of 
action, or rapidity or extent of motion ; and all are guided 
by the nicest mechanical rules. Wherever strength is more 
necessary than a wide extent of motion, the fibres are in- 
creased in number and placed obliquely to the direction of 
the resistance ; wherever extent of motion is more needed 
than strength, the fibres are long and ran almost straight 
from one point to the other, so as to give the full benefit of 
their contraction ; where velocity is required, they are placed 
at a part of a lever close by the centre of motion, the resist- 
ance being placed on a part more distant from the centre. 
In general the absolute power exerted by a muscle in con- 
tracting is much less than its efficient power, a great part of 
its force being lost in its being inserted obliquely on the 
lever which it has to move, or in the distance of the resistance 
from the centre of motion, or in the resistance which other 
muscles and the adjacent tissues, which have to be extended, 
present, &c. But it is constantly found that where power 
is lost, a corresponding gain of velocity or extent of motion, 
or of convenience and compactness of form, and readiness of 
action, is obtained. 

MUSCLE, or MUSSEL. [Mytilidx.] 

MUSES (Mustv, in Latin ; Moumu, in Greek), the name of 
certaiu sister goddesses in the Greek mythology, who were 
supposed to preside over the arts of poetry and music, and 
the sciences of history and astronomy. The original concep- 
tion of the Muses must be sought for in that disposition of 
the human mind which prompts us to embody abstract ideas 
in a sensuous form. Such seems likewise to have been the 
origin of the Graces, Fates, Furies, and other mythological 
personages of that class. [Graces.] In the instance of the 
Muses, the powers of memory, music, and song were per- 
sonified into individual goddesses, who were supposed to 
inspire men with these gifts. At first the Muses were said 
to be only three : Mneme, that is, • memory ;* Melete, or • me- 
ditation ;' and Aoide, or ' song ;' and they resided of old on 
Mount Helicon in Boeotia. (Pausanias, ix. 29.) Accord- 
ing to the poet Alcman, they were the daughters of Uranus 
and Geea, or the earth. Cicero (De Natura Deorum, ,iii. 
21) mentions four, namely, Thelxinoe, 'mind-soother; 
Arche, or ' beginning ;* Aoide ; and Melete ; and he says 
, that they were the offspring of the second Jupiter. [Jupi- 
1 Vot.XVI.-D 



M U S 

tbb.] He goes on to say that there were other Muses, nine 
in number, born of the third Jupiter (the son of Saturn) 
and of Mnemosyne ; and also a third family of Muses, called 
Pierides by the poets, who were the daughters of the third 
Jupiter and Antiope, and were similar in their names and 
equal in number to the preceding. Hesiod, in his ' Theo- 

fony' (A3), reckons nine Muses, daughters of Zeus and 
1 nemosyne, and gives their names as follows :— Calliope, 
Olio, Melpomene, Thalia, Euterpe, Terpsichore, Erato, 
Polyhymnia, and Urania, and he says that Pieria in Ma- 
cedonia was their first dwelling-place. These are the 
Muses generally alluded to by the poets. It appears that 
the worship of the Muses was introduced from Macedonia 
into BcBotia, Phocis, and other parts of Hellas. The story 
of the contest of the Muses with the nine daughters of 
Pierus, a Macedonian, who pretended to rival the Muses in 
tinging, but were vanquished and changed into magpies 
(Ovid i us, Metamorph. t v.) may have been, as some critics nave 
conjectured, an allegory originating in the national vanity 
of the Greeks, to show their superiority in the arts and 
sciences over their Macedonian neighbours. The Thracian 
bard Thamyris tried a like chance, with a like result * he 
had his eyes put out and was deprived of his lyre. 

Homer mentions the Muses as the goddesses of song, 
who inhabited lofty Olympus, but he does not specify their 
number or names. In the second book of the Iliad he in- 
vokes them, ' to whom all things are known/ to assist his 
memory while he is enumerating the leaders of the Greek 
threes at Troy. The occupations of the Muses were sing- 
ing, dancing, and attending the banquets of the Gods. 
They were the attendauts of Apollo and also of Bacchus. 
The name Musa is supposed by some to be derived from a 
Greek verb which means ' to discover,' because the Muses 
were said to be acquainted with recondite mysteries and 
future events ; but this etymology is mere trifling, and the 
origin of the name is unknown. They were represented as 
handsome and modest virgins, dressed in long tunics, with 
wreaths of laurel, ivy, or palm leaves on their heads. It 
was only in later ages that peculiar attributes were given to 
each of them by the artists, and a peculiar department of 
science was assigned to each by the poets. In several 
paintings of Herculaneum they are represented with their 
respective attributes, and with their respective names writ- 
ten under each. By comparing these with several rilievos, 
medals, and mosaics, their identity becomes confirmed. 
(Millin, GalSrie Alytholoeique, plates 19 to 23, and expla- 
nation thereof.) The following is a list of them, with the 
allegorical meaning of their names : — 

Clio, from cleio, ' to celebrate glorious deeds,' is repre- 
sented with a scroll in her hand, and also sometimes with a 
•scrinium' to keep MSS. in, by her side. She has been 
styled the Muse of History. 

Calliope, ' fine voice,' is represented with tablets and a 
style ; sometimes with a trumpet in her hand ; in some in- 
stances, as at Herculaneum, with a scroll like Clio. She 
was the Epic Muse. 

Melpomene, ' the singer,* wears a royal diadem round 
her head, and a wreath of vine leaves, with cothurni on her 
feet ; a mask in one hand, and a olub in the other. She 
was the Muse of Tragedy. 

Thalia, ' the joyous,' the Muse of Comedy, is also crowned 
with vine leaves, has a crook in one hand and a grotesque 
mask in the other. 

Euterpe, a the pleasing,' carries a double flute. She pre- 
sided over music. 

Terpsichore, • dance-loving,' carried a lyre, and presided 
over lyric poetry and dance. 

Erato, ' the lovely,' carries also a lyre. She was the Muse 
of elegy and amatory song. 

Polyhymnia, *of many songs,' is represented wrapped up 
in her cloak, and buried in meditation, with the fore-finger of 
her right hand across her mouth, in token of reserve and 
caution. She was the Muse of religious song, allegories, 
and mythical strains. 

Urania, ' the heavenly,' has the globe and compasses in 
her hands, which are the emblems of her calling,«astronomy. 

The corruption which, in the course of ages, pervaded 
mythological symbols, did not spare tlie Muses, and ac- 
cordingly we find their chastity denied by several writers. 
According to Apollodorus, Ovid, and others, Clio had Or- 
pheus by Apollo, Euterpe had Rhcesus by the Strymon, 
Calliope was the mother of the Sirens by Achelous, &c. 

The favourite haunts of the Muses were, Mount Parnas- 

sus in Phocis, Helicon in Boaotia, Pierius, Pindus, and 
Olympus, in Thessaly, &c. The swan, the nightingale 
and the grasshopper were sacred to them. The Roman 
poets called the Muses Cements, an Etruscan name — for it 
appears that the Etruscans had also their Muses (Micah) — 
and also Pierides. 

(Creuzer, Symbolik und Mytkologie ; Petersen, De Mu- 
sarum Origine* in Miinters Miscellanea Hafniensia; 
H ermannus, De Musis Jhtvialibus ; Millin, Galerie MyUiolo - 
gique ; Keightley's Mythology qfAniient Greece and Italy. ) 

MUSE'UM, a place dedicated to the Muses, from the 
Greek Mouseion {Uovciiov) ; hence any place where learn- 
ing is pursued, or which is set apart as a repository for 
things that have some immediate relation to the arts, is 
so termed. The earliest institution we are acquainted with 
which received this appellation was the museum founded at 
Alexandria by Ptolemy Philadelphus. The buildings of 
this institution were afterwards enlarged by the emperor 
Claudius. (Suet, Claud., 42.) 

MUSGRAVE, WILLIAM, born in 1657, in the county 
of Somerset, studied at Oxford, where he took his degree 
of M.D. In 1684 he became secretary to the Royal So- 
ciety of London. In 1691 he fixed his residence at Exeter, 
where he practised as a physician, and where he died to 
1721. Dr. Musgrave was a good scholar, and well versed in 
antiquity. He published— 1, * Geta Britannicus,' being th< 
life of Gfeta by Uapitolinus, with notes, to which he added 
a dissertation by way of commentary. 2, 'Julii Vital i* 
Epitaphium, cum Notis Criticis H. Dodwelli, et Commen- 
tary Guil. Musgrave/ This is a commentary on a Roman 
epitaph found near Bath. 3, 'De Aquilis Romania Epis- 
tola.' 4, ' De Legionibus Epistola.' 5, ' Belgium Britan- 
nioum, in quo illius limites, Fluvii, Urbcs, Vim Military 
Populus, Lingua, Dei, Monumenta, aliaque nermulta cU- 
rius et uberius exponuntur,' 8vo„ 1719. He wrote aU« 
several medical works. 

MUSGRAVE, SAMUEL, M.D., the grandson of th. 
above, also practised as a physician in Exeter, and tU 
there in 1782. Besides a few works on medical subjecw 
he was the author of ' Exercitationes in EuripidenV ftvo . 
Leyden, 1762; ' Animadversiones in Sophoclem,' 3 wLs 
8vo„ Oxford, 1800 ; and 'Two Dissertations— I, On the My- 
thology of the Greeks ; 2, An Examination of Sir I<w.i 
Newton's Objections to the Chronology of the Olympiads 
He also assisted in the edition of Euripides, 4 vols. b> - 
Oxford, 1778. Schweigbaiiser, in his edition of Appu.. 
has cited many of Musgrave's emendations and conjectbrv 
on that author from the marginal notes in Muagrave'» <x>\ 
of Appian. Schweigbaiiser justly calls him a good Grvt* 
scholar and an acute critic. 

MUSHROOM. The species of mushroom usually cu s 
tivated is the Agaricus campestris. Iu the order of fin . 
which includes that plant, most species are poisonous, a . 
fatal consequences have resulted from ignorance of i • 
characters by which the wholesome mushroom is dis!.,- 
guished from such allied species as are liable to be &*»> 
taken for it These characters have been already pou.M 
out [Agaricus.] What remains to \>e noticed relate . 

Mushrooms are indigenous; they spring up abundau  
in fields where cattle have been pastured, if the soil « I 
temperature prove favourable for the development of i 
spawn, a term which is applied to the substance in w I 
the reproductive principle is embodied, which uresenis i 
the naked eye the appearance of whitish moulaineea, . I 
which is in reality the floeculent subterranean stem. « . 
the mushroom itself is the fruit In this state spawn r | 
be kept for years if moisture be withheld; but if tbe U 
be supplied, in conjunction with a proper degree of :«.->* 
perature, it is further developed into white filaments . 
tubercles, which ultimately rise above the soil in tbe :. 
of mushrooms. These spring up sometimes singly, but 
quently in a gregarious manner. 

Mushrooms appear in the fields chiefly after Mid< 
mer, in the months of July, August, and moat abund? 
in September. On a ten years' average the temper at la 
these months respectively in the neighbourhood of Lot*- 
has been found to be 64°, 62°, and 57°; and in tbe w- 
periods the temperature of the earth one foot below tbe > 
face is a few degrees higher ; but at the depth of t v 
three inches, where the vegetating spawn is situated 
temperature in hot sunny weather is frequently aa h*£t. 
80°. Whilst such hot weather continues, mushroom* 





ing its performance ; but it can only express passion and 
■entimont very generally, and commonly fails when it 
attempts to particularise. This want of absolute decision 
in what is called musical language is by some writers 
reckoned among its advantages, because it gives the 
hearer great latitude in interpreting it, which he usually 
does in a manner as congenial as possible to his own 
feelings at the time. Madame de Stael goes so far as 
to prefer instrumental to vocal music, on account of the 
vagueness which she thinks one of the attributes of the 
former— that very same vagueness which Fontenelle meant 


if it did not actually prompt it. He says, * the passions may 
be considerably operated unon, without presenting any image 
at all, by certain sounds adapted to that purpose, of which 
we have a sufficient proof in the acknowledged and power- 
ful effects of instrumental music' He however soon after- 
wards adds, that ' in reality a great clearness helps but little 
towards affecting the passions, as it is in some sort an enemy 
to all enthusiasm whatever/ This is rather startling as a 
general proposition : if we admit it as applied to vocal music, 
we must, d fortiori, allow that the finest compositions of 
that kind, which certainly leave nothing to the imagination 
of the hearer, exercise little if any influence over the pas- 
sions. But being decidedly opposed to such an opinion, we 
must condemn it, though advanced by the eminent writer 
of the Enquiry concerning the Sublime and Beautiful, and 
supported by tne distinguished author of Allemagne, No 
one has written in a more enthusiastic strain on tne power 
of music in imitating than Rousseau. The reader of the 
article ' Imitation,* in his Dictionary, will find little diffi- 
culty in believing all that is said of Orpheus and Amphion, 
if he suffers himself to be convinced by the florid, declama- 
tory, extravagant passage to which we allude. The writer 
of the first Bridgewater Treatise, Dr. Chalmers, has argued 
no less earnestly in favour of that musical language of winch 
we are speaking. * Music,' he says, ' apart from words, is 
powerfully fitted both to represent and awaken the mental 
processes, insomuch that, without the aid of spoken cha- 
racters, many a story of deepest interest is most impressively 
told, many a noble or tender sentiment is most emphati- 
cally conveyed by it .... . The power and expressiveness 
of music may well be regarded as a most beauteous adap- 
tation of external nature to the moral constitution of 
man Its sweetest sounds are those of kind affec- 
tion: its sublimest sounds are those most expressive of 
moral heroism, or most fitted to prompt the aspirations and 
resolves of exalted piety.' Fontenelle, on ono side, and 
Rousseau, with Dr. Chalmers, on the other, are at the two 
extremes on this question : the one, from a deficiency of 
musical feeling, granting too little ; the others, from an ex- 
cess of it, admitting too much. 

A musical sound, — which is a curious compound of other 
sounds, called harmonics, resulting from a number of vibra- 
tions in equal times,— when produced by a fine voice, a rich- 
toned violoncello, or a ' mellow horn, excites in all who 
possess a moderate share of nervous sensibility, a pleasurable 
sensation ; and. this, Sir John Herschel observes, ' is per- 
haps the only instance of a sensation for whose pleasing 
impression a distinct and intelligible reason can be as- 

Dr. Beattie does not think it absurd to suppose that the 
body may be mechanically affected by sound. 'If,' he says, 
• in a church one feels the floor and the pew tremble to certain 
tones of the organ ; if one string vibrates of its own accord 
when another is sounded near it, of equal length, tension, 
and thickness ; if a person speaks loud in the neighbour- 
hood of a harpsichord, and often hears the strings of the 
instrument murmur in the same tone, we need not wonder 
that some of the finer fibres of the human frame should be 
put in a tremulous motion when they happen to be in unison 
with any notes proceeding from external objects.' Most 
persons must have witnessed the effect of a street-organ on 
some of the canine species, apparently willing auditors, who, 
if not driven away, continue to howl all the while the in- 
strument is playing. Whether they are painfully affected, 
and their tones those of distress, or agreeably, and they 
become responsive, does not appear; though if distressed, 
the probability is that they would fly from the cause. But 
Dr. Mead tells us that a celebrated violinist of his acquaint- 
ance, perceiving th*t his dog betrayed symptoms or great 

suffering on hearing a certain passage performed, repeated 
it for some time, in order to try the result, and the experi- 
ment proved fatal to the poor animal, who ' dropped down 
at the feet of his master, where in a few seconds he died in 
the most horrid convulsions.' The surprising and hitherto 
unexplained connection between form and vibrations pro- 
ducing musical sounds, so beautifully shown in Cbl acini's 
experiments on plates of glass strewed with sand, and put 
into sonorous vibration, thereby throwing the sand into 
various symmetrical figures, may be here incidentally men- 
tioned, though it does not now seem to shed any new light 
on the subject before us ; nevertheless by proving some* 
thing like sympathy, and of a much more extraordinary 
kind than that between two strings, in mere matter, it may 
at a future period lead to interesting discoveries. 

The effect of Rhythm, or measure, is universally felt and 
admitted : the most polished inhabitants of Europe, and 
the most barbarous natives of the arctic regions, are alive to 
its influence ; it is that which reduces unmeaning sounds 
to order, converts them into melody, and bestows on them 
proportion and a power to charm. The chirping, or whistling, 
or singing as it is called, of most birds, being devoid of 
rhythm, affords no pleasure but what is derived from asso- 
ciation ; while the single note of a drum beaten in time, 
combining sound and measure, is gratifying in a certain 
degree to every hearer. Indeed, with the antients rhythm 
was of paramount importance, if not almost everything, in 
what they denominated music, a term under which was 
included much that it does not imply in modern lan- 
guage. Aristides Quintilianus, the best of the seven Greek 
writers on music collected by Meibomius, remarks that 
rhythm is the object of three senses, namely, the sight, as in 
dancing ; the hearing, as in music ; and the touch, as in the 
pulsations of the arteries. 

Much of the effect of music on the mind to ascribed to 
Imitation, which is either direct or indirect. And it must 
be understood that we are still speaking of music strictly 
instrumental, not vocal. The power of direct imitation is 
confined within very narrow limits indeed, though com- 
posers have often attempted to enlarge the boundaries, ex- 
posing their own weakness and that of their art The song 
of some birds, the whistling of winds, the roaring of the 
tempest, the sound of cannon, the ringing nnd tolling of 
bells, and perhaps the tones of the human voice expressive 
of certain emotions, are legitimate objects of direct imita- 
tion ; but the rattling of hail, the fall of snow, the motions 
of animals, actions at sea, battles on land, &c. f arc not only 
unrepresentable by any kind of musical instrument at pre- 
sent known, but unfit for imitation if instruments could be 
constructed for the express purpose. Greatly we admire 
the introduction to the oratorio of The Creation, considered 
as a most original and ingenious composition, but cannot 
bring ourselves to believe that any idea of chaos is to be 
excited by exquisite harmony. Still less can we be con- 
vinced that silence can be imitated by sound, though the 
author of this musical solecism (which appears in a sym- 
phony intended to bo descriptive) is a man of rare talent, 
whose works are highly esteemed in England, and still more 
so where better known, in Germany, nis native country. 
Music can imitate in a direct manner only by its actual re- 
semblance to the sound of the thing imitated. Of all the 
Sowers of music, in the opinion of an admirable critic, the 
Lev. Thos. Twining, that of raising ideas by direct resem- 
blance is the weakest and least important ' It is indeed 
so far from being essential to the pleasure of the art, that 
unless used with great caution, judgment, and delicacy, it 
will destroy the pleasure by becoming offensive or ridi- 
culous. The highest power of music, and that from which 
it derives its greatest efficacy, is undoubtedly its power of 
raising emotions.' 

Professor Hutcheson, in the early part of the last century, 
expressed nearly the same opinion. What he adds. con- 
cerning the imitation of the human voice and accents 
is entitled to particular attention. He says, ' There is a 
charm in music to various persons which is distinct from 
the harmony occasioned by its raising agreeablo passions. 
The human voice is obviously varied by all the stronger pas- 
sions: now, when our ear discerns any resemblance between 
the air of a tune, whether sung or played on an instrument, 
either in its time or modulation, or any other circumstance, 
and the sound of the human voice in any passion, we shall be 
touched by it in a very sensible manner, and have melan 
choly, joy, gravity, thoughtfulness, excited in us by a son 

M U S 


M U S 

of sympathy or contagion.' {Enquiry into our Ideas of 
Beauty, <J»c.) 

Plato, in the third hook of his ' Republic,' speaks of a 
warlike air inspiring courage, because imitating the sounds 
and accents of the courageous man ; and of a calm and 
sedate air producing tranquillity and gravity, on the same 
principle. This leads us to the consideration of indirect 
imitation, to which part of our subject it perhaps more pro- 
perly belongs. 

Indirect Imitation is that by which some quality common 
to music and the thing imitated is indicated by sounds, 
strong or weak, quick or slow. Rage is loud, anger is 
harsh, love and pity are gentle ; therefore loud and harsh 
sounds raise ideas of the former passions and others of the 
same class ; soft and tranquil sounds raise ideas of the latter 
and others of a similar character. Hence it will be seen, 
a* before observed, that the hearer may interpret music in 
a manner corresponding in some degree to the state of mind 
in which it shall find him, but under certain restrictions 
from which he cannot be released. If agitated by any tur- 
bulent passion, he will find it impossible to convert smooth 
and delicate music into a language in unison with his irritated 
feelings; and if under the softening influence of some 
tender attachment, or of sorrow for the loss of one beloved 
or valued, he will be unable to construe bold and brilliant 
sounds as expressions of sympathy. But music that is not 
of a decided character will prove more or less convertible. 
And it is to this latter kind probably that Mr. Twining 
alludes, when, speaking of good instrumental music ' ex- 
pressively • performed, lie says, • the very indecision of the 
expression, leaving the hearer to the free operation of his 
emotion upon his fancy, and, as it were, to the free choice of 
such ideas as are to him most adapted to react upon and 
heighten the emotion which occasioned them, produces a 
pleasure which nobody, I believe, who is able to feel it will 
deny to be one of the most delicious that music is capable of 
affording.' {Dissertation on the word Imitative \ <J*c.) 

It is proper to add that this very learned and able com- 
mentator on Aristotle considers the word imitative inappli- 
cable to music, and proposes instead of it the term sug- 
gpstive. This is perhaps an amendment in the case of what 
wo have called 'indirect imitation;' but direct imitation 
does more than suggest the idea ; it may be said, without 
any violent distortion of language, to represent it. 

Association, which has so large a share in the operations 
of the human mind, often contributes much to the effect of 
music. Indeed some airs possessing no intrinsic merit owe 
Their influence solely to this principle, and among these the 
famous Bans des Vaches, which, in times happily gone by, 
acted with such irresistible force on the expatriated Swiss 
soldier. It was many years after the battle of Cull o den, and 
not till all fears of the Pretender had subsided, that the 
Scotch bagpipers ventured to play any of the Jacobite 
1 unes, which, when revived, were heard with delight, though 
hardly one of them would have continued to be listened to 
but as connected with the history of the country. When 
Sir Joshua Reynolds was at Venice— we are told by Mr. 
M alone — • in compliment to the English gentlemen then 
residing there, the manager of the opera one night ordered 
t he band to play an English ballad- tune. Happening to be 
the popular air which was played or sung in almost every 
street, j ust at the time of their leaving London, by suggesting 
to them that metropolis with all its connections and en- 
<1 caring circumstances, it immediately brought tears into 
the artist's eyes, as well as into those of his countrymen 
who were present.' To compositions of a very ordinary 
kmd, association, Dr. Beattie remarks, gives a significancy. 
' We have heard them,' be says, ' performed, some time or 
other, in an agreeable place perhaps, or by an agreeable 
person ; or have heard them in our early years, a period of 
''fe which we seldom look back upon without pleasure. 
Nor is it necessary that such melodies or harmonies should 

have much intrinsic merit. . . If a 

song, or piece of music, should call up only a faint remem- 
brance that we were happy the last time we heard it, nothing 
more would be needful to make us listen to it again with 
peculiar satisfaction.' To this latter part, however, we can 
only give our assent generally: painful experience has 
taught many that there is an exception to the rule. A 
composition which had been listened to with unalloyed 
pleasure when executed by one possessing all our tenderest 
and warmest affection, only excites the idea of lost, of irre- 
coverable happiness, if heard when death has deprived us 

of the performer who had imparted to the music its greatest 
charm. Except in this particular instance, we fully agree 
with the elegant author of Essays on Poetry and Music, 
in the preceding observations; though Boethius, in his 
treatise ' De Consolatione Philosophise,* and after him Dante, 
in his Inferno — both high authorities — express the opposite 
opinion, namely, that in distress and adversity the greatest 
misery is the recollection of former happiness. But the 
poetical notion of the Hindus regarding musical effect; 
which they strictly connect with past events, seems tq us 
the finest that ever was conceived ; — they say that it arises 
from our recalling to memory the airs of Paradise, heard in 
a state of pre-existence. 

After all, however, that has been written and said, from 
the days of Aristotle down to the present period, of r^usic 
as an imitative art, it must be conceded that modulated 
sounds please, by Borne mysterious means, many to whom 
they present no imitation of anything material or immaterial, 
ana who associate with them no other idea than that of 
melody or/ of harmony. These are, probably, the persons 
whom Rousseau had in view when, mistaking the exception 
for the rule, it seems to have been his design, in one of his 
wayward moments, to reduce that which is at once an art 
and a science, to the low rank of a sensual gratification. 
But in justice to that eloquent writer, it should be added* 
that, in his Essai sur POrigine des Langues, he at once 
demolishes his own definition — which, unfortunately, has 
been so widely circulated — by the interposition of a simple 
negative : e.g. — * La musique n'est pas Tart, de combine* 
des sons d'une maniere agreable a Toreille.' 

Thus far our attention has been directed to instrumental 
music, or that which is dependent on no auxiliary for 
effect, on no words to explain its meaning, on no gesticu- 
lation or scenery to illustrate it We have now to consider 
music as produced by the human voice in alliance with 
language, whether poetical or prose, and with or without 
instrumental accompaniment. 

Vocal music is entirely devoid of that ambiguity which 
some think a merit in instrumental music, and some con- 
sider a defect. Words fix the intention of musical sounds, 
leaving nothing for the hearer to conjecture ; for though 
the more or less of truth in the expression will depend on 
the skill of the composer, yet he must be utterly destitute 
of reason to give to revenge the tones of love, or to joy 
those of despair. It is true that he does not always 
read with discriminating judgment the words selected by 
him, or committed to bis charge — that in emphasis he 
is sometimes erroneous, and in accentuation frequently 
faulty ; and for these failings in the artist, the art itself 
has been unjustly condemned by writers whose repute 
gives weight to their censure. But the heaviest charge 
brought against composers of vocal music, and that 
which has exposed them to the keenest ridicule, is their 
eagerness to express the literal meaning of a particular 
word rather than the sentiment, the sense of the entire 
passage. This exceedingly vulgar kind of imitation, which 
nas not unaptly been called musical punning, may be 
traced to a gross misapprehension of the rule, that ' the 
sound should seem an echo to the sense,' and is the vice 
not only of composers of an inferior order, but, occasion- 
ally, of some of the highest class. The great Handel 
himself is not wholly exempt from its influence. In the 
fine chorus, * Wretched lovers, quit your dream ' (in 
Acis and Galatea), when the line * Hark ! how the thun- 
dering giant roars ' occurs, he makes the bases roar in a 
long division, till they nearly gasp for breath. But this is 
a verb that proves very seductive to composers ; in two of 
our best glees it sets the voice a-roaring through several 
bars : — in the one, because the poet (Ossian) asks, ' Who 
comes so dark from ocean's roar t ' In the other, because 
the poet (Gray) says, ' The rocks and nodding groves re- 
bellow to the roar ! ' Handel's favorite air, ' What passion 
cannot music raise and quell ? ' from Dryden's Ode to St, 
Cecilia's Day, sends the voice tumbling down a full octave 
at the words ' faces fell.* In the same work the singer is 
condemned to ascend to a note which few can reach, and 
none can sustain without lungs of very unusual capacity, 
merely because the author says, 'The trumpet shall be 
raised on high* Our greatest English composer, Purcell, 
could not resist the temptation offered by the words ' They 
that go down to the sea in ships,' from the 107th Psalm, in 
setting which he commits the base voice to so very low a 
deep, that there was only one man in his day who could 

M U S 



•tog the anthem. * Some eminent musicians,' Sir William 
Jones observes, 'have been absurd enough to think of 
imitating laughter and other noises ; but if they had suc- 
ceeded, they would not hare made amends for their want 
of taste in attempting it; for such ridiculous imitations 
must necessarily destroy the spirit and dignity of the finest 
poems.* This discerning and elegant writer most likely 
points at the song and chorus, ' Haste thee, nymph,* in 
Handel's setting of Milton's Z\*f/kgro, in which is the line, 

• And Laughter holding both his sides.' The singers in 
this, it must be allowed, never baulk the intention of the 
composer, but affect to laugh almost convulsively. To 
carry out the design to its utmost extent, they should 
east away their books, press their ribs firmly with both 
hands, and, by adding action to sound, complete the living 
picture. In another song by Handel, which was once very 
popular, in the oratorio of Semele, is a remarkable instance 
of a mistaken attempt at imitation. The words are — 

• The mor&ing lark to mine accords hit note, 
A ad tone* to my dlitre* hu warbling throat.' 

These lines (foisted into Congreve's poem) are* silly 
enough; but the composer has rendered them perfectly 
ludicrous, by one of those long-winded divisions which were 
the besetting sin of the age, on the word ' warbling.* In 
the midst of her distress, Semele and two fiddles— the latter 
representing the bird — strive who shall best mimic the 
soaring songster, till the lady is obliged to yield, from pure 
exhaustion. The mention of the lark has entrapped many a 
composer ; the musical follies committed in his name are 
innumerable. Handel's song, ' Sweet Bird,' from Jl Pen- 
seroso, always has been, and most likely always will be, 
admired as music, and it affords an opportunity for the 
display of talent in the singer and the flute-player, but it 
cannot stand the test of criticism. The same objection 
exists to this as to the air just noticed; the divisions are in 
themselves absurd, but as imitations are still more so. 
Surely the composer must have been aware that the note of 
the nightingale is the simplest that is practised by the 
feathered race, yet he has nere given the melancholy bird 
sounds which, as regards variety, rapidity, and compass, 
only able performers can produce from a fine voice and a 
perfect instrument. Handel's supremacy in the art renders 
him especially liable to animadversion when misled by an 
erroneous conception of the words ; but he has been charged 
with many supposed imitations which he never contemp- 
lated, such as the whipping-chorus, the rocking-chorus, 
&c. We have however said as much as is necessary on this 
part of our subject 

In the accompaniment to vocal music, much greater free- 
dom of imitation is allowable than in the voice part : kept 
within those bounds which good sense and cultivated taste 
prescribe, it affords very efficient aid, by giving greater force 
to the poetry, and contributing to the completion of the 
general design. It also adds harmony to song, a most im- 
portant, if not an indispensable support Nearly all that 
imitation can do, should — as the elder Dr. Gregory, of Edin- 
burgh, in some admirable remarks on music has observed — 
be assigned to the accompaniments, as these, on account of 
the greater compass and variety of instruments, are better 
adapted to such a purpose than the voice, which ought to 
be left at liberty to express the sentiments. If Handel has 
sometimes failed in imitations by the voice, he has often 
succeeded in those by the accompanying instruments. We 
need but refer in proof to his beautiful song in XL Pen- 

* Oft on a plat of rising ground 
t baar the far-off oarfew toond,'— 

where he has imitated the bell by the deep-toned strings of 
the bases, confining the voice to those notes of pleasing, 
contemplative melancholy, the idea of which the words so 
completely excite. The same skill and discrimination are 
shown in the song of Galatea, ' Hush ! ye pretty warbling 
quire,' in which the flute imitates the oirds, leaving the 
singer to express in simple sounds that languishing tender- 
ness indicated by the poetry. Handel was the first who 
endeavoured to excite the idea of light through the agency 
of musical sounds : his chorus in the oratorio of Samson, 

* O first created beam V was written with this design ; and 
moreover suggested to Haydn that grand composition on 
the same subject which is admitted to be one of his noblest 
triumphs. But the still bolder attempt of the former great 
master was to convey to the mind, tnrough the same me- 
dium, a notion of darkness. With this view he composed 

the sublime chorus in Israel in Egypt, beginning, ' He sent 
a thick darkness over all the land, the accompaniments to 
which, assisted by the words, produce on persons suscepti- 
ble of musical impressions, all that solemnity of effect, not 
unmixed with awe, intended by the author. 

Haydn, though sometimes ambitious of achieving by 
musical means more than the art can accomplish, was often 
most happy in indirect imitation by instrumental accom- 

Saniments ; witness the magnificent burst of sound in the 
rst chorus— to which we have just alluded— in The Crea- 
don, at the words, * and there was light.' Witness also hi* 
musical picture, in the same oratorio, of the rising sun, the 
slow swell of the instruments in ascending notes describing 
the gradual progress of the luminary towards the horizon, 
and the full power of the band depicting its refulgent splen- 
dour. And now beautifully the composer contrasts witu the 
solar blaze, the soft, serene beams of the comparative!? 
small orb which reflects its borrowed light! Madame de 
Stael heard the first of these moBt masterly compositions 
performed at Vienna, * in a manner,* she tells us, ' worthy 
of the great work,' and describes the sound of the combined 
voices and instruments as a terrible noise t She adds, 
that at the appearance of light it was necessary to st^< 
on€s ears. We forgive the Bad taste for the sake of the 
Wit This generally sagacious and acute, and always bril- 
liant, writer, is quite an Italian in her musical criticism 
she says that the Germans ' put too much mind in their 
works ; they reflect too much on what they are doing/ 0i" 
Mozart, whose illustrations of the poet are enumerated 
among his excellencies by most critics, Madame de Start 
speaks in what we consider highly laudatory terms, but br 
which she means to express some degree of disapprobation 
She thinks that ' of all musicians he has shown most skill 
in " marrying " the music to the words :* that in his opens, 
particularly Don Giovanni, he makes us sensible of all the 
eftVct of dramatic representation : that ' this ingenious 
alliance of the musician and poet gives us a sort of pleasure, 
but it is a pleasure which springs from reflection, and Ma' 
does not belong to the wonaerful sphere of the arts,' (Z> 
TAUemagne.) The ' alliance ' here complained of could c/. 
have been alleged as a fault in Rossini's earlier worLs 
beautiful as some of them are in other respects; though tk 
air ' La Calunnia,' the first finale in Otello f and two cr 
three other things, offer as fine examples of what is meat * 
by musical imitation as can be found. But in his ' secoc- 
style' — the manner in which his later operas are written - 
he seems to have been infected, as Madame de Stael vouU 
have said, by German intellectuality. We know not if lb 
highly-talented lady whose judgment in music we ha< 
ventured to impugn was acquainted with the composition 
of Weber ; if she ever heard his Freischutz or Oberon, L 
must have been placed bv her very high on the list of tW 
who damage and degrade music by rendering it eipr>- 
sive,— who, as Pope ironically says, in some lines com;* 
mentary to Handel, 

• — — meanly borrow aid from aaaae.' 

Music, which is both a science and an art, is divide, 
into Speculative or theoretical, and Practical. Speculate 
Music explains the nature of musical sounds; ahow>, r-- 
demonstrating their ratios, how they are related to t» . 
other ; and investigates their physical and moral effects wo*, 
in a simple or in a combined state : it is, in few word*, u- 
philosophy of the art. Practical Music is the application 
theoretical principles, — the proper conduct of sounds &» 
their progression, duration, union, and adaptation to wu* 
voices, and instruments, and is the art of composition. T 
performer, who merely executes, stands in the same relat 
to music as the actor does to the drama, or the reciter 
the poem: though he requires, in order to excel, const- 
able knowledge of the subject and superior taste, yet he 
but an operator — a singer or a player, and not, sir* * 
speaking, a musician. 

Speculative Music is subdivided into Acoustical, Hatha. 
Jical and Metaphysical. [Acoustics; Harmonics; Sov> 
Temperament.] Practical Music, into Vocal and Instr. 
mental, the several kinds of which are noticed under ti, 
respective heads. The chief component parts of prac . 
music are, Melody, Harmony, and Rhythm, to which v< 
refer. See likewise Accent, Air, Chord, Composite > 
Counterpoint, Modulation, Thorough-Bask, Ti\ 
&c i 

MUSIC, HISTORY OF The origin of music is invoi . 
in an obscurity which no ingenuity, no labour! has hither. 





to mention, melody ( Melopcnar-WtenlU the making, or com- 
position, of the song) and poetry. Ihere is no one, M. 
Villoteau remarks, who, after an attentive perusal of the 
antient writers, is not convinced that eloquence, poetry, and 
melody were, in early times, governed by musical princi- 
ples ; that they were taught by the same master, and that 
the three arts were but one science. 'The goddess Per- 
suasion,' says Lord Shaftesbury, • must have been in a 
manner the mother of poetry, rhetoric music, and the other 
kindred arts;' and tradition, he adds, 'could not better re- 
present the first founders of large societies than as real 

songsters. Nor can it be doubted that the 

same artists who so industriously applied themselves to study 
the numbers ot speech, must have made proportionable im- 
provements in the study of mere sounds and natural har- 
mony.' The Greeks never separated poetry from melody ; 
the poet himself set the notes to his own verses, and in the 
early times sang them at the public games and festivals. 
The Greek tragedies were operas, observes Payne Knight, 
meaning, we presume, that they were in a kind of reci- 
tative ; and he is borne out in his assertion by the best 
authorities. Aristotle, in his treatise on poetry, considers 
the music of tragedy as one of its most essential parts. 
The nature of this music is indicated by several writers, 
but is more clearly pointed out by Philodemus than by any 
other, in his work in abuse of music (one of the Papyri 
found in Heroulaneum, unrolled and published at Naples 
in 1793), wherein it is described as a melody nearly ap- 
proaching ordinary speech ; that is to say, recitative. Ho- 
race calls Apollo the singer. The antient poets give us to 
understand that their verses were sung, and this is to be 
construed literally in the case of the Greek poets. Homer, 
according to tradition, sang his own epics. But it is need- 
less to multiply proofs of a feet so generally received. 

Admitting, then, that Greek poetry of all kinds, religious, 
epic, dramatic &c, was really sung, and perhans granting, 
what many believe, that oratory partook much of the nature 
of song, let us inquire what was meant by the word singing. 
It is not to be imagined that Homer, Tyrtssus, Pindar, &c. 
-were singers, in our acceptation of the word ; the supposi- 
tion is too absurd to be entertained for a moment But even 
allowing them to have been as perfect in the vocal art as the 
moderns, are, would they have condescended to deliver their 
poetry in long flights of notes, in divisions, in trills, and in 
passages that render it difficult, and sometimes impossible, 
to get at the sense ? If, however, they had attempted to make 
their ' heaven-bred poesy ' subservient to song, would they 
have found a patient audience ?— Assuredly not ; tor the ani- 
mating appeal, the interesting narrative clothed in poetical 
language, the pathetic description, were what the Greeks de- 
lighted in, ana certainly would not have surrendered for the 
sake of a tune. Moreover, it must be recollected, and is a very 
important consideration, that when the art of printing was 
unknown, and manuscript copies of poems, &c. were un- 
attainable by the people at large, on account of the expense, 
the multitude had no means of becoming acquainted with 
the productions of their poets but by hearing them recited ; 
and as crowds assembled: for this purpose, the best mode of 
rendering the voice of the reciter audible to many, and 
these congregated in open places, was, to pitch it rather 
high, and confine it to a small number of fixed musical 
notes. 8uch is still the practice, and with the same 
intent, in all cathedrals, and is called chanting, a usage 
which has doubtless been transmitted from the remotest 
ages. Such too is the method adopted by the improvvi- 
mUori, whose art, we are persuaded, is of the highest an- 
tiquity, and whose singing, it is our belief, much resembles 
that of the ancient Greeks in delivering their verses. Those 
extemporaneous poets always require an instrumental ac- 
companiment of a simple kind, to keep the voice in tune, 
and, as they confess, to animate them. The Greek re- 
citers «3so were accompanied, either by the lyre or the 
flute, and probably for the same purposes. The flute was 
the companion of elegiac poetry ; the lyre of the epic and 
the ode. 

By what i» called Greek music, therefore, we understand 
the union of poetry and music the former of the two exer- 
cising the greatest sway over the mind, because expressing 
noble sentiments — gracefully inculcating religion and mo- 
rality — teaching obedience to the laws— exciting generous 
feelings— and inspiring patriotism and courage by the praise 
of those who had distinguished themselves t>y their public 
services and their valour. It is thus we account for the 

effects said to have been wrought by antient music ; for 'ft 
is impossible that Plato should have been thinking of mere 
vocal melody and the sounds of mean and imperfect in- 
struments, when he said that no change can be made in 
music without affecting the constitution of the state, an 
opinion in which Aristotle acquiesced, and Cicero after- 
wards adopted:— it is not to be credited that the laws 
of Lycnrgus, set to measured sounds by Terpander, wen 
turned into a song, or that this Lesbian musician quelled 
a sedition in Sparta by singing some pretty air to th- 
mob: — it is absurd to suppose that when Polybius tola 
us of a savage nation civilised by music, he means to saj. 
by coarse pipes and guitars; — and not less ridiculo^ 
is it to imagine that men were raised to the rank u' 
chiefs and the dignity of legislators, solely on account 
of their taste in singing, or their skill on the lyre and 
the flute. 

We cannot quit the subject of the vocal music of Greece, 
without adding a few words concerning the Greek Nonu > 
and Scolia. The former (from t'6/ioc, nomos, a law) weri 
so called, says Plutarch, because they were not allowed u 
transgress certain melodic rules by which they were charac- 
terised, and were at first hymns to the Gods. The latu 
were songs of a less restrained kind, sung at banquets air. 
entertainments, by great proficients ; hence Hesychius de- 
rives the term from rcoXiAc (skolios, difficult to sing-). But 
others think that the word should be rendered literally,— 
crooked, following a tortuous course — because, at table, ,: 
did not pass regularly, but only to those who were skilful 
singers. Plutarch, on the authority of Pindar, tells t> 
that the scolia were invented by Terpander. Dr. Burner 
has an entertaining chapter on the subject, vol. i, 464; bi' 
the reader will find it more learnedly discussed in Potter'; 
' Antiquities,' ii. 403. 

As to the instrumental music of the Greeks, we cont- 
our inability to treat the subject in a satisfactory manner 
The accounts given of it by the ancient writers are either 
so suspicious or so indefinite, that nearly all our labour - 
endeavouring to gain some knowledge of its nature has bee: 
expended in vain. Having Bianchini's learned work c: 
ancient instruments before us, we are enabled to form sotn< 
opinion of their capabilities, and our opinion is not in the • 
favour. They appear to have been rude, and suited only t 
music of the simplest description. 

The Musical scale or disdiapason, of the Greeks com- 
prised two octaves, the lowest note of which was a, the frs 
space in the base of the moderns. This was divided in: 
five Tetrachords, or subdivisions of four sounds in each, tr 
extremes being at the distance of a fourth. [Tstrachor: 
And it must here be observed, that the antient lyre had l>-" 
four strings ; the first and fourth fixed, the middle ones ad- 
mitting of being tightened or relaxed according to the gen-- 
of the melody. Two conjoint tetrachords, with one adi- 
tional note, formed the Octachord, or octave, to which t: 
improved lyre extended. The three different divisions ' 
the tetrachord produced as many Genera [Gbnkba], ti 
Diatonic, the Chromatic and the Enharmonic ; which s» 
The first was composed of the sounds which the moderr- 
name b, f, o, a; the second of b, f, f&, a; the third 
x, k X , f, a. The notes, or sounds, were represented l - 
the letters of the alphabet, great and small, which, in oni 
to extend their application and distinguish the van.^- 
modes, were placed in different positions — the direct, ihr 
averted, the inverted, and the horizontal ; and these wer? 
as occasion required, altered in form. The time, or dorz 
tion, of the notes was known by the long and short syllab - 
to which they were set ; the long syllable was in durat * 
as two; the snort as one. But we know only the comparai 
times of these ; of the positive lengths of notes we rema- 
in ignorance. The movement however of Greek musir 
supposed to have been slow. The Modes were, accord. 
to Alypius, fifteen in number: Aristoxenus makes xl 
thirteen, each a semitone distant from the next in o: 
Under the word Mode we have given the table of Al%v * 
we here insert that of Aristoxenus, the oldest of the G; 
writers on music, which commences with the Hyp<xk»j\i 
the lowest. 

Hypophrygian, Grave 
Ditto Acute 

Hypolvdian Grave 
Ditto Acute 




M U S 


M U S 

Dorian . # 




Ionian n • . 




Phrygian « 




^fiolian, or grave Lydian . 




Lydian Acute 




Mixolydian Grave 




D.tto Acute . 




H y per mixolydian 




It will be here observed, tbat what may be called the 
key- note of the various modes does not agree with that in 
t he table before given. In the above we have followed the 
Abbe Barthelemy, after having in vain resorted to numerous 
authorities for some means of reconciling the discrepancy. 
No two writers on this obscure subject are thoroughly agreed, 
ar^l it is probable that none in future will attempt to explain 
that which holds out so little hope to labour and patience, 
and of Vers so small a reward for success. The three prin- 
cipal and most antient modes had different characters : the 
Dorian was grave and majestic; the Lydian, soft and com- 
plaining; the Phrygian, bold, enthusiastic, and used in 
[ vligious ceremonies. Plato banished the Lydian and Ionian 
modes from his Republic, because exciting the enervating 
passions; but the Dorian and Phrygian he allowed, as 
manly and decent. Pindar set his fourteenth Olympic ode 
:o the Lydian, as being addressed to the Graces. Accord- 
ing to Lucretius, the Phrygian was employed in the horrid 
solemnities of Cybele ; and Statius introduces it in the 
funeral rites of Archemorus. 

By the word pi\oc (melos) the Greeks generally signified 
vhat we call air, or something like it; but sometimes, 
iVining remarks, 'they used it in the sense of appovia, 

e. melody abstracted from rhythm, or time: sometimes for 
'neamred melody; and sometimes as equivalent to song, 
n eluding melody, rhythm, and words.' By appovia (har- 
nofiia) they intended simply to express, as we have in a 
former article observed, tho proper relationship of one 
»ound to another— the pleasing agreement of intervals ; 
hat is to say, melody. Metastasio believes that by this 
crm the Greeks signified what we mean by melody, found- 
ing his opinion on the following passage from Plato (De 
Itgib., lib. ii.) : — The regulation of the movement is called 
hythra ; but the regulation of the voice is called harmony. 
Rousseau says — *The sense given by the Greeks to this 
void, in their music, is the more difficult to ascertain be- 
cause, having originally been a proper name, it has no roots 
>y which it can be decompounded in order to arrive at its 
tymology. In the antient treatises which remain, harmony 
teems to be that which had for its object an agreeable suc- 
• ess ion of sounds as regards high or low, in opposition to the 
>ther parts called rhythmica and metriea, which relate to 
inic and measure.' But though very difficult to determine 
vith exactness the meaning of the word harmony as 
applicable to Greek music, yet this difficulty does not arise 
i \>m the cause assigned by the French writer. 

The long-contested question, whether the Greeks under- 
tood counterpoint, or music in parts, seems now to be set 
it rest, and determined in the negative by a preponderating 
veight of authority and a large majority of voices. To what 
ve have before remarked on this subject [Harmony], we 
tow add, that further inquiry and reflection have only 
onfirmed the opinion we have long entertained, namely, 
hat though the antients, by mere accident, if not from ex- 
leriment, must have been acquainted with the effect of 
imultaneous sounds, nevertheless that which we call har- 
nony formed no part of their musical art, either theoreti- 
ally or practically. And we repeat our belief, that in the 
in ion of poetry and song, which undeniably operated with 
»i<-h amazing force on all classes of the people, — which in- 
lamed them with ardour, softened them into obedience, 
,iul melted them into pity, — music was but the ally of verse. 

Of their instrumental music, or music without the voice, 
ve are told that the flute-players by profession — who cer- 
;iinly were exceedingly encouraged and most extravagantly 
mid for their services in the later times of Greece — piqued 
hemselves chiefly on the strength of the sounds they could 
iroduce from the instrument; and that the trumpeters 
hought themselves fortunate if, in their contests at the 
>ublic games, they escaped without the rupture of a blood- 1 by the violence of their exertions. It is to such per- 
> nuances Aristotle must allude in saying, ( I disapprove 
.1 kinds of difficulties in the use of instruments, and, in- 
Iced, in music generally; I mean such tricks as are prac- 
P. C, No. 980. 

tised at the publio games, where the musician, instead of 
recollecting what is the true object of his art, endeavours 
only to flatter the corrupt taste of the multitude.' Facta 
and remarks like these do not lead to any favourable opinion 
of Grecian performers. It is likely however that they 
pleased most when they played the airs set to the favourite 
poems and popular verses. And there seems some reason 
to believe that they extended these by additions, sometimes 
studied, but often extemporaneous, resembling what are in 
modern language called variations, or an amplification of 
the theme. 

It was a tradition that Cadmus, with his Phoenicians, in- 
troduced music into Greece. But Plutarch, in his • Dialogue 
on Music,' first makes Lycias, a professor of the art, repeat 
the statement of Heraclides, that Amphion, the 6on of 
Jupiter and Antiope, taught the Greeks to compose and sing 
lyric poetry: then, by a second interlocutor, Soterichus, con- 
tradicts the first, assigning to Apollo the merit of having 
converted Greece into a musical nation. The invention of the 
lyre of three strings is given to the Egyptian Mercury, or 
Tboth ; that of seven strings, to the second or Grecian Mer- 
cury. Chiron, the centaur, taught Achilles music. Orpheus 
was the musical pupil of Linus, and master of Hercules. 
Then came Olympus, Terpander, and others. Terpander is 
said to have appeased an insurrection in Laced aemon by his 
songs. He rendered a most important service to the art by 
inventing a method. of representing musical sounds. Till 
his time music was quite traditional, and depended on the 
memory, and sometimes the caprice, of the performer. 
Plutarch says of him, on the authority of Alexander, an 
historian, that he took Homer for his model in versification, 
and Orpheus for the style of his melodies. The musical 
compositions of Orpheus, the same writer adds, were wholly 

Many very celebrated players on the flute are mentioned 
in musical history. Damon taught Pericles and Socrates the 
use of this instrument. Antigenides and Dorion Were also 
renowned for their talents. But the performer who excited 
most admiration was of the gentler sex. Lamia was no less 
distinguished by wit and ability than by personal charms. 
After captivating many by her skill as a flute-player, and 
by her beauty, Demetrius Poliorcetes became violently 
enamoured of her, and, through her influence, conferred 
such extraordinary benefits on the Athenians, that they 
dedicated a temple to her. Whatever may have been the 
style of flute-playing, or of the music, it is certain that in 
Greece the performers were in great favour. Xenophon 
says, that if an indifferent player wished to pass for one of 
superior talent, he must furnish his house richly, and appear 
abroad with a large retinue of servants, as the great perfor- 
mers do. It is said that a flute used by a celebrated The- 
ban musician, Ismenias, cost nearly six hundred pounds 

Pythagoras, of whom an idle story was long current, 
about a blacksmith's shop, hammers, and anvils, contributed 
much to the improvement of music by bis calculations and 
philosophical experiments. To him also is attributed the 
addition of an eighth string to the lyre. His notion con- 
cerning the music of the spheres— music produced by the 
motions of the heavenly bodies — was one of those whims in 
which great geniuses are apt, now and then, to indulge. He 
was of the sect of severe musicians, of those who reduced 
music to mathematical precision, and regulated all sounds 
by calculations, allowing no licence to the ear. Of an op- 
posing school was Aristoxenus, born at Tarentum in Italy, 
about 350 years B.C., who thought the ear entitled to share 
with mathematical principles in determining the effect of 
modulated sounds. He was a most voluminous writer on 
many learned subjects. Of these his Elements of Harmonics 
are all that have reached us, and stand first in the col- 
lection published by Meibomius. Next in that excellent 
work is an Introduction to Harmonics, by Euclid, the 
geometrician ; and this is followed by his Section of the 
Canon, containing short and clear explanations of the con- 
stituent parts of Greek music. Ptolemy, an Egyptian, and 
not the astronomer, wrote a treatise in three books on Har- 
monics, which Dr. Wall is printed, with a Latin version, a 
Sreface, and appendix, in 1682. He enters at large and 
ecply into the subject, and his principles have a ten- 
dency to reconcile the hostile sects of Pythagoreans and 
Aristoxenians. This object was pursued with success, by 
Sir F. H. Styles, in his paper published in the 51st volume 
of the Philosophical Transactions, In Plutarch's ' Dia- 

Vol. XVI.-E 

M U S 


M U S 

logue on Music' much information concerning antieat 
Greek music is to be found, but not of the most valuable 
kind. Aristides Quintilianus wrote a treatise on music, 
printed in the collection of Meibomius, which has proved a 
useful work to all subsequent writers on the subject He 
-was enthusiastic and fanciful, but in matters of mot and 
calculation is worthy of confidence. • 

The Romans acquired all their knowledge of the arts and 
sciences from the Greeks ; their music therefore in no way 
differs from that of the latter ; though they must have had 
some kind of song before any direct intercourse had taken 
place between them and the polished nations of Greece. 
It is certain that the art was never advanced by that war- 
like people, notwithstanding the share it had in all their 
religious ceremonies and public games, and the use made of 
it to animate their troops and add effect to their triumphs, 
and though it formed an essential part of their theatrical 
exhibitions of every kind, and was even adopted, or affected 
to be adopted, as a profession by one of their emperors. 

Tbe importance of music in the estimation of the early 
Romans is shown by a regulation attributed to Servius 
Tullius, who, in dividing the people into classes, directed 
that two whole centuries should consist of trumpeters, 
blowers of the horn, &c, and of such as, without any 
other instrument, sounded the charge* It is further 
proved by a law of the Twelve Tables, which limited 
the number of players on the flute at funerals to ten. 
And another of those laws enacted, that at the praises 
of honoured men in the assemblies of the people, there 
should be mournful songs accompanied by a flute. But 
a passage in Livy leaves no doubt on this subiect, and 
being as curious as it is illustrative, we shall give it 
entire, availing ourselves of Dr. Burney's translation. • I 
should omit a circumstance,' he says, ' hardly worth men- 
tioning, if it did not seem connected with religion. The 
Tibicines (or flute-players), taking offence at the preceding 
censors for having refused them tbe privilege of eating in 
the temple of Jupiter, according to custom, withdrew m a 
body to Tibur (TivoU), go that there were no performers left 
to play before the sacrifices. This created religious scruples 
in the minds of the senators, and ambassadors were sent to 
Tibur to persuade tho fugitives to return to Rome. The 
Tiburtines promised to use their utmost endeavours to this 
end, and first summoning the discontented band before their 
senate, exhorted them to return to Rome : but finding them 
deaf to reason or entreaty, they had recourse to an artifice 
well suited to the dispositions of these men ; for, on a cer- 
tain festival, they wore all invited, under pretence of assist- 
ing in the celebration of a feast. As men of this profession 
are generally much addicted to wine, they were supplied 
with it, till, being quite intoxicated, they fell fast asleep, 
and m this condition were flung into carts, and carried to 
Rome t where they passed the remaining part of the night 
in the Forum, without perceiving what had happened. The 
next day, while full of tbe fumes of their debauch, upon 
opeuing their eyes they were accosted by the Roman peo- 
ple, who flocked about them, and having been prevailed 
upon to stay in their native city, they were allowed the 
privilege of strolling through all the streets in their robes, 
three days in every year, playing on their instruments, and 
indulging in those licentious excesses which are practised 
on the same occasion to this day' (that is, to the time 
of Augustus). * The privilege of eating in the temple 
was also restored to such as should be employed in playing 
before the sacrifices.' This happened 309 B.C. 'The Ro- 
man flute-players,' Burney adds, ' were incorporated, and 
formed into a college or company.' Ovid, in his ' Fasti,' 
(lib. vi.), acknowledges tho importance of the Tibicines, and 
repeats in verse the above story of Livy, but drops the 
fccruples of the Fit res Conscripti. 

That tho Roman drama was in some way musical, is 
proved by the title, or didascalia, prefixed to each of 
Terence** plays. A further proof of this is found in the 
Institutes of Qu in til tan, where, after showing the necessity 
of instructing children in inu&ic, he adds, ' that he does not 
desire that ihcy should learn such music as prevails on the 
sta^<\ the modulations of which are so intermixed with 
impudence and wantonness, that they may justly be 
charged with having extinguished the poor remains of 
manly courage which had been left.' That the theatrical 
music of tho Romans was similar to that of the Greeks 
it to be little doubt ; that it was distorted by the 
iu Quintilian's time is very likely. 

It is remarked by Dr. Burney, that even during the 
Augustan age the Romans had no sculptor, painter, or 
musician, and but one architect, Vitruvius ; those, be says, 
'who have been celebrated in the arts at Rome haying 
been Asiatics or European Greeks, who came to exercise 
such arts among the Latins as the Latins bad not among 
themselves. This custom was continued under the succes- 
sors of Augustus ; and those Romans who were prevented 
from going into Greece contrived in a manner to briug 
Greece to Rome, by receiving into their service the most 
able professors of Greece and Asia in all the arts.' 

The Roman writers on music are few, and almost worth- 
less. Vitruvius, in his work on architecture, treaU of the 
sound of the voioe, of reverberating vases, and of a water- 
organ; hut no one has yet been able to discover what he 
means by this instrument. He also endeavours to make 
plain the harmonica! system of Aristoxenus, though he 
acknowledges the difficulty of the task. St, Augustia 
wrote on rhythm and metre; Boethius devotes five books 
to music, merely to explain the principles of harmonics ; 
and Aureliua Qassiodorua treats of music, among other 
things, but his work, or sketch, is said to consist of little 
more than some general definitions and divisions. 

There is every season to conclude that music remained 
stationary till the tenth or eleventh century. The Romans, 
having borrowed the art from Greece, seem to have been 
convinced of its perfection in the stale in which they received 
it, for there is no evidence of their having attempted to 
enlarge its narrow boundaries, or in any way to improve it; 
though a people of more ingenuity and taste would nan 
advanced it at least a few steps towards that point which it 
slowly has attained. 

In the primitive Christian church the service consisted 
partly of music, which is supposed to have been chiefly that 
of the Greeks, with an admixture of Hebrew melody. Me- 
nestrier conjectures that the early ecclesiastical manner el 
singing was like that of the ancient theatre, and Pr. Burney 
concurs in this opinion; though we .cannot bus think n 
more likely that the * songs of Zion,' as performed in tbs 
Jewish temple, and the chanting of the hymns at the Fagmn 
altars, were chosen as vocal models for devotional purpose* 
rather than the airs, or recitatives, in which the oomedm 
of Plautus and Terence were delivered. Towards the end 
of the fourth century, St Ambrose digested a nautical 
service for the church of Milan* which is called the Am- 
brosian chant, and was founded on four of the Greek modes. 
About tbe year 600 Gregory the Great enlarged and much 
improved the chant of the church, by the admission of four 
other modes, and gave it that form which it still retains la 
the Catholic service, and in which it is known by hm name. 
According to Bishop Stillingfleet, music waa introduced 
into the English church by St. Augustin, in the) latter 
part of the sixth century, and was subsequently much im- 
proved by SU Dunstan, an excellent muaiotan, who* it » 
said, furnished some few churches with an esgao. 

The organ— the moat majestic and comprehensive of all 
musical instruments in its present almost netfoot state -a 
supposed to have been an improvement of the hydraubcos. 
or water-organ, of the Gueeks. The first mentioned is 
musical-history was sent, in 757, as a present to King Pepin, 
from the Bysaniine emperor Coastanttne Copronymux 
In tbe tenth century the organ was in use in several* parts 
of Europe ; but it is reasonable to conclude that it waa thca 
exceedingly simple, possessing little power, and rude is 
mechanism : nevertheless, it may fairly be assumed that 
the invention of the organ hastened the discovery or prac- 
tice of harmony. [Oman.] 

To Guido, of Areaso, we are indebted for many of those 
improvements in music which led to our present system : 
though the origin of counterpoint has been eoeneoush 
ascribed to that active and ingenious ecclesiastic, [Guukx 
Magieter Franco, a member of the cathedral of Cologne 
in the eleventh century, is considered as tbe inventor oi 
what in the middle ages was called Cantos Memeuralniu, 
which meant, notes showing, by their forms, their time or 
duration. Most of those, however, have follen into ifansn 
for the shortest in his table is the semibreve. Neverthe- 
less bis system, carried out further by Da Muria* end bj 
degrees extended, till it has proceeded to an extravagant 
length— is that of the present day, and is so sound iu prin- 
ciple that it probably will never be abandoned. 

From the eleventh to the fifteenth century, aesueery 
anything is known of the progress of music, For tie huton 





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Uv« v.Ui nana i n st ** -s**~ ;a arrest.^ * *wud***cy « v 
gSAeroae, Ltiurvn* \u nfr **£**£ rv-t a bah pr/rod 
•***>W,L It was l.itA of ..'!-* a**ii ;a severe eases of 
As**-'.* *u*vt«r«, tis,»*e;n -i-K-' -r. «.L* *v-.i*r ivna* of a. 

ML SIC R AT 'Mvvv- «-** 


Mt'HKKT A*«%. * \'V 

Mi;SKIM;CM. 'M:v»:«*;m.Bjv«r.: 

MLS LIN, a tf*. #./,■?*. ct.^* of Wive Tbe ctme it 

^'^», frvc* wi^.t. j.'-*** */-•.* £i*.r«t »eyt Irvc mrporUsi 
tt.'Jt t^t'Ktt, L's.'.. M* ear,} part of tiit pr«*-st «e.v-tt iIj 
tu iiw< '« fcwtd a E *-"/f* was ^ :;*ntfc -iv/Lure of IrriA. 
Tt-*** Cu/rrj» */* «. 4 ... . fc-^wv/r u» atj- tL*t ve ■ode i& 
JS •t'J'j*. %r+\u am tvm^k tutar I ****** aiA zixsr di*r*i>^r, 

•ft^t u^f <(**.-? m ou; a* Mate pw^we ba«« k., , 

ffc* <WBrt#r. *^.*Jt vf a/«) v-peT»r-iT jg U^ qittJitr of the 
M.«l*r~»« *A+u*z. •'-*? *n &**'**, 1st it* nweoivjo of Ir.dja 
it 6* isAxtitM %t* U-%% 9LS.U m ^ted ivr ti<«e fi&e fabrics 
«, £«n^ «ui mu*h » Uvud^t fr«xa AaerMa and from 
Ccff^ Tlu* «iA^l>L^e of lt>dza moUiat is vwio% to 
lJL-e •^( tvl ftt-i>t^r* of tL*e *|r>Lner» acd vearer^in 
tfc»i <Mvjvtry . Vxju* of : m; u. u ^.ui of loda, and c^edallj 
fu*« of liac«a, at* ^ tbe nott *kisjunh:n% degree of ine- 
MMw vtmto jUMi-ff \ixir pettjcal deMrr;pU^o a* • w«i» of 
«**va vir.d' h^r^ tovmem baa bees tbe mult of tbe 
tm>h»r .,'*l %u%«**\*xa of ErtzluA m this brancb of indos- 
1*7, ti«ai i*»x oci/ a#e a»c*^r>^ of Bn(i*h manidacture nov 
•i*4 at Jta*a*% to tbe ea^.v^^o of tbote woren in India, bat 
\aryt ^-^ax.t.Uk* are *\yjru*l to ali oartt of tbe raid, and 
i*d tbeu vaf eve* far into tbe interior of India. 

Tbe great teat of :L* iot%iio nanufacture in tbis country 
ia VaA^j t**r(j >**)><,*. Tbe greater part of tbe wn used 
1m Ik*** %uk fabrws* m byon in tbe caottonHttiUs of Mancbes- 
fer, N^.fj «i^tb« are both plain and figured. Bj a late 
jfetefcU'/a u-ry are aometimea embroidered by means of 

MtnX/MU8 RUFU8, CAIUS, a Stoic pbilowpberof 
tbe f/tt eefitiiry of our awa, is mentioned with praise fay 
Ta^rctM* iAnn^ »it, v>>, and also by Pliny tbe younger, 
pL.**tratte*, Tbeisifctiuft, aud others. He was a native of 
Voi».i,iJ iii Ktruria, and belonged to the Equestrian order. 
He was a Utend of Tbrasea Paetus, Bare* Soranus, Rubel- 
U* PUutus, and other stoics, who were the victims of 
Ne/r/f ftuspurjoo and cruelty. Musonius was banished to 
liyur**, where be is said to have been visited by many 
Or«*ks t/r the purpose of listening to his lessons. Being 
r«**Wl after Nero s death, he lived at Rome under Vespa- 
s+sn, who excepted him from tbe sentence of exile pro- 
Aouwtd by that prince against the Stoic philosophers. Tbis 
t*atUv uifc/rtoatiun is all that we have concerning the bio- 
graphy of Musonius Rufus. (Nieuwland, Distertatio de 
Afus'/nio Itufo, Philotopho Stoico.) Fragments of his 
works are found in Stobsdus, and have been collected and 
published, with tbe above dissertation and copious notes, 
under tbe title of ' C. Musonii Rufi, Philosophi Stoici, 
JUuquisft, et Apophtbegmata, cum Annotatione, edidit T. 
Venbuiien Peerlkamp, Conrector Gymnasii Harlemensis,' 
nvo., HaarWm, 1622. These fragments of Musonius are 
full of tbe purest morality and wisdom. 

MUSOPHA'GlDiB (Plantain-eaters). Mr. Vigors* 
notices the genera Muiophasa and Coryihaix as nearly 
nod evidently allied to the Gallinaceous families, and as 



vul li. . at 



i% :> 




# cft*2rv 

Crer, wljeb xu lus 
of the «r6er£ 
tiuaor. wiueii 

wzz. li* Pvroatrt- ]Twv 
Mr, SwsinauL swmbs lie erou^ uf 
rank of a fiamlv 

and 1W* rrmiflfrasr, a c ute dag *a hxt 
j treat diriaMB uf "Sat 
I ne <wnfcrtWrs i a h 
the naittyt vS-^ut wiuoe 
i genas as ine snawz canavManas «d 

| Bu.^ fcimrS. _ _ 

! amargua ember fesvaaed «r ca.'n^e. lae wader aaaadiblc %^ 
ikuxL. Feet fci*Brt. *■■■ ■M.a J^r »•" ,T ^*c Tbe toes various. 
pttce viucb uas fevf "7 mtc|bgs ia Mr. Swaj > ; 
.: tt aexx i& tae i^s^i.^ ia% at tbe end *f :. 
Perztocjr Brrds.aaA zan&edur^&i besere tbe Seaauorrf, n.- 
urmuLfaW berw«ea tbe i%ass>'» and the Hornliil*. H 
^UMsnes lial LUbttvLc^ bexraj tbear afciUs to tbe I ..• 
£ii^es are unaZ.wkiat ficaanl waaae sne'and pect:^ 

ta tbe BorabiBs* are u . 
i» Ucae barttt. leaaarbing that, vuh 1. 
' exc«-^»'/a of coe gerna. tber i-l iwaaeas a abort bat u - 

tare or lent coned ost the top, \i 
_ bke tbe teeth .: 

saw. Tne i^d, it as saaed. seeamt ta be entirely vegutar 
and of u* mast leader and decease deacripUon : and 2! 

it as «rt g> far to nhatm. that the • 
Lti» fiaanlT (^ octward aaweaoace anaeb stronger tk 

ppesed, that of the 

birds, so far m 
t rectly against tbe tneary of their 

of the statement: 
of his opinion. Tt- 
that Coryihaix ti 

with tk 

*r#!*!£!&sr «- <««, «* »«». .,»*.. 

in procuri: 

snort bill, posit:, 

nostras. h>ppu« can, and pareiy ns,mbk food, are 1 

exetsf L&ad m sarS bads asBaoercs gaisafat,and procU- 

the a£n:tv of the Pi<smzjia-tmtert to the HormbilU. 

Mr. Swainson f&rtber naiiili that the economy of the- 

nerved by travellers, U -- 
. ^ he»ag Ukened to the z±- 

linaeeoos order; and heq: 
Covier and those of Yarreli m 
former, in thejge^ae ,laiaai< 

MrawopAoga appeal to him to _ 

ealhnaeeous bads, and paiticalarry with the Hoecoa. Ttx 
nave the wings and the tail of those birds, and, like tkes 
keep 011 trees; their mil, he contmnes, is abort, and u 
upper mandible convex; their met have * abort membra; 
between tbe anterior toes; bat it is tree that the extent. 
toe is often diieetedfasekwardalte TU 

nostrils also are simply placed in the horn of the bill, u 
edges of the natndibks are dentilated, and the sternum ^ 
least that of the Touraco) has not the great notches wh^. 
are ordinary in the GaHinanrooi birds. Mr. Swainson c- 
serves that this admission of Cuvier, that Corythmx a: 
MuMophaga only present 4 quelque amalogie avec les gx 
linaces,' and that they have not the notched sternum of t. 
latter, is directly opposed to the theory of these birds lead u 
to the GaUinaeea, a view of the subject which is confirm*. 
by Mr. Yarrell s observations. The latter zoologist de- 
lected a Touraco (Coryihaix Pma) which had died in ti* 
menagerie of the Zoological Society of London, and 1 
found the general appearance of the inside of the bod* 
the bird inclining rather to that of the Perchers than of V. 
GalUnaf. iZoot. Journ^ vol iv„ p. 313.) Mr. Swainson * 
parates the family into the following subfamilies 1^. 
genera: — 

Phytoiomnaf, Plant-cutters. 

Bill serrated, but not swollen. Feet with two or tbrr 
toes forward and one backward. (Sw.) 


Phytotoma, Molina. Hyretu, Stevens. Of these '• 
select Phytotoma. 

Generic Character.— Bill short, compressed, the to* 
widened; high at the base, and gradually curved; the lovt 
mandible much weaker, straight ; the commissure slight • 
arched, with the margins created. Tongue short, point*. 
Nostrils basal, small, rounded. Wings moderate ; the t« 
first quills graduated; tail moderate, even. Feet stronc 
Lateral toes unequal, the inner shortest- Claws slendti 
•lightly curved, (Sw.) 


Etumpie, Fhytoloma rata. 

iJrtrnftion, iliibiu, $c. — Molina describee Hie Kara i 
'Viiliim Plant- cutler os nearly of the size of a quail, with 
i]u bill rather large, conical, straight, a Utile pointed, aer- 
ated, and hair an inch in length ; the tongue very short 
Mid obtuse, the pupil of the eye brown. Three well pro- 
mrtioncd anterior toes, the fourth posterior and a little 
.hotter. The tail moderate, but rounded. The colour is art 
b-i'ure grey upon the back, rather brighter on the belly ; 
he paints of the quills and of the tail are black. The 
jund of its voice is hoarse and interrupted, and seems to 
•x press its name. It feeds on plants, but previously has 
lie destructive habit of cutting them off close to the root, 
nd often capriciously cuts off a quantity of them without 
niichiug them further. For this reason the peasants per- 
ocute this species, and carry on a continual war against 
lifif birds; moreover children who destroy their eggs are 
ewurded. The nest is built in obscure and but little fre- 
ncntod places on the most lofty trees, and thus these 
'hi'tt-BUUen escape the persecutions or their enemies. 
■io I withstanding such precautions however, their numbers 
re considerably diminished. 'I do not know,' says Molina 
1 conclusion, ' whether this is because a price is set on its 
fad, or on account of its naturally small degree of fecun- 

i M U S 

PatahttU. They build their nests, which are spacious and 
round, in little groups; and Le Vaillant affirms that tbey 
sleep suspended with their heads downwards, and that, 
when it is cold, they are found so benumbed in the morn- 
ing, that they may be taken one after the other. The 
number of eggs is generally five or six, and the flesh of the 
birds is said to be delicate. (Lesson.) 

Example, Coliut Senegalentit. (Latham.) 
Description. — Round the eye a naked, reddish skin ; 

This appears to be the Coliut Qmritea— the trivial name 
is taken probably from its note — of Le Vaillant; and the 
Coliou huppt dit S&ntgal of Buffon. 

Mr. Swainson observes that in Phylotoma the four toes 

(ipear to be arranged as in the Finches, but in Hyreus the 

ik's nre only three. He compares the size and entire aspect 

f Phytatoma to that of a Bullfinch. 

Colina. Colies. 

The only definition of this subfamily given byMr. Swain- 
i.n is 'all the four toes placed forward,'* and the only 
mi us coil tiinud in it is 

Colius. (Brisson and Gmehn.) 

Generic Character. — Bill short, strong, conical, slightly 
.impressed, entire, with the mandibles equal and the edges; nostrils rounded; nails arched and long, that of 
he liiml-loe shortest; wings short; third quill longest; tail 
raduatcd and very long. 

Httbitt, Geographical Distribution, tyc. of the Genu*. — 
'lie plumage of the species is soft and silky, and the colours 
i ne rally sombre, whence they are called at the Cape, ac- 
urding lo Le Vaillant, Oiseaux Sourit (Mouse-birds). 
Vfrica and the East Indies are the localities where they 
lave been found, the Coliut viridit of Latham, said lo 
>i! from New Holland, belonging probably lo another 
fining. The Colies are gregarious, live upon fruits, and 
re the scourges of gardens. They walk badly, but they 
■limb almost continually on the branches of trees, where 
liuy hold on, assisting themselves with their bills like the 

Coital Stuijfulcniu. 

Mtaophagin/z. Plant a in -eaters. 

Three toes forward and one backward; the outer toe 
placed obliquely. (Sw.) 

Genera. Corythaix. (111.) 

Generic Character.— BUI short, rather small, high, and 
greatly compressed. The frontal feathers reposing over and 
concealing the nostrils. Culmen high, curved to the tip. 
Lower mandible narrow ; both mandibles distinctly notched 
at the lip and finely serrated. Wings short, rounded; the 
three first quills graduated. Tail long, broad, rounded. 
Feet short, strong. Middle toe longer than the tarsus; 
lateral toes equal, hind-toe shortest ; external toe capable of 
being turned a quarter of the way backward. Claws short, 
thick, and much compressed. 

The Touracos are most elegant birds, and feed princi- 
pally on soft fruits. The prevailing colour of these birds is 
green, varied in some species with purple on the wings 
and tail. They are natives of Africa, whore tbey perch 
on the highest branches of the forest trees, and thus keep 
out of gun-shot, ss Le Vaillant found to his cost. Hav- 
ing at last succeeded in bringing one to the ground, he 
could not find it, and, stamping in his rage at the loss, ho 
broke through into one of the covered pits which the Hot- 
tentots employed to catch ferocious animals, particularly 
elephants. This accident might have been fatal. 'When, 
I recovered my first surprise,' says be, ' I began to consider 
how I should extricate myself from this embarrassment, ex- 




Cr.-I, »WI| II f 



1, i. 


,.»!, mhiHiiIUii 
u l» liltiUh nn < 
■'l| ImiI roumlit'l j 



■ass star 

cms 1* Carythaix trythro- 

rol, iitncl anil compressed ; 
i, Bii'l [inlrli round I he ore 

I), wliiiu; R«m-rBl plamuo 
l..< \»Ai ■■!<! Mir; quill« 
I bill julluw; fuel (re vlik - 

Befcejsn! specimens of Touricos are to be found in «■ 
museums, and there ore at present (September, IS331 w 
(Cvrytkatx Buffbmi) living at the gardens of the Zx-- 
ftort Society, Regent's Park. 

Chiaerhu. (Wagler.) 

Gtmric C/iaraeter.—B3[ large, high and thick at I? 
base, compressed beyond. Culmen thick, convex, cmf 
deraHy arched. Lower mandible not half bo high as fr 
upper ; the tips of both deeply notched, with their marc-r 
finely crenated. Nostrils basal, placed close to the tor 
the bill, naked, htnular, and pierced in the substance of th 
bill. Wings lengthened; the four first qoilfe grarlus'^ 
Tail lengthened, slightly rounded: the tipa very obtuse 
FM •> tst Oorythaix. (Bw.) ' 

Example, Chixxrhit vuriegala.  

; front, top of the head, chin, tad threat m far 
as the breast, chestnut-brow a ; under plumage beyond the 
breast while, but each feather «Uh a dark Middle stripe; 
primary and secondary quilt* blackish, with a spot of pttra 
while varying in sue in the middle of 'licit inner weba; 
tertiaries and middle lail-feathers grey, tipt with black ; 
lateral tail-feathers black ; hill yellow ; feet gwty. Crest 
placed very far back on the nape. Total length about 84 

This appears to be the Touruco huppi-col of Le Vaillanl ; 
Pbasiantu tfrioaaus of Latham, uidMusopnagavariegaia 
of VieiUot. 

Lucaiity, Africa, 

Muaophaga. (Isert.J 
Generic Character. — Bill resembling that of Ghixarhu; 

I M U S 

hot As base enormously dilated, w M to spread like % 
casque or helmet over tho fore part of the head a* far u th« 
crown, where ila thickened tide* form a temicircle. Naa- 
UiU naked, oral, open, placed nearer to the tip than to the 
eyas, and pierced in the substance of the bilL Wings, (Wet, 
and tail as in the Cotythaix. (Sir..} 

Kxample, Mumphaga vioiacea. 

Dsseri ption.— Bill rich yellow, passing into crimson; 
orbits naked, and, like the compact velvetty feathers of the 
crawn, glossy crimson ; a white stripe beginning below the 
eye and extending above the ear; secondary and part of 
the primary quills carmine, with lilac reflections, margined 
and tipped with blackish violet, which is the general colour 
of the plumage, only thai it changes into a very deep green 
on the under parts, and is very rich on the toil; legs. strong 
and black; gape wide, opening beneath the ayes. 

This magnificent bird appears to. be the CttctUm regims of 

Locality, Africa : Gold Coast and Senegal. 

MUSQUASH, the Cree same for the Tibet Zibelhictu 
of Cuvter (Ondatra of I^ccpede), a genua belonging to. the 
family Castorida. 

Df. Richardson {.Fauna Boreali-Americana). gives the 
following synonyms of this rodent : — 

Rat-Musmd of Sagard Theodat; Castor ZibHhkus of 
I Bum ; L 'Ondatra, of Button; SZu&k-Ral of Lawaon; 
Musk-Beaua; of Pennant; Musqwish of Josselyu; M"1 
Zibethieua of Lin-, Guielin ; Fiber Zibethicu* of Sabine and 
Harlan; Afiuft-iiaf of Godmau; Qndathra, of the Hurons; 
Mmipuick, Waiiiutt or Waehuth^ also P»e*mttae-Tupeyeu> 
(the animal that sits on the ice in a round ferine of the 
Cree Indians. 

In a tract which, has for its title 'A Perfect Description 
est Virginisv' ig-19, we find among the 'Beasts great and 
small.' 'A Huske Rat, so cabled for bis great sweetnesse 

Dental Formula-— Incisors, ^; Molars, — 



IhUi of [F. Oui.1 

Description. — Head short Body thick and rather flat ; 
legs very short ; hind-feet large, not webbed.* Dark umber 
brown above ; sides, anterior part of belly, middle of breast, 
lateral part of neck and cheeks, shining yellowish -brown ; 
chin, throat, sides of the chest, and posterior part of the 
abdomen, ash-grey; tail compressed, convex on the sides, 
with its acute edges in a vertical plane, ooyertd with a thin 
sleek coat of short hairs, which allow a number of small 
roundish scales, well separated from each other, and which, 
as well as the hair, are dusky-brown, to appear through 
them ; acute margins of the tail (which is rather thicker in 
the middle than at the root, and tapers gradually from its 
middle to its extremity, which is not acute) covered with a 
close line of longer hairs dark brown on the upper edge 
and soiled white on the under one. Length of bead aud 
body 14 inches; of the tail 8 inches 6 lines. 

The fur, which much* resembles that of the Beaver, but 
is shorter, resists the water during the life of the animal, 
but is easily wetted immediately after death. 

Habits ; Utility to Man , Qeographictii Distribution, 
4«.— Charlevoix states that the Musk-Rat takes the Held in 

I  if snssssH  H last iii ntwMWt m sili in l 


March, ftt which trme its food consists of bite of wood, which 
it peels before it eats them. After the dissolving of the 
mows, he says that it Uvea upon the roots of nettles, and after- 
wards on the stalks aud leaves of that plant. In summer il 
feeda on strawberries, &c, to which succeed the autumnal 
fruits. During Ibis time, be stales that the male and female 
are rarely seen asunder. According to the same author, they 
separate in winter, when each takes up its lodgings apart, 
in some hole or in the hollow of a tree, without any provi- 
sion; and the Indiana declared that not the least morsel 
of anything is eaten by them whilst the cold continu< 
'They likewise,' adds Charlevoix, 'build cabins nearly 
tbe form of those of the beavers, but far from being so well 
executed. As to their place of abode, it is always by the 
water-side, so that they have no need to build cause- 
ways. . . The flesh is tolerably good eating, except in 
the time of rut, at which season it is impossible to cure it"' 
a relish of musk, which is far from being as agreeable 
the taste as it is to the scent' 

Dr. Richardson {/buna Boreali-Americana). from whom 
the abridged description is taken, and to whose details we 
refer the reader, states that the Musquashes vary consider- 
ably in sue, and that though they have a strong musk] 
smell, particularly the males, in spring, their flesh, whicr 
somewhat resembles flabby pork, is eaten by the Indians, 
who prise it for a time when it is fal, but soon tire of " 
They have, according to this author, three litters in I 
course of the summer, producing from three to seven at 
litter, in 53°N. laL, andbegin to breed before they attain their 
full growth. Great numbers are destroyed by the inunda- 
tions which cover the low grounds where they haunt, and 
in severe winters they are almost extirpated from some lo- 
calities by the freezing of the swamps inhabited by them. 
Famine in sucb cases drives tbem to destroy each other. A 
great mortality, the cause of which is unknown, also sweeps 
them away, and the deaths at such periods (which are un- 
certain) are so numerous, that a fur-post, where the Mus- 
quash is the principal return, is not unfrequently abandoned 
till the fecundity of the animal has repaired, which it does 
in a very few years, the ravages of disease. 

Dr. Richardson places the southern limit of the Mus- 
quash about 30° According to Barlrarn, they are found 
in the north of Georgia and Florida, and Dr. Richardson 
ascertained that thoy extended northwards to the mouth of the 
Mackenzie, 60° N. fat. Small grassy lakes or swamps, or the 
grassy borders of sluggish streams with muddy bottoms, are 
favourite haunts, ana there they feed chiefly on vegetables. 
In the northern districts the roots and shoots of the bulrush 
and reed-mace, and tbe leaves of various carices and aq 
tic grasses, form their staple. Pennant states Ibat they 
very fond of tbe Sweet-flog (Acvrus Calamus), which, 
cording to Dr. Richardson, does not grow to the northward 
of lake Winnipeg. The last-named author often saw small 
collections of fresh-water mussel-shells {Unto), on the ani- 
mals of which they are said to food, and which, he was in- 
formed, had been left by tbem. 

The habitations of the Musquashes and the mode of 
hunting them are thus described by the Doctor : — ' In the 
autumn, before the shallow lakes and swamps freeze over, 
tbe Musquash builds its house of mud, giving it a conical 
form, ana a sufficient base to raise the chamber above the 
water. The chosen spot is generally amongst long grass, 
which is incorporated with the walla of the house, from the 
mud being deposited amongst it, but the animal does not 
appear to make any kind of composition or mortar by tem- 

S Bring the mud and grass together. There is however a 
ry bed of grass deposited in the chamber. The entrance is 
under water. When ice forms over the surface of the 
swamp, tbe Musquash makes breathing-boles through it, 
and protects them from the frost by a covering of mud. In 
severe winters however those bales freeze up in spite of 
their coverings, and many of the animals die. It is to be 
remarked that the small grassy lakes selected by the Mus- 
quash for its residence are never so firmly frozen nor 
covered with such .thick ice as deeper and clearer water. 
The Indians kill these animals by spearing them through 
the walls of their houses, making their approach with great 
caution, for the Musquashes take to the water when alarmed 
by a sound on the ice. An experienced hunter is so well 
acquainted with the direction of ihe chamber aud the posi- 
tion in which its inmates lie, that he can transfix four or 
five at a time. As soon as, from the motion of the spear, it 
' evident that the animal is struck, the house is broken 

i MUS 

down and it is taken out The principal seasons for taki« 
the Musquash are, the autumn before the snow talk, uA 
the spring, after it has disappeared, but while the ice is iti 
entire. In the winter time ihe depth of snow prevents ti» 
houses and breathing-holes from being seen. One of tin 
first operations of the hunter is to stop all the holes with ii< 
exception of one, at which he stations himself to spear IL- 
animals that have escaped being struck in their houses tai 
come hither to breathe. In the summer the ldusquut 
burrows in the banks of the lakes, making branched cam. 
many yards in extent, and forming its nest in a chamber a 
the extremity, in which the young are brought forth, Who 
its house is attacked in the autumn, it retreats to these pi- 
sages, but in the spring they are froxen up. The Musquui 
is a watchful but not a very shy animal. It will come tin 
near to a boat or canoe, but dives instantly on perceivm; 
the flash of a gun. It may be frequently seen sitting .- 
the shores of small muddy islands in a rounded form, si: 
easily to be distinguished from a piece of earth, until u. 

the approach of danger, it suddenly plunges 

'" '' ' of diving, when surprised, it gives a smart bios: 

In the ai 

the w 

with its tail.' 

Varietitt. — Dr. Richardson records three varieties br 
sides that above described. 

1. The Black Musquash, rare. 

2. The Pied Musquash, with dark, blackish-brown patcbr 
on a white ground. 

3. The White Musquash (Fiber Zibethieut-aibus, Si- 
bine). This Albino is not unfrequent. Dr. Richard*: 

According to Henrnc, the Musquash is easily tamed, tit.- 
becomes attached, and U cleanly and playful. 

The fur is used in hat-making, and there is, according 
Dr. Richardson, an annual importation of between four a: 
five hundred thousand into Great Britain from Nur 
America for that manufacture. Charlevoix also notices ti 
employment of the fur in the bat trade. 


Leydert, March 14lh, 1692. 'He received a good class:, 
education in Ihe university of his native city, beintr a bit 
of Peritonitis and Gronovius, and afterwards applied Li 
self to tbe study of medicine, which science, as well as lb - 
of chemistry and natural philosophy, he studied under Sr 
guerd, Bidloo, Le Clerc, Burnard, Albinus, Bocrbauave. i 
Rau. He was excessively fond of the mathematical acteot- 
In 1717 he formed an intimacy with the celebrated s'Gn< 
aande, and their tastes being similar, they pursued it 
studies together. The introduction into Holland of -. 
Newtonian system of philosophy, and the science of ex. 
rimental physics, was principally owing, to the labour* 
these two men. They worked together with equal xeal t 
tss, but in different paths; rGravesande look the c- 
lOtical or theoretical part of physics, while MTussrr 
broeck applied himself more particularly to expetriro*: 
physics, in which he excelled, and in which ho made a e- 
many discoveries. 

On the occasion of taking his degree of doctor of m> 
cine, in 1718, Musscbenbroek wrote 
tioii, ' Do aeris pranentia 




flew production, which contains a description ot many 
caof'ul experiments, from which accurate conclusions were 
<li awn, and, though published more than a century ago, it 
may Mill be read with interest. The author showed in this 
(limitation both a fondness and talent for experimental 
philosophy, and he was luckily placed under favourable cir- 
cumstances for the development of this talent. At the 
commencement of his career the speculations of Descartes 
wore rapidly dissipating before the lights of the Newtonian 
philosophy, but they still retained some supporters; Mus- 
schenbroek therefore determined to visit England, for the 
purpose of seeing Newton and making himself fully ac- 
quainted with his system. While in London, he was intro- 
duced to Dr. Desaguliers, and other scientific men besides 
Newton ; and on his return to Holland, he soon came into 
public notice. In 1719 he was appointed professor of phi- 
losophy and mathematics, and professor extraordinary of 
medicine in the university of Doesburg on the Rhine, 
w here he gained great reputation by his lectures. In 1723 
ho was invited to fill the chair of philosophy and mathe- 
matics in the university of Utrecht, which had been long 
distinguished as a school for legal studies, and which Mus- 
schenbroek soon rendered equally well known in the depart- 
ment of natural philosophy. He remained at Utrecht many 
years, and this city was the seat of his principal labours. 
The curators of the university were so fully impressed with 
the importance of keeping his services, that they conferred 
on him, in 1732, the professorship of astronomy. In 1737 
George II. of England, elector of Hanover, offered to Mus- 
schenbroek a professorship in the newly established univer- 
sity of Goitingen. The offer was refused, but two years 
afterwards he accepted the professorship of mathematics in 
Ins native city, Ley den, which had become vacant by the 
death of Witlichius. Musschenbroek remained attached to 
the university of Leiden for the remainder of his life, 
though he was successively invited to fill other appointments 
hy t he kings of Prussia and Spain, and by the emperor of 
Russia. He died on the 19th tf September, 1761, in the 
seventieth year of bis age. 

The following are Musschenbroek's principal works:— 
I, ' Epitome elementorum physico-mathcmatlcorum, , 
1-Jmo.. Leyden, 1726. This work went through several edi- 
tions, each succeeding edition being considerably altered 
and improved. It was reprinted in 1734, under the altered 
title of 'Elementa Physicso,' 8vo., Leyden. An English 
translation is mentioned as having been made of this work 
hy Colson, in 1744, 2 vols. 8vo., but we have not been able 
m meet with it. The last edition of this work appeared 
after ihe death of the author in 1762, and was named *In- 
tnxluctio ad Philosophiam Naturalcm.' This edition is 
much more complete than either of the former, and 
contains a very good summary of all that was then known 
mi natural philosophy. These three editions are often 
spoken of as distinct works, though it is only the titles that 
aie different. 

This introduction to natural philosophy (the last edition 
is here referred to, which is the most complete) contains 
many original researches, on the cohesion of bodies, on the 
phosphorescent properties which many substances acquire 
from exposure to light, and on various points in experimental 
]ih\sies. It also includes a much more complete table of 
specific parities than had before been published, entirely 
l)i med from the author's own investigations. Rigaud de 
Lafund translated the * Introductio ad Philosophiam' into 
French (1769, 3 vols.). This translation must not be con- 
/ ninded with another which appeared at an earlier date 
M739) with the title of 'Essai'de Physique,' which was 
t i an -dated by Dr. Massuet from a Dutch edition of the same 
vtork, published by Musschenbroek, which Dutch edition 
rr.mtaining many researches which were not included in 
the later Latin ones) was written in a popular style for the 
purpose, which it fully answered, of diffusing a taste for 
natural philosophy in Holland among those who were not 
acquainted with the learned languages. 

2. The work which has gained the author most celebrity 

•> his * Physic© Experimentales, et Georaetricao Disserta- 

: imcs," Leyden, 1729, 4to. This work consists of four trea- 

\ '. m\s : one on the magnet, one on capillary attraction, one 

<n the size of the earth, and one on the cohesion of bodies. 

\ 11 these dissertations contain many interesting researches 

 • id new experiments, which were conducted with great care. 

i ho labours of Musschenbroek on the power of cohesion 

i.;tweun different bodies were very great ; and he afterwards 

P. C No. 98 J. 

rendered his observations on this subject more complete in 
the introduction to natural philosophy mentioned above. 
He greatly extended the science of magnetism by his 
memoir in the present work, though be improved his know- 
ledge at a later period respecting the laws of magnetic 
attraction, and in 1754 published, 

3, * Disscrtatio Physica Experimental de Magnete,' 4to. , 

4. In 1731 Musschenbroek published, at Leyden, in 4to. v 
a Latin translation of the ' Saggi di Naturali Esperienze 
fatte nelP Accademia del Cimento,' which appeared at Flo- 
rence in 1667. This work, valuable in itself, was rendered 
much more so in the translation by the numerous notes and 
additions of Musschenbroek, which contain an account of 
some new experiments on the dilatation of different bodies 
by heat, and also a description of a pyrometer which he had 
invented, and which was the first instrument of the kind 
which had been made. 

Besides the above works Musschenbroek delivered seve- 
ral public orations, which have been published. He also 
wrote many papers on meteorology (a subject to which he 
paid considerable attention), some of which appeared in the 
• Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences/ and some in 
the 'Transactions of the Royal Society of London.' He 
published some observations on the Leyden phial, in the 
'Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences' for 1746; 
and a • Dissertation on Barometers,' which was printed in 
the • Memoirs of the Academy of St. Petersburg.' 

MUSSELBURGH, an antient burgh of royalty in the 
parish of Inveresk and shire of Edinburgh. It is seated on 
the right bank of the Esk, near the confluence of that river 
with the Frith of Forth, and is about five miles east from 
the city of Edinburgh, with which communication is kept 
up by stage-coaches. The name is supposed to refer to a 
mussel-bank near the mouth of the Esk. 

The monks of Dunfermline were the sole proprietors of 
all the territory comprised within the limits of the burgh, 
down to the time of the Reformation. After that event the 
property came into the possession of the king, James VI., 
by whom the lordship and royalty, together with the pa- 
tronage of the church of Inveresk, were conferred upon his 
chancellor, Lord Thirlstane, from whom they have de- 
scended, by inheritance and purchase, to the family of 
Buccleuch, the present proprietors. 

The high street is spacious, and contains many good 
houses, and the town is surrounded by gardens and villas. 
To the south is the suburb of Newbigging, which branches 
off to the church of Inveresk. On the opposite bank of the 
Esk is the suburb of Fisher-row, inhabited chiefly by 
fishermen, who supply the markets of Edinburgh during 
the greater part of the year. There is a stone pier, and the 
harbour, though small, is convenient. The management of 
the affairs of the town and suburbs is vested in a council of 
18 members, of whom 10 are chosen from among the inha- 
bitants of Musselburgh, and the rest from those of Fisher- 
row. The tanning of leather, making of sailcloth, hats* 
bricks, earthenware, &c, and the manufacture of fishing- 
nets by looms, constitute the principal business of the place. 
The salmon-fishery is carried on by ' stake-nets,' but is not 
very productive. A branch of the Commercial Bank of 
Edinburgh has been established, and elegant gas-works for 
the supply of the town have recently been erected. 

Four bridges cross the Esk, two of which are of stone ; 
the uppermost is of considerable antiquity ; the new bridge 
is a handsome structure erected from a design by Rennie. 
In 1831 the population of the burgh and the rest of the 
parish of Inveresk was 8961. By the Reform Act, Mussel- 
burgh, Lcith, and Portobello were erected into a parliamen- 
tary district which now returns one member. 

For a description of Pinkie House, formerly the residence 
of the abbot of Dunfermline, and now the abode of Sir 
John Hope, bait., the reader is referred to Chambers's 
Gazetteer of Scotland, 8vo., 1832 ; from which, and the Par* 
liamentary Report on Scotch Burghs, this notice is chiefly 
drawn. In the former work will be found many interesting 
particulars relative to the antiquities of the place and the 
historical events with which it is connected. 

MUSSULMAN. [Mohammed.] 

MU STAPH A I., sultan of the Turks, succeeded, in 
1617, his brother Ahmed I., but, a few months after, was 
deposed by the janizaries, who placed on the throne his, 
nephew Othman. A few years later the janizaries revolted, 
again, deposed Othman, put him to death, and recalled 

Vol. XVI.-F 

M U T 


M U T 

Mustapha to the throne in 1622. Soon after a fresh revolt 
deposed him again, and he was taken to the castle of the 
Sevon Towers, in 1623, where he was strangled some years 
Afterwards. (Knolles; Rycaut.) 

MUSTAPHA II., son of Mahomet IV.. succeeded his 
uncle Ahmed II. in 1695. In the following year he defeated 
the Austrians at the hat tie of Temeswar, hut was defeated 
in September, 1697* by Prince Eugene, near Zenta in Hun- 
gary. The seraskier in the mean time had reconquered 
Chios from the Venetians. By the peace of Carlowitz, in 
1699, the sultan acknowledged the dominion of Venice over 
the Morea and several districts in Dalmatia, and gave up 
Aiof to Russia, and Kaminiek to Poland. 

Mustapha then withdrew to Adrianople, where he gave 
himself up to sensuality. His neglect of the public affairs 
caused a formidable revolt to break out in the capital, and 
the insurgents marched upon Adrianople, and at the same 
time offered the throne to Ahmed, Mustapha's brother, who 
took the title of Ahmed III. Mustapha died in confine- 
ment, it was reported by a natural death, six months after 
his deposition, in 1703. 

MUSTAPHA III., son of Ahmed III., succeeded his 
cousin, Oth man III., in 1757. Ho had been strictly con- 
fined in the seraglio ever since the deposition of his father 
in 1730, but after ascending the throne he showed consi- 
derable firmness of character, and effected several reforms 
in the administration. He engaged, in 1769, in an unlucky 
war against Russia, in which he lost the Crimea and Bess- 
arabia, but did not live to see its termination. He died in 
1774, and was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Ham id. 
His son Selim afterwards succeeded Abdul Hamid,in 1789. 
[Selim III.j 

MUSTAPHA IV., son of Abdul Hamid, was placed on 
the throne by the janizaries, who had deposed sultan Selim 
III., in May, 1807. Mustapha was ignorant, weak, and 
cruel, and a tool in the hands of the janizaries. Mustapha 
Bairactar, pasha of Rudshuk, and a friend of Selim, col- 
lected an army and marched to the rescue of his master. 
Ho entered Constantinople and attacked the seraglio, de- 
manding that Selim should be restored to him. Mustapha 
gave him up, but it was only the dead body of Selim, for he 
had been strangled by order of Mustapha at the approach 
of bis deliverers. Bairactar deposed Mustapha, and placed 
his brother Ma h mood on the throne, in July, 1808. In 
the following November a revolt of the janizaries broke 
out, which lusted three days, and a great part of Constan- 
tinople was burnt down. Bairactar, Mahmood's grand- 
vizier, perished in the flames; and the janizaries, being 
triumphant, were shouting for the deposed Mustapha when 
Mali mood gave orders to put his brother to deatti. Mah- 
mood was now the sole remaining prince of the Ottoman 
dynasty, and the janizaries submitted to him, after making 
their own conditions. A vivid uccount of these fearful 
transactions is given by Macfarlane in his 'Constantinople 
in 1828.' 

MUSTARD. [Sinapi.] 

MUSTE'LA. [Weasels.] 

MUSTE'UDiB. [Weasels.] 

MUSU'RUS, MARCUS, a native of the island of Can- 
dta, emigrated to Venice about the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and taught Greek in that city with great success. 
He edited several Greek works, which were printed by 
AldiH Manutius. Afterwards he proceeded to Rome, where 
Leo X. showed him crcat favour, and nominated him bishop 
of Kpidaurus in the Morea. He died at Rome in 1517. He 
published the first edition of Athenians, printed by Aldus, 
Venice, 1514. Musurus published also the ' Etymologi- 
cum Magnum Grrccum,' folio, Venice, 1499, reprinted in 
1549, in 1594, and 1710; and some Greek epigrams and 
other poetry, among others a poem in praise of Plato, 
which no prefixed to his edition of that philosopher's works, 
and which was t ran Muted into Latin verse by Zenobio Ac- 
ciaioli, • Carmen in Platonem,' Cambridge, 1797. 

MUTK. [Dkaf and Dumb.] 

MUTINA. [Modena.] 

MUTINY ACT is a scries of regulations which, from 
year to year, are enacted by the British legislature for the 
government of the military force of the country. 

Laws have, at various times, been made by the authority 
of the crown for the maintenance of discipline in the army 
when in garrison, on a march, and in the presence of an 
enomv ; theso have been briefly hinted at in the article 
on Military Law, and may bo seen at length in Grose's 

•History of the English Army* (vol. ii.); but the cou-: 
which is now in use is one of the first-fruits of the Rev "lo- 
tion in 1688. Previously to that event the crown, e.vx;: 
during the civil wars and the subsequent protectorate, hu' 
at least practically, the supreme power over the militia (th t: 
is, over the whole military force), which, with or with;..: 
the consent of the nation, might be called out and empl<m-~ 
as long as pay and quarters could be obtained for the tro. ; v 
But the efforts then recently made to carry on a seriv? 
measures tending to the maintenance and extension of an 
trary power in the crown, joined to the increasing jeal l ? 
of the people for their civil and religious liberties, led fl 
two houses of parliament to take the earliest opportuiw:i. 
after the new king had been colled to the throne, oft* 
pressing in some public act of legislation their author." 
over the regular troops of the nation ; and an opportuu: 
almost immediately presented itself, on a serious act . 
mutiny taking place in the army. The Royal Scotch a- • 
Dumbarton's regiments, under Marshal Schomberg, in ibv*: 
progress to the coast for the purpose of being embarked f. - 
Holland, being quartered at Ipswich, a large body of nu;, 
refusing to proceed to their destination, disarmed tin 
officers, seized the military chest, and, with four pieces 
cannon, began their march for Scotland. Being pursued t . 
General Ginckel, with three regiments of Dutch draqou j\ 
they surrendered at discretion ; but, in consequence uf lii 
event, and on the spur of the moment, a bill was pa$>^- 
(April 12th, 1689) by which the army was put at o-:-> 
under the control of the law with respect to discipline, ;-^ 
under its protection with respect to pay and quarters. 

The enactments of this bill were particularly diicu. 
against the crimes of mutiny and desertion, for which :Lt 
bill was immediately required; but the Act itself begins i\ 
laying down as maxims that the raising or keeping a stand 
ing army in the country in time of peace, unless it be w.- 
the consent of parliament, is against law ; and that no u. * 
can be forejudged of life or limb, or subject to any kind 
punishment in any other manner than according to : •■ 
established laws of the realm. It then states that it 
judi;ed necessary, by their majesties and tbc parlmroc ; 
during the present time of danger and for the defence 
the Protestant religion, to continue and augment the for^ 
which arc now on foot. Avoiding the acknowledgiu. 
that any power exists in the crown for the appointment 
courts- martial, it authorises their majesties to grant o 
missions to general otlicers to assemble such courts for '. 
purpose of ti)ing and punishing such offences as iut.:< 
and desertion. Provisions are also made that nol'u . 
in the Act shall exempt an officer or soldier from the u: . 
nary processes of law ; that it shall not concern the n».. . 
troops, and that it shall only continue in force till ibe .« 
of November in the same year. The Act has ever su. 
with one exception, been annually renewed: after the > 
which passed in April, 1697, for one year as usual, 1. 
expired, no other was passed till March, 1702; and, o; 
few occasions, the bill has been suffered to expire for se\cu 
days before the following one received the royal a&seni. 

The Mutiny Act has, with time, varied in manv |>ari. . 
lars from that which was first passed, but it has been l. 
form in all its principal points; such as the dependence . 
a standing army on the consent of parliament, and : 
subjection of military men to all the processes of ord.i.-' 
law. Instead however of the original formula above rn>. 
tioned, by which the reason of keeping up a nidi tan f . 
was expressed, the Act now asserts that it is judged iko^ 
sary by the crown and parliament to continue a bod* 
forces (the number being exactly specified) for the safe:* 
the United Kingdom and the preservation of the balance 
power in Europe. In all the Acts which passed down 
the commencement of Queen Anne's reign the aru.- 
were few in number, and some of them were ver> : 
defined ; but, from that time, parliament seems to tu 
intended to exercise a general legislative jurisdiction « •». 
the army. Many new articles were then inserted ; otl.c 
have since been added, as the want became apparent; ;• 
the Mutiny Act may now be considered as a good gem .. 
code of law, in which are defined strictly but brienS . 
military offences of the higher class, and, as precisei} •< 
possible, nearly all those of minor importance. The milr'-ir > 
offences of the higher class, thirteen in number, consist in . 
commissioned or non-commissioned officer, or a soldier, ex- 
citing mutiny, or not using his best endeavours to suppo- 
rt; in misbehaving before an enemy; abandoning or deUw. 

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i f« <f »h.rk. upi.n \*.e iu-e ire represented in :■-■ 
ff..**f ta«, -«Tar.*:.r^ on their mmi L-i«s»oneon eacL - 
of a rour.rl t.-. .ar or a.'it C3i:n winch ineT rest their I 
pa**. T.".«* pi.Iir hecr.nie5 brca»ier toward* the top a* 
 4i«rm<»uri*<*'i 2 ear.raL Sina^i of m row of four c:. * 
i r.uc\ft*-<\ betw^^n two [ariilel fii <?fck Below the Am». 

in the 'tir^fi,',n of the m-xlorn village of Kharvati, ar- ** 
1 .S , » , 1 . '1 , r> r *u bterraneoua chare ber?, known in the time o t r 
I <ifinisit hv the name of the treasury of Atreus. The laxei*'. 
tl»#*4« chau»her», which is of a conical form, is about C»v :« 
in flmrnct&r at the base. The door-ways are ornanw: 
Willi hni f-colurans of a style resembling the Tuscan, anti . . 
•orni! othf r peculiar ornaments, minutely described by L* 
who ^'ivi-4 H<:<!tions of the chambers, as well as a plan i>: 
ni iiih of Mycenae. ( Travels in the Morea, vol. ii.) • Notlv 
(»h««frvmi Jwcakc, ' can more strongly show the extreme 
liquify of the remains at Mvcen® than the singular/ 
»*o 11 10 purtfl of them and their general dissimilarity to 1 • 
Ilnllmiicromains. We find nothing in Greece resembhr.^ 
holm or the columns before the gate of the great The<a . 
or iho trcaMuries themselves. In the military part ot . 
urchittHMure there is not so remarkable a difference betu, 
tho C'yclopcan ruins and the other roost antient r 1 
rtMnnining in Greece. In the walls are found specimer - 
mint ruction of various ages, but the later reparation > 
loftily recognised from the oldest part, which is of the V 1 
fuUml Cyclonean; and with this exception, everything ! 
nt MycvnuD (lutes of the heroic ages. Notwithalandu j * : 
ivmoto antiquity, the description of Pausanias shc»«> j 
M\ivua9 has undergone less change since be travelled : . - 
any place in Greece.' 

M Y C 

MYCETES. Illiger's name for a gent 
consisting of (lie largest monkeys of America, remarkable 
for Hi* powerful development of the organ of the voice. 
The species ore, as the name implies. Holders, and the 
horrible yells sent forth by these animals from the depths of 
the forests are described by those who have heard the 
mournful Bounds as surpassingly distressing and unearthly. 
Humboldt and Bonpland heard the Araguato, one of the 
species, at the distance of half a league. 

The genus is distinguished by * pyramidal head with the 
upper jaw descending much lower than the cram'um, « bile 
the lower has its ascending rami very high, to afford room 
for the bony drum formed by a convexity of the os hyo'ides, 
which communicates with the larynx, and gives to the voice 
the enormous volume above alluded to. Humboldt gives 
the following as the external form of the drum in this 



Dram CI HfHrHDi Monkey 

The tail in this genus is prehensile, and the part applied 
by the animal when laying bold of a branch or other body 
is naked below; so that such portion must have a higher 
sensibility of touch. H. F. Cuvier gives the following as 
the dentition of the Howling Monkeys, from tbe Alouale 

T»lli *f HwrHm Ucakty. (P. Cniim.) 

specially noticed the remarkable size of the canine teeth in 
the Howlers, which he says are uncommonly large; and adds 
that in a specimen before him when he wrote, they are 
nearly six times bigger than the cut ting- teeth, a structure 
which at once separates this group from the genus Cebus. 
Facial angle about 30°. 

Cuvier, in common with most other zoologists, places the 
genus at the head of the monkeys of tbe New Continent. 

Mr. Gray (Annals of Phil., 1825) places the form among 
the Anthropomorphous Primates in the second family 
(Sarigmdiv}, and as the sole genus of its first subfamily 

M. Lesson arranges it between Lagotkrix and Cebus. 

Mr. Swainson makes Mycetes the first genus of the Cebidtt, 
the second family of his first order Quadrumana. 

Mr.Ogilby observed in the summer of 1829 that two 
living individuals of Mycetes ssniculus did not use the ex- 
tremities of their anterior limbs for the purpose of holding 
objects between the finger and thumb, as is common among 
the Quadrumana ; and he ascertained also on closer exami- 
nation that the thumb, as it has generally been considered, 
was not in these animals opposable to the other fingers, but 
originated in the same line with them. Struck with the 
apparent singularity of the fact, he was induced to pay par- 
ticular attention to all the other ajiimals referred by zoolo- 
gists to the Quadrumanous family to which he had atcess ; 
and the continued observation of more than six years 
assured him that the non-opposable character of the inner 
finger of the anterior extremities, w hie h he first observed in 
the specimens referred to, is not confined to the genus My- 
cetes, but extends throughout the whole of the genera of 
the South American monkeys, individuals of all of which 
had been seen by him in a living state. He remarked that a 
true thumb existed on the anterior limbs of none of them, 
and that consequently Ibey have been incorrectly referred 
to the Quadrumana by zoologists generally. [Cheiropoda ; 
Quadrumana; Simiad«,] 

The habits of these animals are social, and most of them 
have thick beards. Their deep and sonorous yells are sup- 
posed to be a call to their mates ; in short, to be a hideous 
love-song. In their gregarious habits and howlings they may 
be considered as bearing some analogy to the Gibbons of 
the Old World [Ape, vol. ii„ pp. 149, ISO ; Hylobaths}; 
whilst their low facial angle has induced some to look upon 
them as representing the baboons of the anlient continent. 

Geographical Distribution o/ the Genus. — South 

Example, Mycetes Ur sinus (Stentor Urrinus of Geof- 
frey). The Araguato. 

My«LM (.'nines. Ancosio, 

Description, Uabiti.^c. — Length nearly three feet, with - 
ut including the tail. Hair, which is longer than that of 

u ro 


M Y R 


j~w *tu Yt-r,: rv»t/ratU of HumWjd: }. of a guldtsa * ti* 
.. - -j- u«d: vriuri i* u: t otfOper culunr man the rest, mr from 

V ~ 




*.^n r i u. M.*e*icniu*: anu me cmrum- 

i*j«> i>uert tut itaif *» rod ib &Jm/ phier. Hum- 

i: :*>-. *-»t >u«ce.atiG pail ueuoit niejax.cbah'. 


J •»' 

...« ir-Ji.«ru: uj il toe Indian hirtt. vLieh teas another 
~- ;...■*• *.:** ii*e t^gj*tu. 'J*cCHT.'fe~ Ufl** tit cnbantr i 
_r-. p^-^^ a' in* ./tnerauia Of »l* Cttmanentc* as insisted on a* 
n - ' -• !*• »  * mat- u«t: uearc iff a gua^ ax*a a grave Mr. Darwix: 
u-^-r-„ • J :_: M .* M lot MftLVtit trf pam* funs tbeirijod, oamnKio 

i- --J. r- :i#» \uunjr upul Hit biu»Li(2cr. Huuiixudl lasn. vae» c 
-• _.•«* :.»~ * .:'j: im* in* auc lit d.** not uoubt 
^_ . ,._•. * * ^r> accrue of iue vac countries irequtrxted 
■«k**- ,c \- .r ;i .'^aLiiit ma* ue iuuud. 
-•=> ^ssc >-•..* ui smgnaiE w 
-* *' * i> 

1 _* . .' *'. , ~r. * Ji\ _£*.* ^PT"k a pern* of eon- 

C :.- • - i. . ---^ **.:*•*'- V.L^J*iaI*tft !■« M. cO*t>jgirj. 

:4. t •_  

Tne» »eT in 


of tm* animal it wiR he aoond that he .» > 
ttf i met mmMely deaermine-t :♦ - 

grriri? ■_ 

uf ibeavjoc of the ^^-V" and head of i . 
» he funud aiem, be adds, *lt woaM be desi . - 

J'nrviW amd rrmarkti sabres this rod*:.: i 

r iuf bruise ayete of tbe C%onos AjrV; r 

LciofirptijT frpuueoas aaH-«afer. Ttw o. 

iban ibe Ccajivftam or O a>|aa j LwW [tir-; - 

.7- frequeilis ibe iataadi n the tn^uti ' 

•be varter « qnne sah, thoneb rt > •  

lake* .;: 

-• -*'■ 

more abmmam ol the barders of 

■u » 



*. Cm.»i:^. ii»u» S.L.C iix 

dri-ier: 1a 

r» * * • 

•-.• - 

» .l -^ ▼.,. o^-» vy. *\ n.,-ce riider 


M. V ellir»: bas rbamrec Ur& name into. 


MYRAF8A, Dr. Hur^elfs namefcr a genus of tr- 
arrarr^d b» Mr. Svuiam ac a snbgenos of Calmdul^ .. 
ibe $ af Aloud**** i»f ibe suaulj Fkoocuxidx. 

MYRLAl* jTF.^uiru ibe Greek leram aar ten ibot«: '. 
C5c^"-T«r;.i.nt<c zl tan iLinm for an indefinite but v, . 

MYRieA'CEJE are TiiiiTits constitnting a very %mz 
saii^ral order of ane^bn* Esugens. vitb separate st-vs. 
Tr*e iDjst essexiial pz^rt of u*e~r cbaraefer ia expresfted ^ 
Erjiiirber m ibe iaJrv-mr term*: 'Flowers uoiseiu. 
3f— >».- Brar.ieis, f: calrs, C. Aoaai^a.- Hipop-iuJ 
scales frtcz f it- t>: prarc ciie-oe'iifid. wish 2 st\ie»: ctu> 


1. ertrM. c*nh:itr:'p:«iif> : dr^i« ane se e d ed; seed erect; cl- 
brro mrLb:♦«•: i-Mimer. ; racirje siiTerior.* In general tVr 
tjwer* a^e arrai^rd .r a roirwr fjmibr to tnose of Be- 
kr<» aDi SL^rn.<eafi. wJi vijr^ latter however ther set" 


. .* 



■i. . -*••* it :' i*^» i»*r 4 »"jt: » tti*es. aiid t? fcaTc no retl aff.r. rr. Ftmb Cascameeaa, mrvMis Ne# 
-r* * •-.: -i^ r -***?-« i.^ Kfc*.*:"* »b. -vr-jitd H:»I-ar>i trees, viu. j.mted Wafless stems, like \bosc ^ 
^'...-f*i i*ljj^^ u.*»- -u. ^i^t its - ** fc-i^ixB of E^~is#r»TiL Ttinr are :>ii-j c^sr^^iprtttbed by their erect vu . 

j ai. 1 ortrj>tr ipoas seeds. Tbey are common in the tempene 

I z>*its of ihe w.r'id, esprraul.T in Nonh Amenrs and :. 

\ C&pe il Gxd Hkfje. W.ib as the ooij species is ;' 

1 $x**t GjSf, a c^ZDznyn frazraat hnsb inhabiting w«t r. r- 

1 a ns. T^ej are al. more or jess rVagrani and arooit. 

I and one uf tbern is caiiaa \!rrjca <vrrr>ro»or the v«\ Ur 

itie, from the drcri« being cohered mnib a wnxy secret.! 

aL/cb mar lie iva£ > fcerit rated and maanmrturr>l :* 

ca ndles ; « hence has n 11s p. puiar name of CaruL '<<'• 

f. t~ 

— i- j' 


. 1 


* >erje :.*.«••»? 




r >»*•??'- .»n> . _ . 

y i# * fc ' -*** *. '.«. ija iij.-e it'-uls^L Trje planii ' 

i«?«*r-.n. .1 X' •♦•rvjigft trt v:^f»i ttr.'Ji of Imlc interest, 
.u* a 1.--. 1...I r rvji :.s a.* d c»* her parts of the 
:.-:i ^; Jt'x T^t a'^rf reti.arkaw.e tb:ng ron- 
l ^-j, » liitr proper.** of ci*t$ of al in ibeir 


*»r«-*» »..,'-l :^rtj*% Lt^tra d^r^ed sTruei^re. Tbe White 
X . f .. .•« t t - - r-* 1 .5-' : r... * :^jr 1 . 2, -d. :* a rurk us *pecies. 
I . . 1 '.***. -.jtr* iu tjj-.k ft* rrwep^ir to a conKderable dis- 
• «. ane; k ».n« ttrtr tr^^^d as much as sjx feet 
..-*x-* -.rt. at.d iLr^a.Eg i-p naked dickers 
— t; tt: a*, -^itite, wi.^b look bke shoots 


•rt J 

y *at 

<» - •- ^-£. •-• ' 


• > I ^ • .■¥ a^erjL-^i that tbe Covpou ha* a /#Vov 

. '• '*•*% !• Or.r>-r, l^u, Mr. Owen exhibited^ to 

;.*x k^^< ? of ly.r.d^n a preparation of that liga- 

ut t n. . »:,.-.:] be hid receirel from Mr. Oiley 

i. .c real u* f.^j+z^ extract in a letter from 

tbizh-bone, and tbe sea- 

; . ^ '.»•'* u- c A«i-w*ru« <if a Covpou, which came into 
u» :...•—* i' v 1 1* > ? tjtfcc mangiwi by a stuffer of ani» 
a ..-. - ..w! br'f. jreMrivtrd alive for some weeks 

1? k t - ..-aaij uT tLofc p.ace. i beheve that not manv op- 
V ~ •. *r* Li't or*"-ru-- t»f djA^t:n^ ibis animal in kug- 
*•.:!'.. «.tic a» I I,.: d a c.fereLu? between tbe specimen in 
\ ++ j- *u* 'uj: de^-j -*ei by Mr. Martin, I thought the 
y.- . .- ► J ui:\* ! jraarOA-1 riii^fit be interesting to vou, had 
/ us !•. ^-l v. > rj to d.sae-t one of tbe« animals. Mr, 
w t." • ► «** ••. fc « t»^ I'^b-bvrtie had no round ligament! 




v «> •..».: :*^fe «.]*** a » ell -developed one in this, 
-i .•• tj», vi» v, ttMr o:»^r th.gli-bone/ 

vMrritc, u-fct, on refemng to his account of 


^ o 

•^c — ^ 

1, « ■»*!« flower; * m •rvy ; 3^ a drape ml om Tertaea)tT to i)w« l« 
tr»ot po«iuoii of Uw M«d « iUaa ic 

MYRl'STICA MOSCHATA,ThunbergOhe M. ctf 
ntlu of Una, but not 01 Martius), a tree natire of the M 

iii Vk 


it YR 

-ticca islands, especially of Bands, but cultivated in Java, 
Sumatra, and elsewhere in the East, and lately in Cayenne 
and several of the We*t India Islands. It yields nutmegs 
•nd mace, the be*t of which are produced in the Bret-men 
tioned Islands. The fruit is of the size and form of a poach. 
and, when, ripe, the fleshy part separates into two nearly 
•qua) halves, exposing the kernel surrounded by an arilius, 
Ihe former being the nutmeg, the latter ibe mace. The ari' 
ins- is red when gathered, but being sprinkled wuhsea-wati 
and dried, it assumes an orange-yellow colour. It has 
fatty shining appearance, yet is horny and brittle. Tl 
odour is strongly aromatic ; Ihe taste aromatic, but sharp and 
acrid. It contains both a fixed oil (in small quantity) and 
volatile oil. One pound of mace yields by distillation on 
ounce of the latter. The former is not an article of European 
commerce, and what is termed the expressed oil of 
obtained from the nutmeg, and should bear its nam 
interior mace is obtained from various species of Myristica, 
especially the M. tomentosa and M. officinalis (Martins), 
which is a Brazilian tree. The properties of mace are 
similar to those of the nutmeg. 

On the removal of Ihe mace is seen the shell, of an oval 
or ovate shape, and of a dark brown colour, in which to 
contained the seed or nut. This is closely invested by an 
inner shell or coat, which dips down into the substance of 
the albumen of the seed, and gives it the character which to 
termed ruminated. Two or three gatherings of the nutmegs 
are made in the year, generally in July and August, in 
December, and in April. The third period yields ihe best 
nutmegs. The collected .nuts are dried in the sun or by the 
heat of a moderate Ore, till ihe shells split : they are then 
■oried and dipped in lime-water, to preserve them From the 
ttiack of insects. The nuis are about an inch long, of the 
lire of a hazel nul, but with a furrowed or sculptured si 
Tace. Those of good quality should be heavy, each weighing 
in an average 90 grains. The internal aspect is marbled 
and of a fatly appearance. The substance is grey, but the 
reins, which are of a reddish-brown, consist of cellular tissue 
(bounding in oil, and are the processes of the internal coat 
ilready mentioned. Odour agreeable, strongly aromatic. 
Taste warm, aromatic, oily. 

Besides the fixed oil, it contains a volatile oil, lighter than 
water, being of the specific gravity of 0-931-47, while a 
ipuriousoil of nutmeg is only D -871. By keeping it deposits 
i slearoplen, or Muscat-camphor, called Myrislicine. The 
lolid or fixed oil consists or stearinc and elaiue, with a slight 
portion of volatile oil intermixed. Both the fixed and 
volatile are used for medical purposes. Of the fixed there 
ire two varieties, the English and Dutch, of which the former 
s the better. It occurs in pieces, wrapped in leaves of ihe 
tanana, weighing about three-quarters of a pound. When 
nit into, it has a uniformly reddish-yellow colour. The Dutch 
art to in larger pieces, wrapped sometimes in leaves, some- 
imes in paper, and of a lighter yellow colour. Both are fre- 
|uently adulterated. The volatile oil is also mixed with 
>u rifled oil of turpentine. Nutmegs are frequently either 
ligcsled in alcohol or distilled to abstract ihe volatile pil, 
ind then passed off as fresh. Such nutmegs are lighter, and, 
vhen a hot needle is inserted, do not give an oily coating lo 
t. Old, norm-eaten, or wild nutmegs should DO rejected. 
i ermine or cultivated nutmegs are called female, to disiin- 
uish them from the male or wild nutmegs, which are the 
iroducc either of the M. moschala, Var. tphenocarpa, or of 
H. tomentosa, Tbunb. These arc longer, heavier, weighing 
;enerally 110 grains, and of inferior quality. They are 
nore apt to cause narcotic symptums, giddiness, &c, than 
he true sort. 

Nutmegs and mace, from the large quantity of volatile 
iii, are decidedly stimulant, and when used in abundance, 
iroduce, by exciting the circulation, narcotic effects. In 

e put on sugar, they relieve flatus and colicky pains. They 
ire chipHy used as additions to other medicines, to quicken 
heir action or cover their laste. They should he entirely 
ibslained from by persons having a tendency to apoplexy. 
Aromatics.] The fixed oil is employed externally as a 
'ubefacienl in rheumatism and other diseases. 

MYRISTICA'CEjE are tropical, flagrant, aromatic 
:ree?, with an astringent juice, alternate, coriaceous, simple 
caves, without stipules, and dioecious flowers. Of tbe flowers 
the males have monadelphous alamens, the females a single 
ino-celled ovary, containing an erect seed, and both have 

for calyx a. tubular,. coriaceous envelope, with from 2 to 4, 
usually 3', valvule teeth. Their fruit is a two-valved suc- 
culent capsule, containing a single seed enveloped in on 
aril, and consisting of ruminated albumen, abounding in a 
powerful and agreeable aromatic secretion; tbe embryo U 
very small, and placed in a cavity at ihe base of the albumen. 

The order is nearly allied to Anonacea, from which how- 
ever it differs very remarkably in the total want of a co- 
rolla, ana in Ibe reduction of the number of carpels to one. 
To station it in the artificial division of apeialous Exogena, 
as to usually done, is to violate every principle of natural 

The Nutmeg of the shops, which is the seed of Myris- 
tica Moschata, is the only product of ihe order employed 
officially. [Myristica Moschata.] Other species bear fruit 
that may be employed as a substitute, but fhey are all infe- 
rior to the real oriental Myristica. Three genera of the 
order have been distinguished, namely, Myristica, inhabit- 
ing the tropical woods of Asia aud America, with Knema 
and Pgrrhota, both confined to the tropics of India, 

MYRMECO'BIUS. [Marsh pi alia, vol. xiv, p. «6.1 

MYRHRCO'PHAGA. [An*-Eatkr/[ 

N.B. In November, 1831, a tetter from Sir R Ker Porter 

is read to the Zoological Society of London, giving a 
detailed description of the Myrmecophaga jubata, Linn., 
under the name of Or&o Harmeguzro, or Ant-Bear, accom- 
panied by a drawing of the full-grown individual from 
which the description was taken. The writer was particu- 
larly struck with tbe difference in structure which exists 
between the fore and hinder feet, and with the curious 
disposition of tbe parts of the former in the act of progression, 
which has been slightly referred to by D'Azara. In tho 
figure (in which the animal is represented in a standing 
position) the claws of tbe fore-feet do not project in front, 
but are doubled backwards under the wrisl, evincing a mode 
of progression in the Myrmecophaga similar to that de- 
scribed by Colonel Sykes as existing in ihe speciws of 
Manit. [Pangolin.] To receive the additional length 
nd point of the middle toe, according to Sir R. Ker Porter, 
protruding mass of hard ttesh stood out from ihe wrist, 
wherein was a cavity destined for ilia reception of Ihe 
ungulated elongation when the animal was in a standing 
position, and as, from the awkward formation of the fore- 
feet, quickness of motion becomes impossible, these animals 
may be caught in the smallest open apace (when seen) with 
little difficulty. 

Fossil Myrmkcophag*. 

See the article Megatherium, vol. xv., pp. €9, 1% 
and ?3. 

M Y R 


MYRMOTHE'RA. [Myothbba.] 
MYROSPERMUM, or Myroxylon Perviferum, yields 
the balsam of Peru, and probably also the balsam of Tolu, 
though this is generally referred Id M. Tolutfervm. It is 
doubtful whether these are distinct species, or the same tree 
•lightly differing, from circumstances connected with the 
place of growth. The two kinds of balsam are so similar 
that there is no difficulty in believing the differences be- 
tween them to be owning to a difference of age in the in- 
dividual trunk from which each was obtained, or to differ- 
ences in the mode of extraction or of preparation. 

Balsam of Peru occurs in two states; one called the 
while, the other the black. The former results either from 
spontaneous exudation from the bark, or from incisions 
made in it; it is also found in the inside of the seed-vessel 
wrapping the seed. At first it is liquid, of the consistence 
of recent honey, of a light-yellow colour, of an agreeable 
odour, resembling vanilla, and a somewhat acrid, bitterish, 
but aromatic taste. Its specific gravity is less than that of 
water. Healed in a platinum spoon it burns with a while 
smoke (which reddens litmus paper), and leaves no residual 
ash. It is completely soluble in alcohol, and also in aether, 
except some white material which separates from it. It 
contains much benzoic acid. By distillation with water it 
yields a volatile oil. By exposure to the air it hardens, and 
is then termed Opobalsamum siccum, which must not be 
confounded with the true Opobalsamum. . [Balsamodbn- 
dboh.] Balsam of Tolu is also sometimes called Opobal- 

Black balsam of Peru is slated to be procured by boiling 
the resinous bark of the trunk and branches of the tree. 
Th. Marlins conjectures that it is procured by subjecting 
these parts and the pods lo a kind of dry distillation, or 
diitiUatio per deicemum, similar to that by which lax is 
obtained from pine-trees. This balsam has the consistence 
of syrup, but does not solidify with age, is scarcely tenacious, 
of a blackish -brown colour, and not transparent, somewhat 
oily to the touch, odour agreeable, balsamic, resembling 
vanilla, taste acrid, balsamic, bide n ill, and enduring. 
Scarcely igniting when in contact with flame; not yield- 
ing by distillation with water any volatile oil, and not 
perfectly soluble even in absolute alcohol. Its chief con- 
stituents are the oil, which cannot be termed volatile, two 
kinds of resin, and benzoic acid. 

Bulb sorts are extensively adulterated, chiefly with tur- 
pentines, copaiva, or volatile oils. One test of genuine 
black balsam is, when lout) parts of balsam saturat 
parts of pure crystallized carbonate of potass- 
Balsam of Tolu flows from incisions in the tree, and is 
of the consistence of a strong turpentine. It is sent to 
Europe in earthenware jars or tin cases. It becomes tena- 
cious with age, and in cold weather may be fractured, but 
melts again in summer, or with the warmth of the hand. 
It it of a yellow or brownish colour, transparent, with the 
taste and odour of the white balsam of Peru. This balsam 
likewise is much adulterated. All the three forms possess 
the ordinary qualities of balsamic substances, and, either in 
the slate of syrup or tincture, are employed where such medi- 
cines are indicated. These have been already detailed [Bal- 
sams], and it is only necessary to slate here, that then 
fragrance renders them pleasant adjuncts to cough mix- 
tures, when the acute or active stage is passed, while the 
difference of price is the only reason for preferring one kind 
to another. 
MYRRH. [Balsamodkvdbox) 
MYRS1N A'UEJi are chiefly subtropical plants of tbe 
Exogenous class, so nearly the same in their fructi Seal ion 
as the Primulaceous species of northern climates, that 
scarcely any valid mark of distinction can be found between 
them. The indehiscent fruit in Myrsinaceat i» chiefly relied 
Upon for the means of separating them. The general ap- 
pearance of the iwi) orders is however widely different; 
Pnmulacen cunamimz uf herbs with no development of 
•oody matter, while M>rsinuce;p, in all cas« yet observed, 
lie shrubs or trees. Many of the species have handsome 
(ullage and gaily-ejL >ured flowers, im which account they 
are frequent*) met « i.h in cat duns, but tlwy are of n< 
(lOrtancc furute.ul purees. Ard.-:a a:;d Jac'iuiriL 
the two c.>ratuoi>m uei.era. 
MYRTA'CE.E »i« o.,ly ; c-::.:..M Eweus, fornix:: a 

extensive and uupurlai.i i.i-let of plants, cxtn.- 
inhabiting warm cutintii..-., mJ in all cases either shrubs 
or trees; an berWcuu* t-,na of the older is uukuuwn. 


most northern station of the species is the south of Eui .. 

where the commonMyrtle grows apparently wild. If th.i ; - 

is taken as the type of the order, it might be said tu n» 

of aromatic plants with opposite leaves, dotted with Ir. 

rent o il- cysts, bearing icosandrous monogynous polyit . 

flowers, succeeded hy an inferior succulent fruit; tiw. 

is the character rather of a section of tbe order, un. 

Myrtaceso considered osa whole. In this division arc 1. , 
ncluded nearly all the species employed for the use >.! . 

Among the table-fruits of the tropics *ara -tbe 'j: 

yielded by different species of Psidium ; tbe Rate .! 

and JamTomde, produced by Eugenia Malaectniu 

Jumbos ; of spices, Cloves are the flower-buds of C. 

p/tgllut Aromalicus ; and Allspice is the dried beri... 
Eugenia Pimenta: all which are obtained from ; 
belonging to the same section as the common Myrtle ; 
aromatic fruits of that plant were indeed used a= ; • 
before cloves and allspice became common. 

The deviations that take place from the typical s'r 
of the order consist partly in the fruit being dry and . . 
lar, instead of fleshy and indehiscent, and partly : 
organization of the interior of the fruit being reduce 
stale of great simplicity ; besides which the leaves j e 
alternate instead of opposite. Some of the species hi 
corolla, and there is in many cases a very singular lt_. 
to consolidate the floral organs of all kinds. 

The species with capsular fruit are principally !"-■ 
New Holland, where, in tbe form of Eucalyptus an: . 
tospermum, they constitute one of the most strikers 
tures of the vegetation. [Eucalyptus.] These j 
abound in a powerful astringent' secretion, chiefly !■.• 
bark, on which account they are found valiua! 

purposes; while the aromatic principle : 

the tanner ... 

abundantly secreted in other cases, as, for example. 
leura Cajtputi, from which the green stimulating 
Cujeput is procured. 

It is more particularly among these species tbst ar 
Ions conditions of the floral organs occur. In EbN/u 
there is no corolla, and the segments of tbe calyx a. 
completely united to each other as to form a CesLi 
thrown off by the flowers when the time arrives for ei: 
in.q the stamens. In Melaleuca, Calothanmut.iad «. 
others, the stamens are united to each other by Ibe 
tneiils, so as to form showy, petal-like, fringed expat - 
and in Eudesmia the petals themselves are united .- 
cap, thrown off upon the expansion of the flower. 

The most singular form of Myrtacete is that 
t* name from a New Holland plant, called CAirv.u 
n which the interior of the ovary contains but . 
•ith from two to five ovules rising up obliqLc.y 

M Y S 


M Y T 

when Tippoo was killed. Upon this event the English 
government placed on the throne the Maha Rajah Krishna 
Udiaver, then a child only six years old, a lineal descendant 
of the antient rajahs of Mysore, whose dynasty had been 
displaced by Hyder AIL Irurneah, who had been one of 
Trppoo's ministers, was at the same time entrusted with the 
government, and a treaty was concluded whereby the Eng- 
i:-h undertook to maintain a military force for the defence 
of Mysore against all invaders, for which service an annual 
pigment was to be made to the Company's government of 
seven laes of pagodas {2 30,000/.). This treaty has continued 
it operation to the present time. The Rajah Krishna 
V ? .irer. having been brought up under European guardian- 
«L ;, ust^Ly dispenses with much of the ceremony that is 
^a.:Is>^Iy Observed at the courts of the native princes of 
I li, bJt on state occasions he goes abroad with much 
p- — - in a carriage capable of holding thirty persons, and 
dnra by elcp'ianis. 
The * : >vn of Mysore, the antient capital of the province, 
* ab- Jt 1 770 superseded in this respect by Seringapatam, 

\* A it a^ain became the seat of government on the fall of 
ih ,1 fortress in 17S9. It is situated in 1*2° 19' N. lat. and 
;f " 42' E. long. It occupies a considerable space of ground, 
ar.d is enclosed by a wall. The streets are laid out with 
some regard to regularity, and the houses, which are for the 
most part whitened, are intermingled with temples and 
trees. The fort is separated from the pettah, or town, by 
an esplanade, and, besides the rajah's palace, contains the 
dwellings of the principal merchants and bankers. 

MYSTERY (pvoriipiov). In the religion of the Greeks 
there were rites and doctrines which were kept secret from 
the mass of the people and only communicated to a chosen 
few. These things were called mysteries. This word has 
been adopted by the writers of the New Testament, who 
apply it to things which are kept secret for a time and 
anerwards revealed, or to things which are kept secret 
from some persons though they may be revealed to others, or 
lastly* to things which, though not kept perfectly secret, are 
only made known by symbols. Thus the term answers pretty 
well to the English word secret. It is frequently opposed 
to words which imply discovery. Thus the New Testament 
writers speak of a mystery revealed (/ivorqptov dnoKa\v<p6tv) 
or brought to light (<pu>ru>Qiv) or made known (yvutpiahiv). 
They call the gospel a mystery, as being a system which 
had formerly been kept secret, but was now revealed to 
the in, and through them to the world (Rom, xvi. 25, 26 ; 

1 Cor. ii. 7-10 ; Ephes. iii. 9 ; vi. 19 ; Coloss. i. 26, 27 ; ii. 2 ; 
iv. 3). So Christ said to his disciples, ' To you it is given 
to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to 
them it is not given* (Matt xiii. 11 ; Mark, iv. 11 ; Luke, 
viii. 10), that is, you are permitted to understand those 
doctrines which are at present kept secret from others. 
But afterwards they were commanded to proclaim these 
secrets to the world (Matt. x. 26, 27 ; xxviii. 19, 20 ; Mark, 
iv. ii; xvi. 15; 1 Cor. iv. 1). It is also applied to individual 
facts or doctrines. Thus the admission of the Gentiles to 
the privileges of the Christian religion is called a mystery, 
because it had never before been understood by the Jews 
(Horn. xi. 25 ; Ejhes. iiL 3-5). The fact that the living will 
undergo a change at the resurrection is also called a mys- 
stery (1 Cor. xv. 52). To the same class belongs the only 
passage in which the word might perhaps be understood to 
imply something not merely unknown but actually incom- 
prehensible, namely, ) Tim. iii. 16, ' Great is the mystery 
of godliness (or religion, t6*<0c<ac) ; God was manifest in 
the flesh,' &c, which means, ' Great is the secret which our 
religion discloses—God was manifest in the flesh,' &c. In 

2 T/wss. ii. 7, • the mystery of wickedness 1 is ' wicked- 
ness which is already secretly at work in the church/ and 
of which the revelation is predicted in vcr. 8 (to yap ^vut^oiov 

itftl ivipyiirat n}c dvo/uac tal rort aTTOKaXvpOrjairai 6 

avopoc). The word is u»ed in rather a singular way, but 
still with the same meaning, in 1 Cor. xiv. 2, where it is 
said of a person who speaks in an unknown tongue, * in the 
spirit he speaketh mysteries 1 that is, he communes with 
God in language unintelligible to those around. We have 
examples of the use of the word to denote the ferret mean- 
ing of a figure or symbol in Ephes. v. 2 ; Rev. i. 20 ; xvii. 5, 
7- This general si^nifi ation of a secret i* the only one in 
'vhich the word rajstery is u*ed in the New Testament. In 

Septuagint its meaning in ihe same (Danitf, iL \\ 19, 
W, 29, 30, 47; iv. 9). The early eccle*»aMiral writers 
ied the word to solemn religious ntes, and this is pro- 

bably the reason why pvarriptov is translated in the Volga** 
by sacramenium. In modern usage a mystery is a doftr.i * 
which is incomprehensible by the human understand in?, . r 
which appears to involve facts irreeoncileable with e*-. 
other. Thus the doctrine of the Trinity, the union of \U 
divine and human nature in the person of Christ, the <vo 
sistency of God's perfect foreknowledge and fixed plac •/ 
providence with the free-will of man, are spoken of as mw 
teries. Not that these doctrines are considered as self-t-v • 
tradictory ; for if such contradiction be proved, the doctns* 
is no longer mysterious but impossible. We believe ih.- 
they can be explained, though our mental powers are r. 
strong enough to explain them. It is worthy of remark t'r 
mysteries (in the modern sense) are found in philoso; -• 
and natural religion as well as in revealed religion. 
(Campbell On the Gospels, — Dissertation on the tr* * 


Drama, p. 426.J 

MYSTICS, a Christian sect which arose in the sec- ' 
century, and whose principles are probably to be Irac^ J * 
the philosophy of the Christian Platonists of AlexatKr 
Ammonius Saccas and his followers. Tbey first ay;- ' 
as a distinct sect in the fourth century, under the t*a<\: i . 
of a Grecian fanatic, who gave himself out to be Dionv 
the Areopagite, one of St. Paul's converts {Aet9, xvii * 
and who is generally regarded as the founder of the se;; 
the Mystics. 

Adopting the Platonic doctrine, that the human sou! * : 
portion of the divine nature, they held that every man 
a divine light within him which is sufficient for his gunh. 
to present and future happiness, but that this light 
obscured by the grossness of our material bodies and lm 
the influence of external objects. To shake off these e • 
influences, and thus to keep the soul in as close con net*, 
as possible with its divine original, they considered n • 
the essence of religion; and this they endeavoured 
accomplish by constant meditation on spiritual cVu^ 
secret communion with God, and an austere discipline 
the body. As they considered everything external to : « 
soul as only calculated to obscure the divine light »ii**- 
they set no value upon accurate systems of doctrine nor t; 
religious observances as contributing to the advance, 
of religion. One of their leading doctrines was that k. 
love to God must necessarily be disinterested, that 
uninfluenced by the expectation of reward or punish ror - 

The austere lives and apparent devotion of the M}** 
caused their principles to spread extensively in the E-^ * 
church. In the ninth century they were introduced  
the West by a present which the Grecian emperor Mr 
Balb us made to Louis le Debonnaire, of the wort- 
Dionysius the Areopagite, which however are undouht 
spurious. The book was translated into Latin by the r 
of Louis, and the principles contained in it soon ? - 
many followers. In the thirteenth century the M .* 
were the most formidable opponents of the schoolmer 
gradually many eminent men who were disgusted w;r. 
puerile conceits and lifeless religion of the latter, aUj- 
themselves to the Mystics (among these may be me:.\ 
Thomas- a- Kem pis) ; and just before the Reform 
nearly all the friends of spiritual religion were incliui 
this sect. In the seventeenth century the doetnn. 
Mysticism were advocated by a Spanish priest, Michi. 
Molinos, from whose representations of religion, as cor.* - 
in the perfect tranquillity of a mind always engage: 
communion with God, the sect obtained the new can 
Quietists. At the end of the same century atteutc:. 
called to Mysticism in France by the writings of M.» . 
Guyon, whose sentiments were opposed by Bossuvi 
defended by Fendlon. 

(Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, and the works qL 
by him.) 

M YTHO'LOGY (fiv9o\oyta). The mythology of a y 
may be said to consist of those legends and tradition^ v. 
have been, at some period or other, usually believed ' 
majority of the nation, but which cannot be reg^Lri 
historical truths on principles of sound criticism, 
term therefore is not confined to the religious system* * 
Pajjan nations; it includes everything that has tv . 
object of popular belief, not merely respecting the «. . 
attributes, and adventures of the gods, but also cone. 
the early heroes, migrations, and exploits of a people. » 
historical inquirer has frequently great difficulty iuc, 




tint they are related to posterity a* 

red and bettered, not then for tbe first 

to saaokind. Aod this it is which 

in my eyes, as being neither 

by tbe poets thisai tires, nor belonging to their 

tbe light airs of better ages, 
; through tbe traditions of earlier nations, have 
mto the trumpets and pipes of these Grecians.* 
of Mythology has been adopted and carried out 
byCrenxer, in his 'Symbolik und Mytho- 
ahes Votlcer, b esun d e rs der Grieehen.' 
4, T%* Physical theory ; according to which the elements 
r. fee. were originally the objects of religious 
tbe principal deities were personifications of 
of aatssre. Tons the antient mythology of the 
\ develope d in the Veda*, personifies the elements 
the planets, aod dnters essentially from the hero wor- 
st* laser times. The transition from a personification 
si tbe etesnents to the notion of a supernatural being pre- 
and goreroiur the different objects of nature 
and natural; and thus we find in the Greek and 
Italian mythology that tbe deities presiding over the sun, 
the saoao, tbe sea, Itc, and not the objects themselves, are 
the subject* of religious adoration. The Greeks, whose 
isnssjmauon was lively, peopled all nature with invisible 
beings, and supposed that every object in nature, from the 
asm and sea to the smallest fountain and rivulet, was under 
the ease of some particular divinity. Wordsworth, in his 
* Escwnioa/ has beautifully developed this view of Grecian 

* I • tfttt frit 'Kin. Ute Ion*]? HenfasMfi. strvtehad 
Cto tfc#» «rft frx— ih'onah K«lf a annmfr'i day, 
WiXit m w .jlled h;« indolent rrpute ; 
A»i. in *ovw» it of w^niwM, if he. 
WWn hi* wwn breath was nlewi. rhaoeed to hear 
A Aawat strata, ft* iverter than the mauds 
Which his poor skill con Id m«ke, hi* ttnry fetched 
Esm ftnm ihr hUx'Bg chariot of the Sao 
A bearrfieMs yonih. •bo toocbed a jjo'oVn lots, 
A ad S.lrrl the UiamiaM grove* with ravishment. 
Hooter, lifting tip hi* eyes 

7v m r tty Hooter, hftioz tip hit eyes 

Towards the cr esce nt Moon, with gratefal heart 

Called on the lonely Wa...«Vrer who bestowed 

That timely light to share hi* joyoos sport : 

And nenee a braarfag Goddess with her nymphs 

Aeros< the lawn and through Ihe darksome grove 

{Not nnarcompnajed with tuneful notes 

By echo multiplied from rack or care) 

Swept in the storm of chase, at moon and stars 

Glance rapidly along the cfcmd e d heaven 

When winds are blowing stxoog. The Traveller slaked 

His Urirat frum rill or cashing fount, aud thanked 

The Naiad. Sunbeams upon distant hills 

Gliding apace, with shadows in their train. 

Might, with smalt help from fancy, be transformed 

Into fleet Oreads sporting visibly. 

The Zephyrs, fanning, as they passed, their wings. 

Lacked not for love lair objects whom they wooed 

With geotlo whisper. Withered boughs grotesque, 

Stripped of their loaves and twigs by hoary age. 

From depth of shaggy covert peeping forth 

In the low vale, or on steep mountain-side ; 

And sometimes intermixed with stirring horns 

Of the live deer, or goat's depending beard ; 

These were the lurking Satyrs, a wild brood 

Of gamesome deities ; or Pan himself, 

The simple shepherd's awe-inspiring God.' 

Almost all the theories that have been brought forward, 
either in antient or modern times, to account for the origin 
of mythology, may be classed under one of these four 
divisions ; but not one of them taken by itself is sufficient 
to account for all tbe mythological traditions of a nation. 
The error of most writers on ray thology consists in referring 
the origin of all mytbs to one common source ; whereas tbe 
mythology of almost all nations has arisen from various and 
distinct sources. All the theories which have been men- 
tioned above are true to a certain extent. Even that mode 
of interpretation which we have ventured to call the Scrip- 
tural theory, perhaps the most unsound and unsatisfactory 
of all, will serve to throw light upon some myths which would 
otherwise be unaccountable. For instance, the legends which 
we find in the mythology of almost every people, respecting 
a period in which the world was covered with water, can 
hardly be explained upon any other hypothesis than that 
such an event actually took place as is recorded in tbe Mosiac 
books. It would therefore be more correct to say that the 
mythology of a nation has arisen from all the causes which 
have been mentioned, rather than from anyone in particular; 
but it must also be recollected that there are many myths 
the origin of which cannot be accounted for on any of tbe 
hypotheses that have been proposed. A great number of 
legends in all countries have arisen from the desire of man 
to account fur those natural phenomena which be cannot 

understand : and not a few have had their rise from a srm i*ir 
desire of giving a reason for the names of places and person*. 
The ' Metamorphoses' of Ovid will supply numerous ei 
ample* of such myths. 

The preceding observations are only intended to five t 
general view of mythology, and of the principal system 
which have been proposed in antient and modern times \* 
account for its origin. The particular mythology of any m 
tion must be acquired by aid of tbe articles in other paru 
this work, such as Brahma, Vishnu, Fajtues, Ht» 
Gknii, Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Arbs. Mars, Bkllo>« 
&c^ and more particularly by the help of such works • 
reference as are enumerated below. 

(Scriptores Rerum Mythicarum, edited by Bode ; 6 - 
chart's Phaleg and Canaan ; Rudbeck's Atlantica ; Barm 
On the Wisdom of the Antient*; Banter's Mythology <s 
FabUi explained by History ; Bryant's Analysis of Antt** 
Mythology ; Sir W. Jones, On the Qods of Greece. Its*, 
and India ; Moor's Hindu Pantheon ; Coleman's Mythol r, 
of the Hindus; Rhode, Ueber religiose Bildung, M$t  
logie, und PMlosnphie der Hindus ; Creuzer's SymboliM v - 
Mythologie der alien Volker, besonders der Cfrieehen ; K 
O. Mullens Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftUchen M< 
thologie; Buttmann's Mythologus, oder Abhandlun^ 
und Aufsatze iiber die Sagen der Grieehen, Romer, w. 
Hebraer; Lobeck's Aglaophamus, sive de Theolrr 
Myslicce Grtecorum Causis; Grimm's Deutsche Myt* 
logie. The English reader may refer to Keightley's MytA- 
logy of Antient Greece and Italy.) 

MYTILA'CEA. [Mytilid*.] 

MYTI'LID^B, a family of marine conchifers. 

The Linnean genus Mytilus, as it was left by the au:b - 
in his last edition of the ' Systems Naturae,* was div: j - 
into three sections. The first, * Parasitica, unguibus aflh 
consisted of those species which are affixed by unguicuin 
appendages to Gorgon iss and other submarine bodies, b. •. 
organic and inorganic, such as Mytili Crista Gallic Hyr*t\ 
and Frons, which have been since restored to the ger . 
Ostrea. The second, ' Plani s. compressi, ut plani af. «-.• 
reant et subauriti,' consisted of the Pearl-bearing AIt^> • 
'Matrix perlarum,' under the name of Mytilus margar'* 
ferus, now separated generically under the names of i/V - 
ogrifta and Margarita [Avicula; Malleacka; M **<'*- 
ritacea], and Mytilus unguis, a species, if it be one,  * 
larger than the human nail. The third, * Ventrieosiusr^ 
comprised not only the true Mytili, of which Mytilus ed. 
the Common Muscle, may be considered as the type. ■» ' 
also the Mytilus Lithophagus, the Modiolce, the true Ar- 
eola {Mytilus Hirundo), and tbe fresh- water muscles (J - 
don). The generic definition of this heterogeneous a^-> 
blage was, 'Mytilus. The animal an ascidia? The *' 
bivalve, rough (rudis), most frequently affixed by a by*-.-* 
The hinge toothless, marked (distinctus) by an exeat a': ' 
longitudinal, subulate line.' Linnrous placed this gene* > * 
tween Anomia and Pinna, 

Authors soon perceived the necessity of a reform in ::i 
arrangement, and the position which the genus occu A 
in the systems of the leading raalacologists of more un-i n 
date will be found in the article Malacology, vol. xit- * 
318, 319, 324. 

The genus Pinna of Linnnus ends the * Bivcdvia^ roc -? 
of that author. I 

Cuvier makes the Mytilaces the second family of his 7s> 
taceous Acephalous Mollusks. He characterises the ^ 
as having the mantle open in front, but with a sey 
aperture for the excrements, adding that all these bm 
have a foot serving the purpose of creeping, or at 1*24 
draw out, direct, and fix the byssus. They are, he s: J 
in conclusion, known under the generic name of 3/ 

This family Cuvier subdivides into 

I. The True or Marine Muscles (Moules proprv 
Moules do raer. Mytilus, Linn.). 

In this subdivision are placed Mytilus (Mytilus v 
and its congeners) ; Modiola (Lam.) ; and Lithodomus a 

II. The Anodotits {Anodontes, Brug.), vulgar! v 1 
Muscles (Moules d'Etan^). 

III. Lcs Muletes (Univ., Brug.), commonly caV.t-Ji 
Painters' Muscles, including Hyria ana Co*. 

IV. Cardita. (Brug.) 

V. Cvpricardia. (Lam.) 

VI. ties Coralliopbages. (De Blainv.) 

M Y T 


M Y T 

Venericardia he considers as differing but little from 
Cirdita, and he observes that both the one and the other 
Approach Cardium in general form and the direction of the 
i ibs (cotes). He states his suspicions that this is the place 
for Crassatella. 

This family is placed by Cuvier between the OstracSs and 
the Camacces. 

The genus Pinna is placed by this zoologist between Avi- 
*///« and Area, 

Lamarck characterised his Mytilacces as having the 

Inline with a sub-internal, marginal, linear, very entire 

lament, occupying a great part of the anterior border, and 

iie shell rarely foliated. In this family he places the ge- 

HM-a Modiola, Mytilus, and Pinna. 

M. Deshayes, in the last edition of Lamarck's work, 
i Hows that nearly all conchologists have admitted the 
anhly of Mytilaceans or Mytilidce, either as it was consti- 
uttd by Lamarck, or after having made it undergo some 
nodifications of little importance. M. Deshayes remarks 
hat ho himself adopted it in the 4 Encyclopedic' having 
> oppressed the genus Modiola, which, in his opinion, has 
ioi sufficient characters, and supplied its place by Avicula. 
-Jut, setting aside all former opinion, M. Deshayes, in the 
ist edition of Lamarck, enters into an examination whether 
ne family ought to be preserved. The genus Mytilus, he 
>h*erves, has always two adductor muscles, the anterior one 
♦•ry small, and the posterior much larger; the lobes of the 
naiule are united posteriorly at a single point, so that 
here exists but a solitary siphon for the anus. The aper- 
urc of the mouth is not papillose within. The Modiolce, 
le continues, differ in nothing from the Mytili; their an- 
erior muscle is indeed in some species rather larger, and 
tie anterior extremity of the animal is a little prolonged 
H'youd the umbones. These differences are, in his opinion, 
•vithout importance, for we pass from one genus to the other 
>y insensible gradations. In the genus Pinna we no longer 
hid the mantle with a posterior commissure ; consequently 
here is no anal siphon; there are two unequal muscles, 
uid the mouth as well as the lips are covered internally 
a ith membranous papillae. The ligament of the Mytili is 
eternal and convex, like that of the Uniones (Mulettes), 
vc. ; that of the Pinnae is very narrow, elongated over 
i early the whole of the posterior border, and often covered 
a ith a delicate testaceous lamina, losing nearly all the cha- 
aclcrs of external ligaments. The Aviculce have no ante- 
]<>r adductor muscles, but, like the Pinna, their mantle 
ias no posterior commissure ; the mouth is furnished with 
npillao ; the ligament has none of the characters of exter- 
tal ligaments, but is sunk in a superficial gutter, and takes 
til the characters of the ligaments of the Ostraceans and 
ther Monomyaria. If, says M. Deshayes, in conclusion, a 
jrcat value is attached to the existence of the siphons and 
heir number, it is evident that, in following the rules laid 
lown lor classification, the Mytili should be separated from 
he Pinna*, and that weought to constitute from them two very 
ipproximating families. Between the Pinna and the Avi- 
nice there would seem to be more analogy than between 
ne Mytili and Pinna. Nevertheless, in this last genus there 
ire two adductor muscles, whilst in the Aviculce there is 
jut one. Then we ought to remember that the character 
csting upon the number of the muscles is very important, 
md if we here apply that character, we shall be led to make 
he Avicula* a small family separate from the Pinna. 

M. de Blainville thus characterises the Mytilacea, which 
ie places between the Margaritacea and the Arcacea or 
n "li/oftonta. The genus Avicula among the Margaritacea 
hus immediately precedes the Mytilacea. 

Character. — Mantle adhering towards the borders, slit 
hi oughout its inferior borders, with a distinct orifice for the 
mus and an indication of the branchial orifice by the more 
- >usiderable thickening of its posterior borders; a canalicu- 
itcd, linguiform foot, with a byssus backwards at its base ; 
>\o adductor muscles, the anterior of which is very small, 
•elides the two pair of retractor muscles of the foot. 

Shell regular, equivalve, often furnished with an epider- 
ihs, or corneous, with a toothless hinge, and a linear, dorsal 

The genera placed in this family by M. de Blainville are 
7y,'//W, with its subdivisions, and Pinna. 

M. Rang gives the following as the characters of the 
i mil y My tit aces : — 

Animal having the mantle open throughout its inferior 
[in, and adhering towards the borders; a separate apertuie 

behind for the excrements, forming very rarely a tube; 
the foot linguiform, canaliculated, and furnished with a 
byssus behind. 

Shell rather delicate, generally with an epidermis, or cor- 
neous, equivalve, but very inequilateral ; the hinge toothless ; 
the ligament linear; anterior muscular impression very 
small ; the posterior one rather large. 

Marine (the genus Mytilus alone presents a species which 
is said to live in fresh water). {Manuel ', &c.) 

The genera arranged by M. Rang under this family are, 
Mytilus, with its subdivisions, including Modiola, Lithodo- 
mus (Cuv.), and Pinna. 

Mr* 6. B. Sowerby (Genera), after remarking that the 
Linnean genus Mytilus, on account of its principal charac- 
ter being its want of hinge teeth, consists of several forms 
that are widely distinct from each other, and which have 
well served as the types of several Lamarck i an genera, such 
as Avicula, Modiola, Anodon, and others, in connection 
with the present genus, which deservedly retains the name 
of Mytilus, both on account of its form* and the priority 
of its claim, proceeds to ouserve that the other genera which 
have been united with it, but from which it appears neces- 
sary to distinguish it, because of a certain degree of general 
resemblance, are Modiola and Lithodomus : from Anodon 
and Avicula, together with Lamarck's Meleagrina, it is, he 
adds, obviously distinct ; whilst one character, namely, the 
pointed terminal umbones, serves to distinguish it from Mo- 
diola and Lithodomus. 

Mr. Garner, in bis paper ' On the Anatomy of the Lamel- 
libranchiate Conchifera' (Zool. Trans., vol. ii), is disposed 
to regard the disposition and form of the branchia and 
siphons as being of great use in the classification of those 
animals ; and he instances Anomia, Pecten, Area, Modiola, 
Unio, &c, &c, as each having a particular disposition of 
the branchice, sac of the mantle, valves, siphons, &c, giv- 
ing rise to particular modifications of the course of the 
aerating currents of water to the branchice. He observes 
that in the genera, some of which arc above mentioned, no 
complete division of the sac of the mantle exists, while in 
Solen Hiattlla, Pholas, &c, a different disposition takes 
place. With regard to the Excretory system, he found the 
oviduct distinct from the sac in Modiola, Mytilus, Lithodo- 
mus, &c, whilst in Telling Cardium, Mactra, Pholas, Mya, 
and most others, the ova are discharged into the excretory 
organs. With reference to the Reproductive system, Mr. 
Garner remarks that the ovaries of the Lamellibranchiate 
Conchifera differ much in their situation : sometimes they 
form distinct parts, sometimes they are found in the foot, 
sometimes they are ramified in the mantle, which last dis- 
position is present in Modiola, Anomia^ Lithodomus, Hi a- 
tella, and the like. 

The same author in his 'Anatomical Classification of the 
Lamellibranchiata' Hoc. cit), thus arranges the genera 
Mytilus, Modiola, Pinna, Lithodomus, and Unio. 

I Foot email, / Anterior muscle 



• . 

5 5 \ 

ous , . . 

small ; retractile 
muscles of the 

nyssui divided to its 

base ...... MvTXLtrf, 

liyssus with a coin- 

. foot numerous ;t moo corucous centra . Modio&a. 
t byssus large . . .1 Aous furnished with 

la long Ungulate valve. Pink a. 

Muscles equal, two pairs of retractile mus- 
V clcs only ; byssus rudimentary . . . Lithodomus. 

Foot large, not byssiferous 

Unio — Cur- 
dita, Hyria, 

Genera. Mytilus. 

This genus is abundant on most rocky coasts, where the 
species are to be found moored by their coarse filamentous 
byssus, generally to such rocks or other submarine bodies 
as are exposed at some periods of the tide, where tides exist, 
and covered by the sea at high water. Mr. G. B. Sowerby 
does not think that, after being once attached, they habitually 
disengage themselves, though it appears to him probable 
that, when disengaged by the force of the sea, they may live 
for some time without being in any manner affixed. 

M. Deshayes, in the last edition of Lamarck, thus de- 
scribes the 

Animal.— Oval, elongated; the lobes of the mantle sim- 
ple or fringed, united posteriorly in a single point so as to 

* The name is supposed to refer to the fancied resemblance bctweon the 
shell of this Aceph-ilan and a Mouse. The Greek word Mvq is used to signify 
both a Mouse and a Muscle (Mytilus). 

If TT 


4f**f </*ks \rtrn*, m*v * flw^u**. fr<» '/ If; -.■ *■*: :'.«, ' 

A, f&0 +A* '4 +**-** \r •»/>- a <#••••• JT T!. ?•** 
S9 v* ^ It 9 v ' *v " ' * *'* ,.•-,. ^ %..t * • 

4**m . * v«r^ * « , 4, %/». w. *, i »'A •' ■-• « • 7 .*? .•>»•? ^ nur.* of 
ft* %,a k t . m'/ « *- « . , v* .. *r* . ># v ' >► -./ .a+ etrxrv-e? -'***- 
J, .*, **,.. v «•. 

Tb* •£»*" >*• »r«? fi ..".'♦", -». a r .d r f*t of tT'.^m are u^ei as 
f //J ; b.t t;,-7 */,,..*; \-, +,.'*.% *. *. ea.\,a, f>r *erv,u* 
iho'«« wA k>':u 'J'^'h j,'*v«? H'.K^i ft'sTa % rzcal made on 
^/tA# //f U+'u. 7l.*r h;**-« or l/<"ir'l t as it i* p-cp f -!a'!v 
th\>A, th/,,'1 f/'? *.*nt*„y ty-irr: away, ar.-i tLey ttould 
b« y*t\.' >*>*t\) st'»'„'l<?\ *..».:• c,.'/^-;a i* ai»^t, cr even when 

C«i/, -i i'. 1'. K.r,^ f R.N. <V',t/agt$ of th» Adctnture 
and Jfc'jfU, >',\. 1 1, ix. ',!.,:,« *h«; C'r.vro (SfyUtu* Ch/,ro* of 
M '/<■''«♦; *« 4//.Mf/ ti«/ <j »• «..j-f.«.h of the *-.^nd of Chiloe 
whi'l* Htn ut',:t y*r\t<: Antly *\*%*:r* >u% of n';*.'X*. Speaking 
Ct/ I/.J4 U'g<; rnu«/>; t C-i;/!i»ri Kir,^ ti>i, 'Molina has de- 
9*ii$it"l t»»<: * w»i<* hi Lot '''ju, ykh,r\i \% not ataJl different 
ff'/u ti. »• '/f (,f.,/^r. it ;i oiu.n f^Lud seven or eight inches 
|ssi»g, 7«^; tin is w lar/e a* a g'X/«e% egg, and of a very 
fM !• flat'/ur ; Ibf: are two k.h<L», one of a uark brown, and 
Ujii oO^rr of a ytu.'f* cAwr; hut the la«t is most esteemed. 
7b«r<i m al^i anoth'^r tV/it, much lar^^r than the choro, yet 
«/ju»Jj y «H*' *tij uri'l ^vl, the fi'h of whi^h is as large at a 
•»*tt'» #Kg ; it i» ^aii<;d chol/ia; but as the shells seem to 
t* of th* »«in« »oe/-' s I tlimk the distinction can only be 
ewiiijf t/i »/jm#- In F'hr^'s " Uidiouary of the Clnleno Ian- 
%n*%*" lh« word rholchua in rendered info Spanish by •• cas- 
i'Atu 1U i\u/tm Manr/^s,"or shell of the white muscle. Chol- 
Imj«, m f'holgtja (thn letters ^ and h are indiscriminately 
fj«*d; # most V**5 a vrit\\\>U'>\\ \ tut it is now used in Chil6e to 
(\nUni'/n%\i i)m? I»r/fl from tli<; small choron. The manner 
In wh.'h \U* na<iVi-4 of U»«*«« i-lan'U, both Indians and de- 
v+t,<\.tu1* tff f(>Tinvn*'T*, <*><fk hhdl-fWti is very similar to 
thMt u**A tnf tmkiny in the South 8ca hl:>n<li and on some 
|/*rU of Um '"r-i*\ hi New Holland, A hole is dug in the 
ground, mi witch hir^o smooth stonrM are laid, and upon 
Hi' m m flr« is kttu\Ui'\, When they are sufficiently heated, 
1h« *•!»«• or" 'h iixd away, and shell fi^h are heaped upon 
th« %\hUf%, and eo%ered ftrt.t with leaves or straw, and then 
Willi thrill. TIm* fish thus baked ore exceedingly tender 
and pood { and Ibis mode of cooking thorn is very superior 
to any other, os I hey retain, within tlio shell, all their own 


(Jthgraphirnl Ihntrtbutitm. — Very whlo. Few rocky 
Aoasfs nrit wilh'Mit imhthi of llm H]>er|t:<«, which nre all littoral. 
1hny sr*t soiiiufiifMM found a(li\ed to crustaceans, shells, 
ami floruit. 

MWiIi with a «niooih shell. 

V,tniti\i]f, Mt/tthit* -Cnmmhii N»ilt-irat*r Munch. 

'I hl« i|M-r •« « (•I'.owrll kn'V\nt<> ie«piire description: the 
fltf ore* will »Im*w the * I wipe- of the il.rll, wlueli in Strang* 
*a(m<o fie«d (hi 1 j. -I. f 1 11 m and p'h Ih-'I, the under sur- 
"S« ♦! of the * •• Mini p.if of ih« nil* !l 1* exponed, nntl is of a 

•phlo*', In thi« (itiMt i« oiifii olfi imI lor Hiile at watering 

r**, T\n> in»id«' of the tutve» i« white with u dark rim. 

'*-> H 1' 

J sfccijd be 'ax*- a-i af^<mrii a t-ae c/ 
!4fla-sk.-i t» b:vmr ru"a_ Pe_?ir,l 

•lirl ST 

«Se in perf«er'_j c- *N* tEn-ie-tsr ci-cii 

tte ii^.c 

ta J4 

alt. itit 

£.-e>: mosses 

ia just: 
tlwse c ^ 


• HamtfHyz H'*ULtr%. £rcca a rlli^e m lint eoonty. 1 •. 

are taken ocx c^ ure sea azi po>x i ia the xirer Wt 

within reach of :be tile. ^Lg> e tkey prow very Hi and . 

lkious.' In *Tr^ Ferae of CtrV tiJ9t> » a reeei; *. 
' dre^in? 'M:iste< m Drewct, 1 ani aUo coe tor inak 

' Cawdel of Mtt^L^' 

Small or seed pearls frequently occur in this specie*, 

some yean ago these were employed Car —**<«■*• pur: - 

Mytilas edulis. 
«, d*Ufchpd ralT«» • - ilie animal in situ wilh b\Musr-1ho TxuintV »" 
oontimrted ; 6. vnlves conjutned ;— nnimiil w Men when tbe *hcli ^ 
forced opeu, ^ ith by «stu. 

Shell of Mjiiloieri.uli. 
i, t.ilee. rlowd. <■ ilVi brim ;*, riiernitl view of one of die nlve* i t. Inter 

Iii tba Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons {Phy- 
molngical Series, No. 9-1) is one of the valves of this species, 
ivIih-Ii has been steeped in an ncid to dissolve and separata 
ilie earthy part (carbonate of lime) and show the animal 
part retaining the membranaceous form. 

Hytili with the shell striated longitudinally. 

Example, Mytilu* Ma^eltanieu*. 

Di'-icrifition. — Shell oblong ; whitish below, purple violet 
above, wilh long think undulated furrows; the umbonea 
acute, and nut much curved. Length varying, generally 
from four to five inches. 

Localities. — Straits of Magalhaena, CttitAe, &c. 
The Hush is well-flavoured and nutritious. The shells 
or old individuals, when polished, are brilliant, with a na- 
crcoui deep purple tinged with violet. 

It is not improbable that this specie's ministered in a de- 
gree to the wuful want* of Byron and his wretched com- 
panion! after the wreck of the Wager. 'Having thus 
I established,' says that officer, 'some sort of settlement, wo 
had the more leisure to look about us, and to make our re- 
| searches wilh greater accuracy than wo had before, after 
such supplies as the most desolate coast* are seldom unfur- 
nished wilh. Accordingly we soon provided ourselves with 
some sea-fowl, and fuund limpets, muscles, and other shell- 
fish in tolerable abundance; but this rummaging of the 
ainiru was now became extremely irksome to those who had 
any feeling, by the bodies of our drowned people thrown 
among the nicks, some of which were hideous spectacles, 
from the mangled condition they were in by the violent surf 

7 MYT 

that drove in upon the coast These horror* were overcome 
by the distresses of our people, who were even glad of tha 
occasion of killing the gatlinazo (the carrion crow of that 
country) while preying on these carcasses, in order to make 
a meal of them. 

Mitilui Magellulcin— attached to a lock b/Uibjuua. 
Here raav be introduced (he Mytilu* poftmiarphut of 
Pallas, Gmeliii, and others, thus characterised as a genus by 
Dr. Yauhencden, under Ihe name of 

Animal. — Mantle entirely shut, presenting three aper- 
tures, one of which is furnished wilh a siphon. Anterior 
extremity of ihe body bifurcated and lodging in the middle 
of the division the transverse anterior muscle. Abdomen 
depressed ; extremities of the branchiae floating in their 
posterior half. 

Shell.— Regular, equivalve, inequilateral, umbo wilh a 
septum in its interior. Three muscular imptessiona, the 
middle one unique and linear. 

Nerooui Syttem, — This consists of two pairs of gang- 
lions and a great single ganglion ; they are all united 
together, and represent a true chaplet (chapelel). The 
fust pair of nerves, Ihot which represents the brain, ii 
situated on the lateral parts of the buccal opening between 
(he two labial tentacles, but more approximated to the an- 
terior tentacle. It cannot be said that it is placed above 
the oesophagus, for it is, if anything, below it. The skin, 
which forms the upper wall of Ihe ossophagus, covers it, and 
it is placed between this skin and the anterior retractor 
muscle. The second or mesial pair is situated at the an- 
terior part of the base of the retractor muscle, between it 
and the liver. The third pair is represented by a singia 
ganglion, which occupies the mesial line, and of which the 
volume U considerable. It is situated in the middle of the 
posterior transversa muscle. 

The muscular system is much the same as in Mytilus. 

Dr. Vanbcncdcn thinks that the organ of the byssus, 
which he designates, after Poli, by the name of ' languctie,' 
has been erroneously taken for the foot. The true foot, he 
observes, consists of a muscular tunic more or less thick, 
which covers Ihe abdomen of the animal, and serves it as 
 n organ of progression; whilst Ihe organ, which always 
accompanies the byssus, possesses no character in common 
with the foot excopt iis mobility. Instead of covering the 
abdomen as a muscular forms a part of Ihe retractor 
muscle, from which it cannot be separated. At the base of 
this organ, with which, when the byssus is torn away, Ilia 
animal seems to explore the bodies in its neighbourhood, is 
[be sheath in which the byssus is lodged. 

The mantle entirely envelops the animal, and forms three 
apertures, one of which serves for the passage of the byssus 
and the ' languelte;' the second terminates [he animal in 
the siphon ; Ihe third is placed on the back, and gives pas- 
sage to the excrements. The aperture of the siphon is 
elongated many lines in respiration, and can be bent in dif- 
ferent directions. 

Place in the Animal Series.— Dr. Vanbeneden comes to 
the conclusion, from the anatomical and physiological 

* Named from M. ©nlmeiuof MaMjk(pioTtno»otLiBkanjJi 

ii/f Him 

SI YT 41 

ttnn-ture of me that its place b between Vi/titm . 

* i* •gritfai-til Dtstr'butfin. — Tbe author above quoted 
>:i'us .uj! tins lor hi is tiiuiiU ihruuirhout fcurore. and ifuit 1 
Alien™ |»-v*«« iti.LtiduaU which ai> P 
r-<-«itvM, KaSiiesnue. Swm 

Dr. Y.uilwiied'-U tvcunU two recent species, DmUttna 

K\i'iii'iu. pr"i..wnu p-Iqirwrj/i*. This appear* ti> be 
Hm Mi p'u /(...-.*•, Uwiuil; .V/. (VMtMiteu. l"er.: _W. 
H-twntt. LHi ba<ir; >/. u/ualus. Wunienbunc. and 3/. 
.*,-.. IL.ekx. 

/. ■.•■n in. v. — Inhabiting MB, lake*, rivers, anil to ar-hei : all 
thvwcuiiuitiuin win tiivuurublo to IL Dr. Vanbeueden jive* 
tnu li.iuwiii|{ lueiiliLiw*: -tint Caspian Seu. the Black Sea. 
*:<ti :itu Baita-. ill. Dmiune. tile W..l m iind the Rhine, where 

Si-tna it.ii. P-iUtniiMifi. tlw tumif Uutt/jumr i Bel_ium.l. 

lite iaitu- of Hat iotn . H li'umU the Lea lour river Lea. we 
-;i|>tiuu*i. ih annum, ihe WwvUbs Commercial Docks, Loq- 
.Ii-ii. tirubauiv >, jrtd uie mi ii;" hour hood of Kdinburjhi Union 
t,'-»iiiii> , vi liiut tii>» thrill eiteuds nearly over the whole 
-itnn.-u ii '•"urviie ihira Int. W N. to in' : Turkey. Austria. 
It i»miu i-ioriiuiiv. Belgium. UoikmiL and Eiij; land. (VaJt- 

Vi  J. 0. t 

im been the Brst who 
f Commercial Ducks, 
of jpiuion thai they 

«d. Dr. V.n- 

ertiaps l)v such 

( M Y T 

vol. iii. (1*33), allow* (hat the animal does not (-:■.' 
resemble Ihe marine mytiii. ahicli have ihe mau''( 

nearly throughout ilscireumference.aiidonlj haver tLv . 
tinned poster.orly in a smsU point, to »» to f->iij 
against tbe anusasroail canal lur the issue of tbe •■■ 
meiits. The principal difference^ be remarks, cui - •: 
the Mftilus y,lynt,nj<ku* bavip^ two pustefior a.* 
mitead of one : the second aperture, larger than tLc . 
prolonging itself into a short =:phon destined to runi,  
water over the brancbis. With regard to tbe ; 
he observes that they du not differ from the oilier ; 
except by gradations similar to those which are found . 
marine species. Thus the retractor of the foot is ii ■;« 
divided, and leaves only a single narrow and ismlatc'. 
pression on the valves. M. E>esbayes slates thai h-: i 
an aualoeous dispositioa in the marine -pecies. Tht : 
of the luot, the position of the bissus. the f>m <.i 
mouth and of tbe labial palps, and the interior d.-" - 
of those unjans, resemble the same parts in tLe r... 
Some »l.s;ht differences may perhajM be fonnd in tbe ; 
button of tbe nerves ; but 11. IXshayes inqukws «^-r*_- 
is clearly made out that this distribution does) B.: 
as much in the marine muscles. He then adder's 1. 
small transverse septum in each valve, the external •-: 
of which arives attachment to the anterior adiiuctur ■-. 
of the valves, and he allows that if tbu character s l- . 
to be round in this species, coexisting with, two r* »■ 
apertures m the mantle, a small generic Rroup m . 
founded on this type ; but he praceeds to state ilj: -_ 
marine species, Jili/tilut bti .ciilun*, tiir evampie. ■_■■!;: 
same character, whuh loses its impiirtaace when ae i . 
estabiisued by decrees, commencing in some spo\c> sj 
to be scan-ely perceptible, increasing in aihers, i" i »r i 
itseif nt its greatest Je^elopment m the spefhes la*t . . 
he adds, the animal of Myttltm dt-:--ii. .-■ 

it ktion 

f the ctioracti 

f f>. Vjabetieden. 


i the . 

1 groan of t 

MiiiLuia. (Lamarck.) 
M. Ranx makes Hodmla the third g 
Jfyniua- it. DesaiiTe*, m 
i oui;iit tti be preservud. >bserres that ;he Myrtit 
J much resemble each otlier. as all Jiimir. but then 

' t; ^ 

:«i .-*-i. V • 

wcujMbT ICIl«»llTfouI*lia*■p■■«■>^fc«*■T fc  ! ? b "* ,, ttk,r 

" lentna murnn fr.m "ire sunace to 1, UOumm^ax*^ 

tuent • an'jannv iut:„nia. wnere the* *«™ moored 

, r.,iin.t adwrr-'- c ' — r ' ~" 

M Y X 


M Y Z 

increased; the bowels sometimes obstinately constipated. 
Kpilnptic symptoms, or delirium, convulsions, and coma 
have appeared in Iho greater number of Altai cases, rather 
than Inflammatory action. 

Emetics, tuch a* sulphate of tine, which acta quickly, 
have ucon of servico ; but other seems the molt effectual 
meant of relieving t ho difficulty of breathing and the other 
norvoui symptoms. Purgative* were found of no avail in 
some of iho fatal omu accompanied by constipation ; yat 
in general aulphace of magnesia (Epiora tnlti) in a huge 
quantity of Iliml, acidulated with dilute aulphurio acid, 
taken in ant all and frequent dote*, is very efllcueiuus in re- 
Moving the eruption of tieUlo-rash. (Combe, in Edin. 
AM. ami Surg. Journal, vol. mix, and Chris tison On 
*V**>«*.1 JMvTiUlV*. p. «.] 

MY Xl'NK, a remarkable tlah belonging to the order Cy- 
nl.vtr.wti, family *Vrrnmy,rt<i>. and genus Gattrobrtmehut 
arcvv Jinj to Bl.vh. It is the Mirine glutinosa of Linnaeus, 
«fc,\ fiwoi i(*«Mrui-likr fiirax, placed it in the class Vermes. 

TV Myvitw is usually about a foot in length, of a slender 
aaJ ncarl; cUmdncal form, compressed toward* the tail; the 

dorsal fin is very narrow and continued round the tr. '. 
the tail to the vent; on the head is a aingle spiracle  
communicates with the interior ; the head ia rounded . 
destitute of eye* ; eight rim, or feelers, have their one:: 
the lips ; the mouth is large; on each aide of the i- . 
there are two rows of strong pectinated teeth; the pa., 
furnished with a single hooked tooth : the branchial is 
ings are two in number, and aituated on the abdomen i . 
beyond one-fourth of the entire length. 

This remarkable fish frequents the northern seas, an.: 
ours also on our own coast. It is found in the bodm 
other fishes, especially the cod and haddock, and sotut' - 
five or six specimens are found in one fish. Pennant - 
'it enters the mouths of other fish when on the hooks alt; 
to the lines which remain a tide under water, and i 
devours the whole except the skin and bones.' It it %. 
times called the Hag, and also Borer, because it is si;. 
some that the myxine pierces a small aperture in ibt ■> 
and thus makes its way into the body of the cod or ii 
fishes which it at lacks. 

HYZOME'LA. [Mkliphagid*, vol. xv., p. 82 ] 


M:i B n* Churls, 382 
Magna Grmcia. 283 
Magntuliua, 383 
M*Knc*» [ Anatoli.] 
Hagnnia [Magnesium] 
Maguotia, Midicil Properties 

of, 383 
Magmiiaa Linio.tour. 28-1 
Magufsmrn. 281 

Magnet. 286 
Magnetic Intrnsitr, 2S7 
Maouetiaaj, 283 
MMuetuni, Animal U 

Haiie, Le, Straits of. 309 
Haistre, A. and L. [Port BV.. 
Haitlud, Sir Hicrurd, 3U J 
Maittain, Michael, 310 
Main, 310 
Major, in mo 
Major, 311 

M-jor Gcunal [GeneTtlj 
Major, or Mail, John, 312 
Majorca [Sal lore*] 

Makri^, 312 
Malabar, 313 
Malabar Lurup \Ki-., 

atas, .ai. «ji_ p. 3 , 
M kilt-thrum, 313 
Malacca, 31 3 
Malacca, Snits of, 313 
Mi-adii. 313 

arhn. TTaaJ-:,.- 


k res *Shrik«? 

Malaga* fa r E cawa • Dock*. 

p. ir«; 



M ilmaison [Seine et Oise] 

 I ihnesbury [Wiltshire] 

I .limesbury, William of, 339 
ti .ilino, 339 
.I.ilmsry, 339 
A alo, St.. 339 
' 1 alone, Ed mood, 340 
 I ii(»i»e, 340 

vl iluuines [Falkland Islands] 
I ilpa* [Cheshire] 
M.ilpighi, Marcellus, 340 
•;ai;hiaceae, 341 
1 1 .ti plaquet [Marlborough, 

Duke of] 
I. lit, 341 
d ilt.i, 343 

d.ilta, Knijrhts of, 350 
d.Jtha, 351 
I .Ithus [Population] 
•1 .utoii [Yorkshire] 
I vlurus [Sylviadas] 

 laiva S) lvestria, 351 
ilalvgci'ae, 351 

rial vera, Malvern Hills [Wor- 
cestershire] , 

-Iilwa [Hindustan, vol. xii.,p. 
•J 1 J] 

.[.unelukes, or Memlooks, 352 

kliimeis [Sarthe] 

Mammalia, Mammals, 352 

Mammalogy, 352 

Mammary Gland, 356 

ilimraea. 356 

M unmcliipora, 356 

I Ii'iunoth. 356 

II mum, 356 • 
Man, 3jG 

M ui, Isle of, 363 

Manaar, Island [Ceylon] 

M makius, 306 

Manatee [Whales] 

M.meha, La. 366 

Manche, 367 

Manchester, 369 

Miiiichineel Tree rHippomane 

Mancijuura, Mancipttio, 375 
Manco Capac [Peru] 
Mandal [Christiansand] 
Mandamus, 376 
Mandarin Duck [Duck, vol. ix., 

p. 1S5] 
Mandarins, 376 
Mandavee [Cutch, vol. viii., p. 

'J 12] 
Maudelslo [Olearius] 
Mandeville, Sir John de, 377 
Mandeville, Bernand de, 377 
M andin^oes, 377 
Mandoline, 378 
Man. lore, 378 
Mandrake [Atropa] 
Mandrill [Baboon, ?ol, Hi., p. 

Mandshoo, 378 
Mandshooria, 378 
M \nes,379 
M inethu, 379 
M .iKitiaCordif61ia,379 
Maufclout [Egypt] 
Maui'redi, 379 
Munfredonia [Capitanata] 
Man^abey, 380 
Manual ore [Hindustan, vol.xii., 

p. 4 207] 
Manganese, 380 
Man^e, 383. 
Mu^el Wursel [Beet] 
M an^lera, 383 
M in^osteeu [Garcinia] 
M m^oustes [Ichneumon] 
Mangrove [Rhisophoxa] 


Manhetm, or Mannheim, 384 

Manheim Gold, 384 

Minia [Insanity ; Lunacy] 

Manichsans, 384 

Manichord, 385 

Manilius, 385 

Manilla [Philippine Islands] 

Manipu'ation, 385 

Mania [Pangolins] 

Manlii, 385 

Manna, 386 

Manna, Kinds of, 386 

Manningtree [Essex] 

Mannite [Manna] 

Manometer, 386 

Manon, 387 

Manor, 387 

Mans, Le, 390 

Mansard, 390 

Mansard, J. H., 390 

Mansfield, 391 

Mansfield, Earl of, 391 

Manslaughter [Murder] 

Mansoura [Egypt] 

Mantegna, Audrva, 392 

Mautellia. 393 

Mantes [Seine et Oise] 

Mam idee, 393 

Mantineia, 393 

Mantova, Delegazione di, 394 

M&ntova, or Mantua, town, 394 

Mantua f Lombardy ; Mantova] 

Manu, 394 

Manucodi&ta [Birds of Para- 
dise, vol. i?., p. 420] 

Manuel, NiclauR, 396 

Manuel, Francisco, 397 

Manumission [Libertiuus ; 

Manure, 397 

Manuring, 402 

Manuscripts [Palaeography] 

Manuzio, Aluo, 403 

Map, 404 

Maple [Acer] 

Maracaibo [Venezuela] 

Maragha [Persia] 

Maranhao, province [Brazil] 

Maranhao, town, 406 

Marafion [Amazon] 

Marans [Charente Infirieure] 

Maranta Arundin&cea, 407 

Marantaceea, 407 

Marasmus, 408 

Marat, Jean Paul, 408 

Marathon, 408 

Marattt, Carlo, 408 

Marazion [Cornwall] 

Marbeck, John, 408 

Marble, 409 

Marblehead [Massachusetts] 

Marburg, 409 

Marca d' Anc6na,409 

Marcellin, St. [Is*re] 

Marcellfnus [Ammianus Mar* 

Marcellfnus, pope, 410 

Marcello, Benedetto, 410 

Marcellus, M. C.,410 

Marcellus, Empiricus, 410 

Marcellus I., II., 410 

Marcgraaviacea, 4 1 

March, 41 1 

March, in music, 411 

Merchant iacess, 411 

Marche, La, 412 

Marches, The, 4 12 

Marchiennes [Nord] 

Marcianus, 412 

Marcionites, 412 


Maremme, 413 


Maiengo [Alessandria ; Bona- 

Marennes [Charente Iuferi- 

Martnzio, Luca, 413 

Mare6tis [Alexandria; Egypt] 

Margaret Waldemar, 413 

Margaret of Anjou [Henry 

Margaret of Richmond [Henry 

Margane Acid, 413 

Margarin, 414 

Margarita, 414 

Margaritacea, 414 

Margaritic Acid, 414 

Margaron, 414 

Margate, 414 

Marginella [VolutidsB] 

Margin6pora [Milleporidn] 

Maria Theresa, 4 1 4 

Mariana, Juan. 416 

Marie Antoinette, 417 

Marie de' Medici, 417 

Marie-Galaiite, 418 

Mane-aux- Mines, Sainte [Rhin, 

Marienberg, 418 


MarienwerUer, 418 

Marienzell, or Mariazell, 418 

Mariestad [Sweden] 

Marikfna [Midas] 

Marinv nda [A teles, vol. ii., p. 
547 J 

Marine Insurance, 418 

Mariner'* Compass [Compass, 

Marines, 419 

Marino, San [San Marino] 

Mariotte, Kdtne, 420 

Maritime Law [Admiralty 
Courts ; Shipping] 

Maritza, 420 

M&rius, Caius, 420 

Marivaux, 421 

Marjoram, 422 

Mark [Money] 

Mark, St., 422 

Mark, St., Gospel of, 422 

Market, 422 

Markets, Agricultural, 423 

Markland, Jeremiali, 424 

Marl, 424 

Marl, in agriculture, 425 

Marlborough [Wiltshire] 

Marlborough, Duke of, 425 

Marlow, Great, 428 

Marlowe, Christopher, 428 

Marktone, 429 

Marly [Seine et Oiite] 

Marmalade, 429 

Marmande [Lot et Garonne] 

Marmontel, 429 

Marmora, or Marmara, Sea of, 

Marmora, or Marmara, island, 

Marmora, town, 430 

Marmot [Muridss] 

Marne, river [Seine] 

Marne, department, 430 

Marne, Haute, 431 

Marries Irishes, 433 

Marocco, 433 

Maronites, 438 

Maroons [Jamaica] 

Mar6t, Clement, 438 

Marpurg [Marburg] 

Marpurg, F. W, 438 

Marque, Lettres de [Privateer- 

Marquesas Islands, 439 
Marquis, 439 
Marriage, 440 
Marriage, Roman, 443 
Marrow, or Medulla, 444 
Marrubium vulgire, 444 
Mars, planet, 444 
Mars, or Mavors, 444 s 
Marsila, 444 
Marsan, 444 
Marsden, William, 444 
Marseille, 445 
Marshal, 447 
Marshalsea, 448 
Marsham, Sir John, 448 
Marshes, 448 

Marsian War [Social War] 
Marsigli, Count, 450 
Marstou, John, 450 
Marstraud [Sweden] 
Marsupiilia, or Marsupi&ta, 450 
Marsupiocrinttes, 469 
Marsuiiiocrinftes [Encrioites, 

vol. ix., p. 393] 
Marsupftes, 469 
Martaban [Tenasserim] 
Martel, Charles [Charles Mar 

Martello Tower, 469 
Marten, or Martin [Weasel 1 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachu- 
Martial Law, 469 
Martialis, 470 
Martigues, Les, 470 
Martin [Swallow] 
Martin I , II., III., IV, V., 

Martin de-R6, Saint [Cha:euto 

Martin, St., island, 471 
Martini, Giambattista, 471 
Martini, Giuseppe San, 471 
Martini, Vincenzo, 47 1 
Martinique, or Martinico, 471 
Martlet [Heraldry] 
Marios, I. P., 472 
Martyn, Henry, 472 
Martyr, Justin [Justin Martyr] 
Martyrs, Martyrology, 472 
Marvejols [Lozdre] 
Marvell, Andrew, 473 
Marwar, 474 
Mary I., Queen of England, 

Mary, Queen of Scots, 476 
Mary, wife of William III. 

[William III.] 
Maryborough [Queen's County] 
Maryland, 478 
Marylebone [London] 
Maryport [Cumberland] 
Maeaccio, 480 
Masaniello [A niello] 
Mascagni, Paul, 480 
Mascagnin, 480 
Masclet, Francis, 480 
Masculine and Neuter [Gender] 
Masdres, Francis 480 
Masham, Abigail, 481 
Mason, William, 481 
Masonry, 481 
Masons, Free, 482 
Masorites [Hebrew Language] 
Mas6via [Poland] 
Masque [English Drama] 
Masquerade, 433 
Mass, in physics, 483 
Mass (missa), 483 
Massa, Duchy of, 484 
Massachusetts, 484 


M ^sAiretse, page 1 
M c>s;u ium, 1 
di»»iha [Marseille] 

M,v>aillon, 1 
.Malinger, 2 

Massinissa [NumidiaJ 
Massowah [Abyssinia] 
Massurida, Cape, 2 
Master of Arts [Arts] 
Masterwort, 3 

Mastich, 3 
Mastiff, 3 
Mastodon, 3 
Mastodonsaurus, 5 
Masulipatam, district, 6 

Masulipatam, town, 6 
Matabunga [Hindustan] 
Matagorda [Mexican States] 

atapan, Cape [Laconica] 
Matar6, 6 


Meath, West or Wot Meath, 

Xeath, Diocese of, 46 
Mecca [Azabia] 
Xechain, P. F. A-, 47 

1 Xcc!lLc*£ Acid. 50 

? XecUenSCT^f • 50 

XecoBic And, 51 




Hrca^ion. in Arckitecteze, 53 


- * t7 

wL ri, p. loo J 
X*L«s. Family «f, S4 

Xfijzs*. 37 


Melia (IWigy;, *» 

XeiU (Botany;, 80 

Xelildt SO 


Xeliptw^a IMeliphagiQ*] 

Mentha Pulegiam, 99 
Mentha Yiridis, 99 
, Meats [Mains] 
j Menu [Manu] 
1 Mennia [Meowral 
*«L xjt„ p. ' MeujanthesTrifohata, 99 
. Menialeh, Lake [Egypt* 
XmxikofT, Prince (Pae: \ 

Mephftes [Badger, voL i~ 
262; SkniAJ 
| Mephitic Air [Carbonic Ac . 
Meqninea [Marocco] 
Mer [Loir et Cher] 




.J-^-n: it 

J ax.* • V 

£ --r: 

^ -. 

Sf • ** 

^^ •  .Mm. m ST »i i" ^»* ^^^ 


X-fii. l L" : . .cxita 

X**r.i_^ SciaaL* iX 

X-* - ~-> 

aar-m Z^cxer „ 62 
XacvxT K«st * 

X-Mesera^xn. 6o 

? v- . r- 2-T "* 

1' X^r*-:e:oiu. £J 
X— .ai^a TAliiaja] 
X i<ra.,;cTx Xc^aiiuenascl 

K i«ruu ■:•!:» ~ X'^seieafttist ] 

X^ruu»o. A rj« k i«J 

it %ru:*;ii-ii^» to i 4 

i -jirma. i4 
A -^-an*. i4 

iT-:.jn. Xitp. n 

___. , Nicholas, 100 

! Mercfctort Projection, IvO 
Xercenaria, 102 

Xeiita.SC 83 

Xeaxophiins [Menfiis; Syi- ' Mercator, Gerard. 100 

XeLiiite. S3 
Xelltte, S3 

Xeiwch, Wlliiaa, 83 
XeLnso^h. WiLoaa% 83 
Xeio "A'oitrta] 
Xe.ob^ia, 64 
X^octuos. 84 
Xeiodrasaa [SoglsJi 

p. Av$" , Xergns [Meigsiuiis] 

Xe^Mij. g4 ' Xerian. Xaria Sibylla, 1 

Xekie veskalonns [Canthan] Xerida, 109 
Xeioaraluc Aod [Metagauic XeridiaD, 110 

Acid f Xeriao [Sheep] 

XeLk^ihidsv S4 Xe^ones [Xartds] 

X >lon. S5 Xerioaethshire* l\Q 

Xcxsia fFecuasiifam, faLa^ X«rlin, 116 


Xercnzj, or QnickailTef . \ ' 
: Xercnrj, planet, 106 
. McrcuTT, Transit ofTXacrT 
I Venns, Transit off 
: XersanhiK, 107 
I X«gn. :Tenas««rim] 



p. 34Sf 
XrLophas, S6 

Xelos ;x^u: 

Xe!i*5oaeae Xxssm" 

Xelivase Raxbangnabirel 
Xeit«i Itavbray [ 

Xelua. $6 

Xeriin. or Merdhin. 116 
Xerion [Ep— kment] 
j Xerlacraa, 117 
; Xeroe, 117 
Xeroe rXile] 

tee-Kates ; Mc 
F i-1»] 

Xisrill. or XaleriX Gtdbtr Xerormgiana [France] 

-=.* i*-~» ~^" 

V^ti.:^ Sir Tti 66 
XeiiLie. Asdrcv. ?6 
.w^flBoraae. 3« 
Xembrau pcra »1\*Ypuria 

Xembra^iceaj " 
Xeeoen licear, SS 
MemeLRiw [N 

! Mem<rl. SS 

I Xemtnaa 'Motschidsi] 
•: .. — r « nf .*. v?L ri. X emnon . S8 

Xrmnon of Rhodes. 59 
Xemaoa. Gf«ek k «**m \m 89 
X^motrs. >^ 

 Meaicr-U 'Anacirr? 

j Meiory. SO 

• Xeoa. Juxs. ^0 
! X«oj«e. Gu^a. 90 
XenaT Bnd^a> 91 
X«OAnd^r. ?i 
Xenaud^r Prut«toc. 9i 
X«nA>%«h, B«a Israei. 92 
Xt-ttd<*ls»obD. X«M«a» >2 
Xende L«Mrr« v 
Meudxttv v P»upeneai} 
Mtau'p HiJ.v. ^»i 
Xea^tvvuKk C^pe ~C*if.rcu*l 
. Mes.i »4a. U" t >rJi. *?4 
M*r t. tx. l><ro U^rtaLK *4 
X*u '*zt k P.*ta» La* 
>I v j c ..v ^.w. So^a» ^X 

M«^Jb:.a sUt*<L 95 
X'aucua Le=a_ 
[ X<=->^e-3540fa^ 94 




g. town, 1U 
Matsa, 1W 


XetthyrTpfrnl. 120 
Xertoa Co.^^a, 1^0 
Xeri^dax 120 
Xe-iaaa, 123 
Xeni^e Nord] 
X«rro?th«nBBC 124 
Xenuaktfr* 124 





X««eosenr. 124 

! V 



- I 

1 Xgffni,*L.*«k, : 


I M<3«JCC-3 


"t — 

I -. 

X«c>uae«iok^ m 

I X*BI3» ?>.=«£***» 




Methodism, 140 
Methodius and Cyrillus, 143 
Aft'thone, Modon [Messinia] 
Mi-tius, Adrian, 143 
Mi-tins, James, 143 
Mcton, Metonic Cycle, 144 
' 1 « t o pe [ Basso-Riiie vo] 
'M Utopia. 144 
Metre, 144 
Metriorhynchus, 144 
Metronome, 144 
Metropolis [Colony, p. 359 J 
M-tz, 144 

Meudon [Seine et Oise] 
Meulan ^ Seine et Oise] 
Meulen, Van der, 145 
 i»-uu [Loiret] 
Wer.rsius, John, 146 * 
M»«urthe, 146 
'•louse, or Maag [Rhine] 
v f.mse, department, 148 
low, 150 

.U'xican States, 150 
i nxiciin Architecture, 165 
'Mexico, Gulf of, 167 
Wcyer, James, 168 
VU-yer, Felix, 168 
*» zereum [Daphne] 
1 n'/erai, 168 
W .'zieies, 168 
MtzzoUnto, 169 
M hey sir [Hindustan, p. 211] 
Hi ami [Ohio] 
Miasma, 170 
Miazzi, Giovanni, 171 
'- 1 tea TLnpidolite ; Margarita ; 
[ica Schist, 171 [Oderit] 

Micah, 17) 

Michael's Mount [Cornwall] 
Michael, St. [Azores] 
M ichaelis, John David, 172 
M ichaelis, John Benjamin, 173 
Michaelmas, 173 
Michaux, Andre, 173 
'I.chaux, Francois Andre 1 , 173 
Michclozzi, 173 
Michigan, 173 
Michigan, Lake [Canada] 
•Iicippa [Maiidse, p. 300] 
1 1 ickle, William, 174 
Mico, 175 
1 1 1 croc ub us 175 
Mierodaetylus [Cariama] 
Microglossus [ Ps\ttacidflB | 
Micrometer, 175 
Mioropo^on, 176 
Micropterus, 176 
Micrupus, 177 
Microscope, 177 
M icroscopium, 188 
I:cr6tus, 188 
Microzoaria, 188 
Mi crura [Viperide)] 
Mictyris [Pinnotherians] 
Midas (Zoology;, 189 
M > d as* s Ear [ Auricula] 
M : iMclburg [Zeeland] 

I ..Idle Latitude, 190 
Middle Voice, 190 
Mi i. dieses, 290 

M iddleton, Thomas, 202 
Middleton, Sir Hugh, 202 
Mddleton, Conyers, 203 
Middleton, Thomas F., 205 

II lalewich [Cheshire] 
1-1 heaven, '205 

M-.iiaiiites, 205 
MuKhipmen, 206 

M. dbtimraer Eve, 206 

Miel, Jan, 206 

\! .eris, Francis, the Elder, 206 

Mirris, William, 206 

Mieris, Francis, the Younger, 

M ^uard, Peter, 207 [206 

! :-ri.ei, San [Mexican States] 

d.hiel, St. [Sleuse] 

li.ino, province, 207 
lil'ino, city, 207 

•I Mew, '209 

d-le, 210 

-: ulord Uaven[Pembrokeihire] 

Milhau, 213 

Miliola [Foraminifera, p. 348] 
Military Frontier, 214 
Military Positions, 214 
Militia, 216 
Milfzia, Francesco, 217 
Milky Way, 218 
Mill, John, 219 
Mill, James, 219 
Millar, John, 221 
Millennium, 221 
Millep6ridfle, 222 
Miller, Sir Thomas, 224 
Mdler, John Martin, 224 
Milles, Jeremiah, 224 
Millet, 225 

Millin, Audin Louis, 225 
Million [Numeration] 
Millstone Grit, 225 
Milner, Joseph, 225 
Milner, Isaac, 226 
Mil6 v Melt*, 226 
Milonov, Michael, 227 
Miltiades, 227 
Milton [Kent] 
Milton, John, 227 
Milvus [Faiconida, p. 187] 
Mime, 229 
Mimnermufi, 230 
Mim6sea>, 230 
Minangkahou [Sumatra] 
Minaret, 230 
Minas Geraes [Brasil] 
Mincio [Po] 

Mindanao [Philippine Islands] 
Minden, government, 230 
Minden, town, 230 
Mfndoro [Philippine Islands] 
Mine, 231 
Minellius, 231 

Mineral Veins [Veins, Mineral] 
Mineral Waters [Water] 
Mineralogy, 231 
Minerva, 232 
Mines, Military, 232 
Mingrelia [Georgia] 
Minho, River [Portugal] 
Miniature, 233 
Minieh [Egypt] 
Minim, 234 

Minims, or Minimi, 234 
Mining, 234 
Mining, Coal, 247 
Minium [Lead, vol. ziiL, p. 370] 
Mink [Weasels] 
Minnow [Leuciscus] 
Minor, 248 
Minorca [Menorca] 
Minos, 218 
Minotaur, 248 
Minsk, 248 
Minstrel, 249 
Mint, 250 

Minucius, Felix, 253 
Minuet, 253 

Minute [Angle; Time; Sexa- 
Mtnx, 253 [gesimals] 

Minx-Otter, 253 

Miosen, Lake [Christiania] 
Mirabaud, 254 
Mirabeau, 254 
Miracles, 259 
Mirage, 261 
Miranda, 263 
Miranda, Sade, 263 
Miranda, Francisco, 264 
Mirande [Gers] 
Mirandola [Modena ; Pico 

della Mirandola] 
Mirecourt [Vosges] 
Mire-Drum [Bittern] 
Mirepoix [Arriege] 
Mirevelt, Michael Jansen, 264 
Mirounga [Phocida] 
Mirror, 264 
Mischna [Mishna] 
Misdemeanor, 264 
Mithna [Hebrew Language] 


Misilua [Foraminifera] 

Misitra, (_Laconica; Sparta] 

Misprision, 265 

Missal, 265 

Missel-Thrush [Thrash; Me- 

Misseltoe, 265 [rulidas] 

Missions, 266 

Mississippi, River, 277 

Mississippi, State, 285 

Mississippi Company [Law, J.] 

Missouri [Mississippi, River] 

Missouri, State, 286 

Mist, 288 

Mistonusk, 288 

Mitau, Mittau, or Mietau, 288 

Mithradates, or Mithridites, 289 

Mithras [Mithradates] 

Mithrax [Maud®, p. 299] 

Mitra (Zoology) [Volutaj 

Mitral Valve [Heart] 

Mitre, 290 

MitreMla [Voluta] 


Mittimus, 290 

Mitu [Cracidw, p. 129] 

Mitylene [Lesbos] 

Mixtures, in pharmacy, 291 

Mnemia [Ciliograda, p. 165] 

Mnemonics [Memory] 

Mnem6*yne [Muses] 

Moab, 291 

Moallakat [Arabia, p. 219] 

Mobile [Alabama] 

Mocarangua [Sofala] 

Mocha [Arabia] 

Mocking-Bird, 291 

Modbury [Devonshire] 

Mode, in Music, 293 

Models, Architectural, 294 

M6dena, Duchy of, 294 

Modena, Town of, 295 

Modes, Ecclesiastical, 296 

Modillion, 296 

Modiola [Mytilidss] 

Modulation, 296 

Modules, 297 

Maris, Lake [Egypt] 

Mmsis, 297 

Moffat [Dumfriesshire] 

Mogadore [Maroceo] 

Mogul Empire, 297 

Mogulbundi [Hindustan,p. 2 1 1 

Mohammed, 298T [rature] 

Mohamudgara [Sanscrit Lito- 

Mohawk, River [New York] 

Mohawks [Iroquois} 

Mohilew, or Mogilew, 303 

Mohilla [Comoro Islands] 

Mohsite, 303 

Moidore [Money] 

Moissac, 303 

Moivre, De [De Moivre] 

Mola, 303 

Molasses, 303 

Mold [Flintshire] 

Moldavia, 303 

Mole [Tulpidae] 

Molecularity [Theories o f Mole- 

Moliere,305 [cularity] 

Molina, Louis, 307 

Molinists [Molina] 

Mollebart [Barren Land] 

Mollusca [Malacology ; Con- 
chology ; Conchifera, &c.J 

Molossi, 307 

Molothrus, 307 

Molsheim [Rhin, Bas] 

Molton, South [Devonshire] 

Molucca Isles, 308 

Molybdenum, 310 

Molyneux, William, 310 

Mombaca, or Mombas, 311 

Momentum, or Moment, 311 

Momentum, or Moment of In- 
ertia, 311 

Mom6rdica Elaterium, 312 

Momot, or Motmot [Prionites] 

Mompax [Granada, New] 

Mona [Anglesey ; Man, Isle of] 

M6nacna [Muscicapidee] 


vol. xv: 

Monaco, Principality of, 315 

Monaghan, 315 

Monarchy, 320 

Monas [Microsoaria] 

Monassa [Kingfishers, p. 227 J 

Monastereven [Kildarej 

Monastery [Monachism; Monk] 

Monboddo, Lord, 321 

Mondego, River [Portugal] 

Mondovf, 321 

Money, 322 

Monferrato, 327 

Mongault, 327 

Monge, 327 

Monghir [Hindustan, p. 218] 

Mong61ia, 328 

Mongols and Tartars, 330 

Mongoose, or Mongooz, 331 

Monimiacess, 331 

Monitors, 331 

Monk, 332 

Monk, Doke of Albemarle, 332 

Monkey, 334 

Monmouth, Duke of [Charles 

II. ; James II.] 
Monmouth, 334 
Monmouthshire, 334 
Monoceros [Kntomostomata, 

vol. ix., p. 458] 
Mon6ceros, constellation, 340 
Monochord, 340 
Monocondylea, 340 
Monocotyledons, 340 
Mon6culus [Binoculus, p. 410]> 
M6nodon, 340 
Monodonta, 340 
Monogram, 340 
Monoica, 341 
Monolepis, 341 
Monomania [Insanity] 
Monomyaria, 34 1 
Monongahela [Mississippi, R.'J 
Mon6p horns [Salpidw] 
Monophyllus [Cheiroptera, 23 
Monophysites [Eutychiansl 
Monopleurobranchiata, 341 
Monopoly, 341 
Monosyllable [Syllable] 
Monothal&mia, 342 
Monothelites [Eutychians] 
Monotigma, 342 
Monotremes, 342 
Monotrop&cesa, 342 
Monro, Alexander, 342 
Monroe, James, 342 
Monrovia [Massurada, Cape] 
Mons, 343 
Monsoon, 343 
Monster, 345 
Monstreiet, 350 
Mont de Marsan [Landes] 
Mont de Piete, 351 
Mont d'Or [Puy de Dome] 
Mont Louis [Pyrenees Orien- 

Mont Lucon [Allicr] 
Montagna, 351 
Montagu, Lady M. W., 351 
Montagu, Edward Wortley, 352 
Montaigne, 352 
MontanistB, 354 
Montanus T Arias Montanus] 
Montargis [Loiret] 
Montauban, 354 
Montbeliard [Doubs] 
Montbrison [Loire] 
Montcalm, Marquis de [Wolfe] 
Montdidier [Somme] 
Montecasino, 354 
Montecuculi, 355 
Mont ego Bay [Jamaica] 
Montelimar, 356 
Montem Custom, 356 
Montenegrins [Montenero] 
Montenero, 356 
Montereau [Seine et MaraeJ 
Monterey [Mexican States] 
Montesquieu, 357 
Montevideo, 358 
Montesuma [Mexico] 
Montfaucoiif 358 



Montferrand [Clermont] 
Montflanauio [Lot et Garonne] 
MontfortTllleet Vilaine; Seine 

MontfortJSimon de[Henry III.] 
Montgolfier [Balloon] 
Montgomery [Montgomery- 
Mootgomerysnire, 358 [•hire] 
Month [Moon; Year] 
Monti, viucenso, 365 
Monticularia [ MadrephvlHosa] 
Montlivaltia [Matlrephylliaa] 
Montmartre | Parii] 
Mootmcdy [Meu>eJ 
Montmirail [Marne] 
Montmorency, 367 
Montmorillou f Vienne] 
Montpellier, 367 
Montreal, district, 368 
Montreal, island, 368 
Montreal, town, 368 
Montreuil [Pas tie Calais] 

Montrose [Forfarshire] 
Montrose, Marquis of, 368 
Montserrat, 370 
Montucla, 370 

Monsa [Milano, Province of] 
Mood or Mode [Verb] 
Mooltan [Hindustan, p. 221] 
Moon, 371 

Moon, Kclijise of the [Moon] 
Moon, Superstitions respecting 
Moon Seed, 378 [the, 378 

Moor, 378 
Moor-Buzzard, 379 
Moor-Cock, 379 
Moor-Fowl, 379 
Moor-Hen, 379 
Moor-Titling, 379 
Moore, Edward, 379 
Moore, Dr. John, 380 
Moore, Sir John, 380 
Moorish Architecture, 381 
Moors, 394 

Moorshedabad, district. 390 
Moorshedabad, town, 391 
Moose Deer [Deer, p. 351] 
Moral Sense, 391 
Morales, Ambrmio. 391 
Morales, Cristobal. 392 
Morales, Luis, 392 
Moralities, or Moral Plays [En- 
glish Drama, vol. is , p. 427] 
Morals, 392 
Morass [Marshes] 
Moratin, Nicolas, 395 
Moratin, Leandro, 396 
Mora? ia, 396 

Moravian Mountains[Qennany] 
Moiavians, 397 

Murillo, page 1 
Murphy, Arthur, 1 
Murray River [Australia] 
Murray, W. [Mansfield, Lord] 
Murray, Earl of, 2 
Murray, Sir Robert, 3 
Murray, P., Lord Elibank, 4 
Murray, Dr. Alexander, 4 
Murrhine Vases, 5 
Murviedro [Saruntum] 
Mus [Muridn] 
Mfisa, Ibn Nosseyr, 5 
Muse, Mohammed Ben, 7 
Musa, Antonius, 7 
Musa, 7 

Mueaius, Jobann Karl Aug., 9 
Musca (constellation), 9 
Muscat, or Muskat [Arabia] 
Muschdkalk, 9 
Mutci, or Mosses, 9 
Muecicapida, 10 
Muscida, 16 
Muscle, 16 

vol: xv. 

Moray, or Murray Frith, 398 

Morayshire [Elginshire] 

Morbeya [Marocco] 

Morbihan, 399 

Mordants [Dyeing] 

Mordaunt, Charles, 401 

More, Sir Thomas, 40 1 

More, Henry, 403 

More, Hannah, 403 

Morea, 403 

Moreau, Jean Victor, 404 

Morel, 405 

Morales [Mexican States] 

Morell, Thomas, 405 

Morena, Sierra [Spain] 

Moreri, Louis, 405 [shire] 

Moreton Hampstead [Devon* 

Morgagni, G. B., 405 

Morgarten [Zug] 

MoriUon, 406 

M6rio, 406 

Moriscoes, 406 

Morlaix, 407 

Morland, Sir Samuel, 407 

Morland, George, 409 

Morley, Thomas, 409 

Mormon [Auk, pp. 100, 101] 

Mormops [Cheiroptera, p. 24 J 

Mornington, Earl of, 409 

Morocco [Marocco] 

Moro»ini, 410 

Moroxylic Acid, 410 

M6rphia, 410 

Morphnut [Falconidss, p. 176] 

Morphology [Metamorphosis of 

Morris Dance, 4 1 1 [Plants] 

Morrison, Robert, 411 

M6rrhua, 412 

Morse, 413 

Mortagne [Orno] 

Mortal a [Mmche] 

Mortality, Bills of [Bills of 

Mentality, Law of, 413 
Mortar, 419 
Mortar, 420 
Moitara, 420 
Mortars. 420 
Mortage, 420 
Mortification, 423 
Murtificatiou [Mortmain] 
Mortimer, John H., 423 
Mortmain, 423 
Morton, Earl of, 425 
Morton, Archbishop, 426 
Mortuary, 426 

Morveau [Guyton de Morveau] 
Moras Alba, 427 
Moras Nigra [Mulberry] 
Morvan, or Morvant, Le, 427 

Moryson, or Morison J"ynes, 427 
Mosaic, 427 

Mosaisk, orMoshaisk, 428 
Mozambique [Mozambique] 
Mosasaurus, 428 
Mosch&ta, 429 
Moscherosch, J. M., 429 
M6schide, 430 
Moschopulua, 433 
Moschus, 433 
Moscow, government, 433 
Moscow, city, 434 
Moselle, river, 436 
Moselle, department, 436 
Moses, 439 
Mosheim, 446 
Mosque, 447 
Mosquito, 447 

Mosquito Shore [Central Arae- 
Moss [Christiania] [rica] 

Mosses [Musci] 
Mosul, or Moosul, 447 
Motacilla [Sylviadss] 
Motala-Klf [Sweden] 
Motet, 447 
Moth [Lepidoptera] 
Mothe-le-Vayer, 447 
Mother-of-Pearl [Shell] 
Mother-Water, 448 
Motion. 448 

Motion, Direction of, 450 
Motion, Laws of, 450 
Motion of the Earth, 454 
Motions of Plants, 458 
Motril [Granada] 
Motte, A. H. de la, 460 
Motteux, P. A., 460 
Motto, 460 
Mouldioess, 460 
Mouldings, 461 
Moulins, 462 
Moultan ( Hindustan] 
Moultinc [Birds p. 426] 
Mount Vernon [Virginia] 
Mountain Limestone, 462 
Mountains, 462 
Mount Sorrel [Leicestershire! 
Moursuck [Fezsan] 
Mouse [Murida] 
Movement, in Music, 464 
Moving Force, 464 
Mowbray, Sir Roger de, 464 
Moxa, 464 

Mozambique, town, 465 
Mozambique, Coast of, 4o*5 
Mozambique, Channel of, 466 
Moxart, 466 

M(icius [Justinian*! Legisla- 
Mucus, 468 [tion] 

Kudar [Calotropis] 


Muscle, or Mussel [Mytilida] 
Muses, 17 
Museum, 18 
Musgrave, William, 18 
Musgrave, Samuel, 18 
Mushroom, 18 
Music, 19 

Music, History of, 22 
Musk rMoschidn] 
Musk, Medicinal Properties, 27 
Muskerry Mountains [Cork] 
Musket [Arms, p. 373J 
Muskingum [Mississippi, river] 
Muslin, 28 
Musonius, 28 
MusophigidsB, 28 
Musquash, 31 
MusBchenbroek, 32 
Musselburgh, 33 
Mussulman [Mohammed] 
Mustapha I., II., III., IV., 33 
Mustard [ Sinapi] 
Mustek [Weasels] 
Musurus, Marcus, 34 
Mutiny Act, 34 

Muttra [Hindustan, p. 219 1 

Muzarab, 35 

Mya [Pyloridea] 

Myana, 36 

My'cale [Ionia] 

Mycen», 36 

Mycetcs, 37 

Mycetopoda, 38 

My'conos, Myconi, 38 

Mycteria [Jabiru] 

Mydaus [ Weasels] 

M y'gale [Soricidw] [ potamia] 

Mygd6nia [Macedonia; Meso- 

Myiagra [Muscicapid»] 

Mylodon [MegatheriidiaB] 

Myocincla [Merulid®] 

My6phonus [Merulida] 

Myoporacea, 38 

Myop6tamus, 38 

Myos6rex [Soricida] 

Myothera f Merulida] 

Myoxus [Murida] 

Myrafra, 38 

Myriad, 38 

Myricacea, 38 

Mudstone, 468 
Muezzin, 458 
Muffle, 469 
Mufii, 469 
Muggletonians, 469 
Mugilida, 469 
Muhlhausen, in France [Mv 

Muhlhausen, 469 
Mulberry, 469 
Mulcaster, Richard, 470 
Mule, 470 
Mulhausen, 471 
Mull, 471 

Muller [Regiomontanut] 
Mtlller, Otho Frideric 47 J 
Muller, John, 473 
Muller, Wilhelm. 473 
Mulleria [Osiracea] 
Mullet [Heraldry] 
Mullinger [Meath, West: 
Midlion, 473 

Multinomial [Polynomial] 
Multiple, Submultiple, Hu*\ 

cation, 474 
Multiple Points, 475 
Multiplication [Multiple, ae 
Multivalves, 475 
Mulwia [Marocco] 
Mummius, L. [Corinth] 
Mummy, 475 
Mumps, 477 

Munchhausen, Baron, 477 
Munda [Casar, C. J., p. I-'*' 
Mundleysir [Hindustan, p. -. 
Muneepoor, 477 
Munich, 479 
Municipium, 486 
Muniments, 486 
Munster, 487 
Mu nster, government, 488 
Munster, town, 488 
Minister, Sebastian, 488 
Muntjac, or Muntjak, 488 
Muonio-Klf [Bothnia] 
Murid I., II., III., IV., 4i. 
MureVnida, 490 
Murat, Joachim, 490 
Murat6ri, 491 
Muraviev, 492 
Morchisonite, 492 
Murcia, province, 492 
Murcia, city, 493 
Murder, 493 
Mure, Sir W., 495 
Muret (Muretu*), 496 
Murex [Siphonostomata~ 
Muriatic Acid [Chlorine] 

urida, 496—518 

Myrf stica Mosch&ta, 33 

Myristicicea, 39 

Myrtnectibius [Maraupia.1. 

Myrmecophaga, 39 

tyfyrmothera [Myothera] 

Myrospermum, 40 

Myrrh [BalsamodendroiT 

Myrsinacea, 40 

Myrtacea, 40 

My'rtea, 41 

Myrtle, 41 

Myrtus Pimento [Pimento 

Mysca, 41 

My'sia, 41 

Mysis [Stomapodes] 

Mysore, 41 

Mystery, 42 

Mysteries [English Dram* - 

Mystics, 42 

Mythology, 42 

MytiUcea [Mytilidst] 

MytMda, 44 


Myxine, 52 

Mysore 61a [Meliphagidar. ; 

V la Iks Table of Public Bniktiap at Muoiee, psge 485. the architects' names to me following ooea should be cometed as hsss aften «— . 
91. BoaUadus • • , Zieblaad. Port OOce . • . Kleaze. GeorgioMun . , , " 


N is one of the liquid or trembling series of letters. It is 
formed with the tongue at the point where the teeth and 
palate meet, and the sound passes chiefly through the nasal 
passage. For the characters by which this letter » repre- 
sented, see Alphabet. 
X;\e letter n is subject to the following changes:— 

1. It is interchangeable with nd. Thus the Latin roots 
mm, fini, gen (genus), appear in Saxon English as mind, 
hind or bound, kind or kin. The converse change is com- 
mon in the provincial dialect of Somersetshire, where the 
English words wind, hind (behind), find, round, and, are 
pronounced trine, hine, vine, rnon, an ; while on the con- 
trary, manner is changed to mander. [D.] 

2. Before/, n was silent in Latin. Hence the town Con- 
thirntes, at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine, is now 
railed Coblenz. So the German filnf is in English^'*. 

3. N final often becomes a more complete nasal, and is 
equivalent to ng. Thus the German infinitive in en 
appears to be the parent not only of the participle in end, 
hut of the substantive in ung, with which are connected 
the English participle and substantive of the same form in 
i/t*f. The Somersetshire dialect prefers the n without g, 
,v> stanin, sjparklin, starvin, for standing, sparkling, starv- 
ing- The Sanscrit alphabet has a particular character for 
tn is sound. 

t. Ni or ne before a vowel often forms but one syllable 
with that vowel, the t or e being pronounced like the initial 
t/. This sound is represented in Italian and Frencb by gn, 
is Sig-nnr, Seigneur; in Spanish by n, as Seiior; and in 
Portuguese by nh, as Senhor • all derived from the Latin 
senior, elder. 

5. A 7 is interchangeable with /. Hence the double form 
jf luncheon and nunchion; but see L. 

6. N with m, particularly at the end of words. [M.] 

7. On and o are frequently interchanged. Hence the 
disappearance of the final n in the Latin nominatives ratio, 
•>n/o, Laco. The Portuguese also often discard an n so 
placed. On the other hand the Greek neuter nominative 
'.ikes an n to which it is not entitled, as ayaBov. It is 
; -rubablv from a confusion between the two sounds that the 
juestion has arisen, whether the letter ain of the Hebrew 
Wphabet is an o or an n. 

8. R final with rn. Hence the double forms of the Latin 
/orbs cer and cern, separate ; ster and stern, strew ; sper 
md spern, kick, despise. Again star (and the Latin must 
>ncc have had stera in order to form from it the diminutive 
> triht, as from puera comes puella) is in German stern. Spur 
ii English is sporn in German, and of the same origin 
perhaps is the name of the Spurn Head, at the mouth of 
he II umber, as well as the Latin spern-ere. The Latin 

>'//• (seen in com-bur-o) is the same word as the English 
\ji/m ; and even the Latin curr-ere, to run, has in Gothic 
he form urn-an, just as the south-western dialect of Eng- 
,uk1 has him, and the ordinary English, by a slipping of 
he r [\i],run. In the same south-western dialect beforne, 
m turn, orn, norn, ourn, are the forms employed for before, 
//'/re, or or either (Germ, oder) nor or neither, our. 

i). iVwith*. This change will not be readily admitted 
mi limit consideration, as the sounds appear so different. 
I lie change however is very parallel to the admitted change 
f / and d; and indeed as the two latter letters are formed 
it the same part of the mouth, so are n and s. The close 
"innection of the two letters will be most forcibly demon- 
r rated by examples of suffixes in which the change occurs. 
lii us the English language has a double form of the plural 
,utiix in en and es, as in oxen and asses. The Greek verb 
ia» the same variety; first, in rvirrofitv and Twrofitg; 
ocondly, in rtrcrrertc, which must have been the older form 
.[' rvTTiTt, and the so-called dual rvxrtrov. The Latin 
,-uin has the s suffix in scribimus scribitis, but the n 
.i scribunt. Again the Latin comparative has for its 

• lest suffix ios, as in mclios, whence both melior and 
-.'•fius ; or a better example occurs in ple-ios and 
i.''(av, whence the latter fprms pious ^nd plus. On the 
• :!ier hand the Greek suffix is ton, as *rXf-iov and *\tov, 
i . <>m the same root as the Latin plus, and with the same 
meaning. The old genitive plural suffix in Latin appears to 
P. C No. 934. 

have been sum, as servosum, whence servorum. The suffix for 
a female in Greek is either na or sa, with perhaps an i pre- 
fixed, as fiafftXtwa, peXaiva, Xcatva, or fiaGiXtaaa, rvirrovaa 
and in English we nave ess, while the Germans have inr, 
Lastly, such verbs as apcv-wpi have epev for the radical part, 
which often takes the form crjfoc, as a-a/fca^roc ; and the samo 
change appears in <ru<ppov, Nom, auxpptov and (roxppocrvvrj. If 
the change be admitted, we see the cause of the anomaly in 
the Latin pon-o, poswi, pos-itum. 

10. N before * silent, but lengthening the preceding 
vowel. This fact is well exemplified throughout the gram- 
mar of the Greek language. The Latin had the same pe- 
culiarity. Hence consul was sometimes written cosol, and 
when abbreviated was always represented by the three first 
of the sounded letters, viz. cos. So censor, infans, viciens, 
vicensumus, are often found in the form cesor, infos, vicies, 
vicesimus. We see too why the Greeks wrote the Latin 
words Kvvtrtop, Kutvtrravrivoc, with a long vowel in the first 
syllable. Lastly, while the Germans write gans, wunschen, 
the English have goose, trish. 

11. N silent at times before t and th. The English word 
mutton is derived from the French mouton and the Italian 
montane ; and our word tooth in the older Gothic dialects 
was teenth, thus corresponding as nearly as it ought to do 
with the Greek oSovr, and Latin dent. 

1 2. N before v silent. Thus the Latin convention, assembly 
became covention (as it occurs in one of the oldest inscrip- 
tions), before it was reduced to contion, the assembly of the 
people, a word which modern editors, in spite of all the best 
MSS. and of etymology, persist in writing with a c for the 
fourth letter. Similarly from conventu came the French 
convent; and though the English generally say convent, 
yet the name Covent Garden is a proof that the n was not 
always pronounced even here. 

An initial n is sometimes prefixed to, and sometimes taken 
from words by error. Thus nadder, a snake, has now lost 
its n through a confusion of the phrase a nadder with an 
adder. On the other hand, the phrase for then once, i.e. 
for this once, in which the article has its old accusative form 
then, is now written for the nonce. Is it in this way that 
we should account for the prefixed n in the diminutives Ned, 
Nol, Nan, Nelly, for Edmund or Edward, Oliver, Anne, 
Ellen, as if the original phrases mine Ed, mine Anne, had 
been confounded with my Ned, my Nan f At any rate, 
mine, thine, an, were severally the original forms of my, thy, 
a, and used even before consonants ; nay, in Somersetshire 
they have changed aunt to ndnt, uncle to nuncle, awl to 
nawl. Very similar is the prevailing error of calling the 
Greek negative particle alpha privative instead of an pri- 
vative; the latter of which corresponds so accurately with 
the Latin in and the English un, to say nothing of the 
Greek avtv, and the German ohne. In fact, n at the end 
of words is often pronounced very faintly. 

The Somersetshire dialect has been referred to because 
its peculiarities have been recorded with great care in Mr. 
Jennings's 'Observations.' 

NABATHiEI. [Arabia, p. 215.] 

NAB IS, tyrant of Sparta, attained the supreme power 
after the death of the tyrant Machanidas, who was killed 
about 206 B.C. He proved a cruel despot, and put to death 
a number of citizens. He had an ingenious engine of tor- 
ture, described by Polybius (xiii.), which was called Nabis's 
wife, and which he applied to those who would not deliver 
up their money to him. He allied himself with Philip II. of 
Macedon, and took possession of Argos and other parts of 
the Peloponnesus. After the defeat of Philip, and the 
peace which followed between him and Rome, the consul 
Flamininus marched against Nabis, defeated him, but af- 
terwards granted him peace, taking his son a3 hostage to 
Rome. After the departure of the Romans, Nabis having 
begun to annoy his neighbours afresh, the Acheeans sent 
against him their general Philopcemen, who defeated him 
and drove him back into Sparta, where Nabis was soon 
after treacherously killed by his own ^Etolian auxiliaries, 
b.c. 192. (Livy, xxv. 35.) He appears to have been a very 
able commander in war. 

NABLOUS. [Syria.] 

Vol. XVL— I 




NABOB, or NABAB, a corruption of tbe Hindustani 
Xowwab. which was the title of the governor of a province 
under tbe Mogul empire, such as the Nuwwab of Arcot, of 
Oudc,8te. (Gilchrist, Vocabulary.) Several of these became 
gradually independent during the decline of the empire, and 
•re now* either allies or dependents of the Anglo-Indian 
government. Tbe word Nabob is sometimes used in Europe 
to mean a wealthy man who has made bis fortune in India. 

NABOXASSAR, jERA OF. [Periods of Revolu- 


NACHITOCHES. [Louisiana.] 

NACRE. [ShjlliJ 

NACRiTE, a mineral usually occurring in mica slate. the |lace of the mica ; so that the rock becomes a 
mixture of quartz and nacrite. It is also found crystallized 
n granite. It occurs in four-sided prisms. Hardness 275. 
Colour silvery, or ligbt greenish white. Lustre pearly, 
suky. splendent Translucent. Specific gravity from 2788 
to 2793. It occurs in Wicklow, Ireland, and in North 

A specimen from Brunswick, Maine, analyzed by Dr. 
Thomson, gave — 

Silica . . • 






Protoxide of Iron 



Water . . . 




Tbe crystals from Wicklow contained less oxide of iron, 
but a considerable portion of lime and of protoxide of man- 

NADIR. [Zenith.] 

NADIR SHAH was born on the 1 1th of November, 1688, 
at the small village of Abuver, near Killaat, about 30 miles 
north-east of Mushed in the province of Khorassan. He 
was originally called N&dir Kouli, that is, 'a slave of the 
Wonderful,' or * of God.' When he entered the service of 
Timdap, king of Persia, he assumed the name of TdmeUp 
Kouli Khan, that is, 'Khan, slave of Tim asp;' but on his 
accession to tbe throne he resumed his original name of 

The mther of Nftdir belonged to the tribe of Afesh&r, 
which was one of the seven Turkish tribes which bad at- 
tached themselves to the kings of Persia. He was a person 
of no note or rank, and earned his livelihood by means of 
making coats and caps of sheep-skins. NSdir, after his ele- 
vation to the throne, used frequently to allude to his low 
birth. When the royal house of Delhi required that his 
son, who was about to marry a princess of that family, should 
give an account of bis male ancestors for seven generations, 
Nidir exclaimed, 'Tell them that he n the son of NSdir 
Shah, the son of the sword, the grandson of the sword, and 
so on till they have a descent of seventy instead of seven 

N&dir was distinguished in early years by bis boldness 
and intrepidity. At the age of seventeen he was taken 

Srisoner by the Usbegs, who made annual incursions into 
luorassan ; but he effected bis escape after a captivity of 
four years. On his return to Khorassan, he entered the 
service of a petty chief of his native country ; but be became 
soon afterwards the leader of a formidable band of robbers. 
From this employment he rose, by a transition by no means 
uncommon in the Bast, to a high rank in the service of the 
governor of Kliorassan ; but having displeased his master, 
he was degraded and severely punished. After this be 
resumed bis occupation as a robber; and in consequence of 
the unsettled state of the country, he acquired in a sliort 
time no small degree of power. In order to understand 
clearly the circumstances which facilitated tbe rise of Naldir, 
it ia necessary to make a few remarks on the internal state 
of Persia at that time. 

In the early pari of tbe eighteenth century, Persia was 
attacked and eventually conquered by the Affgbans. In 
1722 Shah Hussein, the Buffavean monarch of Persia, 
abdicated the crown to Mahmud, tbe Affghan conqueror. 
Mabmud was succeeded in 1 725 by Ash riff; who reigned 
at Ispahan and had the supreme power, though Tfim&sp, 
the son of Hussein, maintained a precarious independence 
in a distant part of the empire. Though the power of the 
~ ~*veen monarchs bad been entirely overthrown by tbe 

Affgbans, yet tbe latter bad not been able to estst! 
their own authority in the distant provinces of the king ; 
and the consequence was, that Khorassan and other r?.: 
provinces were left without any regular government. V 
was thus enabled to prosecute bis schemes without icu- 
tion ; and having at length raised a body of 5000 me:: 
ioined T&mdsp in 1727, and declared his intention of u; 
ling the Affgbans from his native country. The opprt* 
rule of the Affgbans and tbe renown of NSdir qc- 
brought great numbers to his standard ; and havinr 
invested with the supreme command by Tfimfisp, vhw 
acquired by putting to death Futteh Alt, who had ptew 
commanded the forces of the king, he marched agaitw :i| 
Affgbans and took Mushed in the same year. He full 
up bis first success with several brilliant victories ; hu 
fell into bis power ; AshrSff was taken and put to a a 
and by the close of the year 1729 few if any Affghao < 
left in Persia. 

Such sudden and unexpected success rendered N£4i* 
ceedingly popular ; and he appears from this time to ; 
resolved upon seizing the royal power aa soon as nr<; 
stances would allow him to do so. In 1 730 he received :ral 
T&m&sp a grant of the four finest provinces of the kine ' 
Khorassan, Mazanderan, Seistan, and Kerman; and .4 
requested at the same time to assume the title of it. ; 
This honour however he declined ; but at the same tin 1 
ordered money to be struck in his own name, which .; 1 
East is regarded as a virtual assumption of the soveri.. J 
of the country. 

In 1731 Nfidir was engaged in a war with the Tiot 
whom he defeated on tbe plains of Hamadan ; but tu 
been obliged to march to Khorassan to quell a rebt 
T&mfisp seized the opportunity of assuming the comtr. 
of the army, and marched himself against tbe Turks. Bt 
defeated in battle, he concluded a treaty with the Turk* 
which he ceded to them several provinces of the Per-, 
empire. As soon as N&dir heard of this treaty, he u 
advantage of the discontents which it excited, to cam \: 
execution the plans he had long meditated for seisin ; 
royal power. He published a proclamation, in whir!. 
bitterly inveighed against the peace, and announced 
intention of prosecuting the war. Having thus secured < 
good will of the people, he invited Tfim&sp to his camp : - 
on his arrival, he caused him to be seized and earned *• 
to Khorassan. Instead however of proclaiming h.r-. 
king, he considered it more prudent for the present to r 
on the throne the son of T&mfisp, who was an infant <. . 
months old. 

Having completed these arrangements. Nidi r contr. . 
tbe war against the Turks, and after experiencing * " 
reverses, he obliged them to sue for peace, which was gra- 
in 1735. The infant sovereign of Persia having die<i r 
the same time, N&dir summoned a grand council, coi> * 
of almost every person of rank and consideration a 
kingdom, to meet in the plaint of Chowal Motrim. « 
extend from the neighbourhood of Ardebil to the moui . 
the Cyrus, in order to lake into consideration the tin:; 
the kingdom. Upwards of 100,000 persons are s* . 
have attended this assembly, in which the sovereign! 
offered to Nidir, who accepted it with apparent reluc 
on the 26th of February, 1736, on condition that tbe S: 
sect, which had hitherto been supported by the irreat = 
jority of tbe Persians, should be entirely abolished. *xs. '- 
sect of the Sunees established in its place. He also>* ; 
lated that the Imaum Jaafter should be placed at tbe '• 
of the national religion ; and that as there were four em ' 
dox sects among the Sunees, the Persians should W 
sidered as a fifth, under the name of the sect of Jh.* 
It is difficult to determine the reasons which induced N 
to make this violent change in the religion of the cour ir 
but it appears most probable that be wished to destrv)  
Sheah sect, since it had always warmly supported i 
dynasty of the Suftavean princes. All the religious prop* 
of this sect, which was very considerable, was confiscated 
Nadir, and this impolitic attack upon the established ref- 
unded to produce discontents at the very commencement 
his reign* Nidir himself appears to have possessed liri* 
no religion; and the Kor£n as well as tbe Gospels, vs 
were translated into Persian by his order, were frequr 
tbe subjects of his merriment and sarcasm. 

Soon after his accession to the throne, NSdir made \ ^ 

ous preparations for the extinction of the Afighant 1 

I separate power; and as this object could not be act. 

i\ •■»• 

N A H 


N A I 

suiu re» [Hars-Lip] through parts of their substance, or by 
placing setons in them. The circumstances of each case 
must decide the choice between these several means, and 
the mode in which that which is selected may be best ap- 
plied. Should complete removal be deemed necessary, nrovi 
may be either cut out, or made to slough by tying them 
round the base. For the third kind of warty nsvi, excision 
is at once the simplest and the most secure means. 

It is a popular belief that n»vi and some other malfor- 
mations in infants are consequent on an impression made 
on the mind of the mother during pregnancy, and that the 
mark always bears some resemblance to the object by which 
the impression was excited. It cannot be denied, that 
among; the many cases of naevi, some singular coincidences 
of the kind have occurred, and that in some of these the 
malformation might be deemed to have some connection 
with the object of the mother's fear or anxiety ; but till it be 
determined that the number of these coincidences is greater 
than would occur according to the common laws of chances 
i »l; cb is a* yet far from being proved), the hypothesis of a 
er,r t r.*r.*if,n between the state of the mother's mind and the 
i^al cvr» format ion of the child, which is totally opposed to 
a*: >:.v*io>/7iral probability, cannot be admitted. 

NAOASAKL [Japax.1 

.V A';ORK. [M \ttWARj 

N v',?ORE, [BjEftAR.] 

> \(*b h jRV*. a Ur^e town in the dominions of the Rajah 
/.* f>r*f, v .S*sr.ofe, situated in 21° 9' N. lat. and 79 u 10' 
£ s'.t I* %ur,'i% on a plain 1 100 foot above the level of 

* * «**V. TV-* Mfi, wriHi is of very irregular form, is about 
7 -a -*» ,'. * .•'. ,r;jfcr«:nce # the buildings being placed in a 
*«•** v:\;; .; i a* in often Keen in India. The 
7'»4>rv»'* # #MK«r dw«:l|jri(r» are small thatched cottages. 
V.- \+ 'A :^ ?' u«t a habitants have large brick-built houses 
« ? •. .".*«♦. /'•„'•, t* A tuts number of these is small, and is con- 

* .*. i t/'f*.**,t,% through the declining condition of the 
w, A'"<t<\ (>-,: to nn «r numeration made in 1825, Nag- 
y.t\ v, % * **u*A a 1 1 ha t time, 

M-. .*a% 1,-jilt of brink . . • 1,301 

V • *? x.t/ t u'% • • • • • 11,120 

T .♦>?"! '://ttagf*s or huts . . . 14,680 

*?♦'••'! huts of tbo lowest description • 48 



7'* filiation at the same time amounted to 115,228. 

7 i* p*.*/* of the rajah is a large, heavy, and very 
y «.» b-vi.i^ of brick, and is surrounded by the lowest 
y r.d of huu»*» or hovels: it has never been completely 

7 ij«s trade of Nagpore, which was at no time very con- 
»/V**bl.% has declined since the fall of Appah Sahib, and 
U>*- n'wA'A of the seat of government. 

A* '*" enumeration in 1825, it appeared that there were 
««,/,t 30U0 domestic slaves, chiefly females, who had been 
j, „«< i.Aw-d when children from their parents. The condi- 
\,,u -A blavery in this region does not bear much analogy to 
it* »ute of degradation which is elsewhere implied in the 
«*«Li»e, since the severest punishment that can be indicted 
t'/r tinv crime committed by a slave is expulsion from the 
f*!u.j> of the master, and consequent manumission. On the 
otiter hand it would appear that the condition of free la- 
bourer* is one of great hardship, so that life has little 
value in their eyes. Suicide is of very common occur- 
/*»<-*, being resorted to upon the slightest occasions of do- 
uu'hXic quarrel, or of real or supposed injury: the more 
u»u*l modes employed for self-destruction are poison, drown- 
mi; in veils, and hanging. 

N *- pore is distant 733 miles from Calcutta, 577 miles 
from Bombay, 673 from Madras, 486 from Poonah, and 631 
flout Delhi, travelling distances. {Report of Committee of 
Home of Common* in 1832; Rennelr* Memoir of a Map 
oj Hindustan.) 

NAHUM (OVUi Naofyi), one of the twelve minor He- 
brew prophets, was called the Elkoshite Ctfp^KTl Nahum, 

* : v t 

I. 1 ), probably from the place of his birth, Elkosh, a village 
in Galilee (Hieronymus, Prooem in Nahum; Eusebius, 
Onomasticon t art. • EXct<m'). He prophesied in the king- 
dom of Judah, whither we may suppose he had gone after 
~>w of Israel. His age can only be conjectured 
\ indications contained in his prophecy, from 

which it appears that both the kingdoms of Israel a ] 
Judah had been subject to severe attacks from the A^ . r .-, 
(chap. i.). and that the captivity of Israel had ahead > u>. _ 
place (chap. ii. 2). He is thought to allude to the de»:r a- 
tion of Sennacherib's army (i. 11-14), as having occur:. i 
recently (ii. I). He also prophesies the speedy restore 
of Judah to prosperity (i. 15; ii. 7), which happened id v 
reign of Josiah. These circumstances would place hi* ;.*- 
phecy towards the close of Hezekiah's reign, about ; 


Some suppose that the destruction of Thebes and t - 
captivity of the Egyptians and Ethiopians, spoken of .. 
Nahum (ii. 8-10), are the same events to which Isaiah n.i 
(chap, xx.) ; but this is uncertain. 

His prophecy is a complete poem, the subject of *h.v_ 
' the burden of Nineveh' (L 1), that is, the destruct^L 
Nineveh and the Assyrian empire, as the punishment •.!' * 
wickedness and oppression. The prophecy commence^ <- . 
a sublime description of the power of Jehovah in pum* , . 
his enemies and protecting his people, and proceeds to : - 
tell the impending destruction of Nineveh (chap;. > . 
which is described in the most vivid poetry in chap. iu. I 
event which he prophesies took place in the year 6:3 ». 
in the reign of Chyniladanus, king of Assyria, when Xir.-> 
was destroyed and the Assyrian empire overthrow l . 
Cy ax ares I. and Nabopolassar. 

• None of the minor prophets seem to equal Nahum ; 
boldness, ardour, and sublimity. His prophecy too f r 
a regular and perfect poem; the exordium is not mt. 
magnificent, it is truly majestic; the preparation for •: 
destruction of Nineveh, and the description of its d^uL 
and desolation, are expressed in the most vivid coluur>, 
are bold and luminous in the highest degree.' (Bp. L-:. 
Pnrlect., xxL) Some expressions and images, which . 
peculiar to him, occur in i. 10; ii 4-9; ui. 17. 

The canonical authority of Nahum's prophecy is ul. - 

(Rosenmuller, Sch:iiain Vet Test.; Winer's fit o/r»<** 
Rej'tcorterhurh ; the Introductions of Eichhorn, Berths 
J aha. De YYette, and Home.) 

NAIA, Laurenti's name for a genus of highly vcuuil 
serpents, Ura±* and Affis of Wagler. }Ia?es the form next to the Vipers (Vijer* 
Daudin;, ar.d ^n mediately preceding Elaps (Schn.. : .: 
Mr. Gray cakes Mai ma the second subfamily of hi> V\ 
nJsr. f'if+rtr.a bemg the first Naiina, which is <:!.-■ 
tensed by Mr. Gray as having the 'head broad behind, • 
plates,' is immediately succeeded by E lap hi no, and tr.> 
genus A"-ici. in his arrangement, stands between / 
(Merremi ar.i S*; tJ >n of the same author. (On the G 
of He; u;*m, \n Antu's of Phil., 1S25.) 

Mr. Swair.^ju. in his • Classification of Reptiles * (.V-* 
Ih%Ury of F**h** t Amphibians* and Reptiles, vol. n.i. i 
the genus Xaia among the Crotaiidcp, his second fa:. 
Q r hiJei, or -erpents, and arranges it between Cer<**!'< - 
PJ.tturut. He gives the following as the 
A'n/a, S+piion, and Elaps, and thus characterise* ilie • 
genus Xaij .-—Neck capable of being dilated ; head n :r 
dorsal scales linear; tail conical; subcaudal plates an— . 
in two rows. 

Geographical Distribution. — This fo;m appears I. 
confined to the Old World. 

The Asiatic species, Coluber Aujci of LintifiDus, C 
arrus of Gmelin ? J'ipera Xaja of Daudin, Kaja tni . . 
of Mcrrcrn, Xaja lutescens of Lauren ti. Cobra de *(.'. 
ladder with a hood) of the Asiatic Portuguese, Ser 
lunettes of the French, Spectacle-snake of the En^l.-h. .* 
and C hint a nagoo of the natives, may be considered i* 
type of the genus. 

Generic Character. — Head, with nine plates K 
broad ; neck very expansile, covering the head like at.. 
tail round. (Gray.) 

The expansion of the neck and upper part of the 1 
effected by the anterior ribs, which the animal has the \ 
of raising and bringing forward so as to ddate that y - 
into a disk more or less large. When this di>k i, 
dilated in theA r ara tripudians, it presents on the ba- k. 
of it no bad representation of a pair of spectacles, or r 
barnacles, reversed, for there is no trace of the !- 
pieces by which spectacles are attached to the head < 
wearer. The animal is brown above, and blui<h -v 
beneath. The following cuts will convey some idea c«: 
form of this snake, with the hood or diskexpanded. 

ft AI 

N A I 

Ii it pretended that tie root of the OphAorrMza mangos I 
 a specific against the bite of this serpent The priests | 
and juggler* however, who make them dance to astonish or 
amuse the people, make all sure, there is little doubt, by 
extracting tne poison-fangs. . 

This fsnnidaole species, or at least some species of hooded 
snake, according to the records of travellers, grows to a con- 
siderable length. Captain Percival gives the following ac- 
count of its size and habits, in his 'Account of the Hand of 
Ceybn,* 4to^ 1805-— 

•The Cobra Capello, or hooded snake, is found here from 
sex to fifteen feet long. Its bite is mortal. The natives 
find the herb pointed out by the ichneumon a remedy, if 
timely applied. When enraged and preparing to attack, it 
raises its head and body to the height of three or four feet 
in a spiral manner, while at the same time the remaining 
part of the body is coiled up to accelerate and give force to 
the spring. At this instant it distends from its head a 
membrane in the form of a hood, from which it receives its 
name. This membrane lies along the forehead and the 
sides of the neck, and is almost imperceptible till the animal 
gets into a state of irritation and is about to attack his foe. 
When the hood is erected it completely alters the appear- 
ance of the head, and discloses a curious streak in the shape 
of a pair of spectacles, and sometimes of a horse-shoe. The 
extension of this membrane seems intended by Providence 
to give warning to all those within this animal's reach that 
he is preparing to attack them. Without this signal he 
would be very dangerous indeed, as his motions afterwards 
are too rapid to be avoided. I have more than once been 
an eye- witness to instances where the fatal bite of this snake 
was escaped from merely by the object of his vengeance 
timely observing his preparations. One remarkable charac- 
teristic of these dangerous serpents is their fondness for 
music. Even when newly caught they seem to listen with 
pleasure to the notes, and even to writhe themselves into 
attitudes. The Indian jugglers improve greatly on this in- 
stinct, and, after taming them by degrees, instruct them 
even to keep time to their flageolet.' 

The largest Cobra de Capello seen by Dr. Davy in Ceylon 
was nearly six feet long; and he adds that the general 
length is between two and four feet. The colour varied : 
those of a light colour were called high-caste snakes by the 
natives, and those of a dark colour low-caste. 'The natives,' 
says Dr. Davy, « in general rather venerate this snake than 
dread it. They conceive that it belongs to another world,* 
and that when it appears in this it is merely as a visitor ; 
they imagine that it possesses great power, that it is some- 
what akin to the gods, and greatly superior to man. In 
consequence they superstitiously refrain from killing it, and 
always avoid it, if possible. Even when they find one in 
their house, they will not kill it, but, putting it into a bag, 
throw it into water. They believe that this snake has a good 
and generous disposition, and that it will do no harm ip 
man, unless provoked.' Dr. Davy gives a pleasing picture 
of the irritations and soothings with which the snake- 
charmers excite and allay the temper of this serpent. He 
records several instances of the operation of the poison, the 
first arising from a serpent found in a bag floating down the 
Kalang-ganga. It was about five feet long, and about six 
inches in circumference in the broadest part. This snake 
bit a hen, fixing its fangs in the skin covering the lower 

• Dr. Davy, In hit chapter on the Sinhalese System of the Universe, has the 
foUowui* wusa*e :— * The Na#a-bhawen«, that lies under Asoora-bhaweoe is 
also 10/WO leagues in circumference. It is a hollow sphere, without mountains 
or hills, lakes or rivers, and entirely destitute of vegetation, with the exception 
of a single tree, called Psrasattoo. that answers for all others, bearing not only 
■» "nmeuie wi'ty of fkmrrs and fruits, but everything else that is desirable. 
The ^gA-bhawene is the abode of a numerous race of snakes, similar in kind 
to the hooded snake, and of grest size, beauty, snd power, capable of pasting 
ham one part of the world to another, and shining like god* ; so that, thouirli 
they hare no light but that which emanates from their own bodies, they enioy 
perpetual .lay infinitely brighter than ours. In their former lives on earth they 
were persons of remarkable purity and yjoduess, almost deserving of becoming 
gulf ; but their high virtues were sullied by some vice, particularly that of 
malice, to which they owe their present forms. Though snakes, they are 
lthondi%ts ( aod arc iu doammmoo of a relic and worship in temple*. They 
ftkide in well-furnished houws. and eat and drink, and enjoy wwiety. My 
merely wishing, they im media U-ly have any article of food they waot ; and 
whatever it may be, it always appears in the form *4 a ftfg. They ere under 
a regal government. »nd are distributed into ra.tes, like the Jfirifrslese, Their 
king. MahakilUoAKA-rajaya. is in every retpert superior to the rest- it was 
with his a»si«Ufic« that Li* gods and Asooras elm oed Htm muky 'sea; he 
wound him*.lf ro..nt a fork, mu* they, palling at hi* two ntt-m* U. set the 
mass in motion snd ircompllsrV-d tiiHr work. Wr re these «i»«ke« <M<v**i 
Utey could destroy the whole of the in ha bit- nU of the earth by a «intfle blast 
of their poisonous breath ; but Uw*y are naturally mild «ad benevolent, and do 
harm only when provoked. In r<,„ sequence, they mtm rather venerate** tUo 
dreaded; and h k « thl* aceoont U»*t the fommoo hooded *Mke to to »uch 

part of the left pectoral muscle, and keeping its hold ab 
two or three seconds, when Dr. Davy succeeded in sha*. 
it off. The hen, which at first seemed to be little affe: 
died eight hours after she was bitten. 

The reader will find other experiments recorded b» 
author ; but the bite which was followed by the most tf * 
death was inflicted by another Cobra de Capello up 
young cock. 'The snake fastened on the thigh, ar.c 
flicted rather a severe wound, from which some blood d * 
The cock became instantly lame, and in less than a m. 
was unable to stand. In about five minutes his respin 
became hurried and rather laborious ; some alvine <! • 
tions took place. In about ten minutes he appeared : 
in a comatose state, and for about fire minutes he con;, 
in this state, his respiration gradually becoming more .\- 
and laboured. In seventeen minutes, when his brer, 
was hardly perceptible, he was seized wilh a convuUixc 
which in the course of the next minute returned four cr : 
times, each less violent than the former, and the la»t p: 
fatal.' (An Account of the Interior of Ceylon, <^c, bv J 
Davy, M.D., F.R.S., 4to., London, 1821.) 

We owe to Dr. Cantor, who has added so much t.> 
knowledge of the natural history of Asiatic serpents, the . 
traduction of a new genus of hooded snakes, Hamain • 
which will probably find its proper place in the sene* -• 
subgenus of Naia. The doctor himself gives it a p« 
between that genus and Bungarus (DaudinX which : 
forms, in his opinion, it will be found to connect te- 

Hamadryas. (Cantor.) 

Generic Character. — Head broad, subovate, dephs*' 
with a short obtuse rostrum, covered above with fif- 
scuta. Cheeks tumid. Eyes large, prominent, pupil run: 
Nostrils widely opened within the confine of two <r. 
Gape very ample, sub undulated. Poison Jang t ante:. 
behind which are the maxillary teeth. Neck dilata 
Body thick, smooth, imbricated with smooth scales disp^ 
in oblique rows. Tail short, covered with scuta and . 
tella, its apex acute. (Cantor.) 

Example, Hamadryas ophiophagus. (Cantor.) 

Description. — Above olive-green, girt with black sag 
striffi, abdomen glaucous, marbled with black. The 11* 
dustanee name is Sunkr-Choar, 

Locality. — Bengal. 

Habits, $c.— Dr. Cantor thus describes the habits, : 
effect of the poison, and the history of this serpent 

• The Hamadryas, like the Bungarus, Hydrus, ani f 
drophis, has a few maxillary teeth behind the poison f» . 
and thus, like the latter, connects the venomous ser^ 
with isolated poison-fangs to the harmless, which p-v- 
a complete row of maxillary teeth. 

• Of the terrestrial venomous serpents, the Bung-r 
chiefly characterised by a distribution of the teeth *.z 
to that of the Hamadryas, which, also partaking ■»• 
chief characteristic of the genus Naja, viz. that of fin 
a hood or disc, constitutes an immediate link bet wet. 
genera Bungarus and Naja. 

'In consequence of the strong resemblance in the ?<.: • 
appearance between the Naja and the Hamadryat. a. 
first my attention became attracted to the latter, 1 th . 
I could refer this serpent to that genus ; and it *i< 
until I was able to examine a specimen whose poi«>or. 
were untouched (those of the first specimens I saw h. 
been drawn by the natives, who are greatly afraid t 
serpent), that I discovered the maxillary teeth beh::.l 
poison- fangs. 

' Hamadryas ophiophagus differs from the Aq/a .' 
dians : 

'1. By its maxillary teeth. 

•2. By tho strongly developed spines on the os oc?. 

'3. By the integuments covering the head. 

' 4. By the integuments covering the abdominal <u: 
of the tail. 

• 5. By its colour. 
4 6. By its size. 

• According to the natives, the Hamadryas feeds «-' 
upon other serpents: in one I dissected I found rena- 
a good-sized Monitor, which fact may account for iu ar : - 
habits, as I have in Bengal, along the banks of the r * 
observed numbers of those large lizards among the brax 
of trees watching for birds. 

' The power of abstaining from food, generally 



N A J 


nation satin Bed him fully as to the establishment of the 
difference of sexes. The female, sustaining her very large 
burthen, naturally requires, he observes, more space within 
the valves; hence an enlargement of the posterior portion of 
the shell is generally found, differing in its form in various 
species. The following figures, representing the oviducts of 
the species whose names are printed under the cuts, are 
given hv Mr. Lea. 

i.ftntit, aiipnlutlstl t>nn 

Appearances exhibited by female Naiades according t 
Mr. Lea, one of the valves removed and the oviducts ex 

Mr. Lea remarks that the mass of the lobes in this spc . 
differs from that of A. fiuviatilis, in presenting a dart. 
appearance and a very curious arrangement of the ovidf- 
The ova are placed in a kind of sac lying across the k» 
and presenting one end to the stomach and the other 
the mantle of the animal. They lie so close together, a-  
lake the form on the exterior, like the cells of a honei cwl: 
This, Mr. Lea says, is of course produced by press--! 
Some of these sacs, when carefully removed, were found '. 
contain as many as twelve ova, each with a perfect h\.a 
shell in it, having a brownish epidermis: ainth: cut rt;t  

T.ia fcraln of r:«ia nroW-M u llnr-flm •'■en wilh lh» parti petruirl - 

Qity lay •! Oh batlm or  Win u r nin Mr. I*< (Into IUU tt»r 1r- - 

inn un l-j quitr OilTtrtnl btnu at ngiriU U» Infsiiiar ]«ibou el Ikt T — ' 

N A 1 

Bents a hlic with its ova, b represents the ovum with its per- 
fect young shell included, c represents the honeycomb ap- 
pearance and ia eight times magnified. 

Mr. Lea (vol. i.) states that it seems to be a matter of 
doubt on what these animals subsist. He says that he has 
strong reasons for believing that they feed on animalcules 
which are ever found to exist in water, and which they 
might separata from the constant stream which they pass 
from the posterior part of (he shell, and which must be 
taken in at another port. This operation he witnessed fre- 
quently in a vessel in which be kept the Naiadte for some 
mouths. If the water was not changed for twenty-four hours, 
he uniformly found the animals quiet, bnt within a few 
minutes after it was changed they as uniformly commenced 
the passage of this constant stream. He adds that he can- 
not suppose this operation to be for the sole purpo: 
breathing, as there is no intermission in the stream of w 
and the quantity thrown out is too great for this purpose 
only. He believes it to be the result of the action of the 
separation of the animalcules from the water. 

In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in Lon- 
don (Physiological serifs) are the following preparations. 
No. 1002, The soft parts of a fresh-water muscle (Anodrm 
cygneut) injected and prepared to show the four branchisB, 
which unite below the fool. The convolutions of intestine 
at the base of the foot and the passage of the rectum through 
the heart are also shown. No. 1003, The soft parts of a 
freshwater muscle, with both mantle-lobes and heart dis- 
sected away, so as clearly to display the branchiaa and labial 
processes. The orifice of the branchial vessels and water- 
tubes are well displayed at the base of the branchial. The 
first series of vessels, which run transversely across the 
branch iffi, give off lateral ramulets at right angles, and 
form a most delicate vascular net-work to receive the in- 
fluence of the respiratory currents. No. 1004, A transverse 
section of the branchiae of a fresh-water muscle, injected, 
dried, and preserve I in oil of turpentine: a beautiful dis- 
play of (he vascularity and delicate structure of the respira- 
tory organ. No. GG, A transverse section of the connecting 
ligament of the valves of a fresh-water muscle, showing 
thut its structure is fibrous, the fibres being perpendicular 
to the plane of the shell, and converging towards the centra, 
so that when the shell is closed these fibres are in a slate of 
compression, and consequently have a constant tendency to 
antagonize the adductor muscle, open the shell, and retain 
it in that state, independent of any muscular action. No. 
6 7, A longitudinal section of (be same ligament, made by 
dividing Ihe valves from one ano(ber. 

The brilliant and variously coloured nacre with which 
many of the species are lined and the extreme thickness 
of some of the shells are very remarkable. That pearls 
should be found in tbem will not surprise those whose 
attention has been drawn to their internal surface. Pen- 
nant remarks that Mya Margarit\fera of Linnseus (Unto 
elongatut) is noted for producing quantities of pearls, 
and formerly there were regular fisheries in many of our 
rivers to obtain them. As many as sixteen have been taken 
from one shell. The Esk and the Conway were famous in 
this way. The latter river, in the davs of Camden, was 
noted for them. Sir Richard Wynn of* Gwydir, chamber- 
lain to Catherine, queen to Charles II., is said to have pre- 
sented her majesty with a Conway pearl which is to this 
day honoured with a place in the regal crown. Pennant, 
who states this, adds, that the shells are called by the 
Welsh, Cngen Diluw, or Deluge Shells, as if left there by 
the deluge. The river Irt in Cumberland also produced 
them ; and Sir John Hawkins, the circumnavigator, had a 
patent for fishing that river, Britain indeed had early 
acquired a reputation for its pearls ; for, according (o Sue- 
tonius, they were Csssar's inducement for undertaking his 
British expedition. {Jul. Caiar, c. 47.) This however does 
not seem very probable. Pliny (ix. 35) indeed speaks of 
the pearls of our island as small and ill coloured, and 
refers to the breast-plnte which Cassar himself had brought 
home and dedicated to Venus Genetrix in her temple, add- 
ing that he wished it to be understood (hat the offering was 
formed of British pearls. 

Ireland has produced pearls of considerable size and some 
value, especially in the rivers of Tyrone and Donegal. One 
weighed 36 carats, and was valued at 40/., but it was foul, 
and so lost much of its worth. Other single pearls were 
sold for 41. 10*., and for as much as 10/. The last was sold 
a second time to Lady Glenlealy, who put it into a necklace, 
md refused 80'. for it from the duchess of Ormond. Pennant, 
P,C No. 385. 

1 NA1 

who quotes from the abridgement of the 'Phil. Trans.,' 
speaks of the last century as the time when these large 
Irish pearls were procured. We have seen some lately of 
considerable size, fair shape, and pretty good colour. 

Mr. Lea, in his final arrangement, admits only two genera, 
Margarita and Ptaliris. The first of these has been pre- 
occupied by Leach to designate a genus of marine conc.lii- 
fers. [Margarita.] We shall however retain the name in 
this article, in order to present to the reader Ibe leading fea- 
tures of Mr, Lea's arrangement and the forms of the shells. 
Margarita. (Lea.) 
1. Subgenus. Unio. 
Having a cardinal and lateral tooth. 

«. fart or lha maf of the nh« brokta off, (howlsc the lyniphynoto chuiclcr. 

Example, Unio Pictorum, common in our English rivers ; 
shell and animal figured in the article Conchifbha, lol.vii.. 
p. 433. 



iiu4a U of lha Uffll ahapa 

1- Subgenus. Margaritana. 
Having one tooth (cardinal). 

Example, Alatmodonta undalata. (Say.) 

Example, Alasmodanta comptanata. (Barnes.) 

3. Subgenus. Dipsai. 
Raving a linear tooth under Ike dorsal margin. 
Symphynote only. 
Example, Diptat plieatiu. (Leach-) 

4. Subgenus. Anodonta, 
Having no teeth. 

Example, Symphynota magnijica. (Lea.) 

Example, Anodonta ftuvialilii (Mytilus (luviatilia of So- 
lander, Dillwyn, &c; Anodonta caUrracla of Say). 

Ft ati m r. (Leo.) 

1. Subgenus. Iridina. 
Having a crenulate dorsal margin. 

Example, Iridina exotica. [See Conch ace a, vol. ( 
i. 426.] 

2. Subgenus. Spatha. 
Having the dorsal margin nun -crenuiate. 

Non- Symphynote. 
Example, Iridina Nilotiea. (Sowerby.) 

Iiidizu Nilotiea. 

Nridulnut Shells. 
Example, Unto puttulosiu. (Lea.) 

Smooth Shell*. 
Example, Unto complanaiui (L'nio purpureua. Sa;;. 

it the first who discovered this spocies. 
, found it in the Mississippi. See his 'Travels/ 

i.u^t abundant in North America.) 

n or doubtful. 

it, and 20 which he has 
(Europe, Asia, Africa, 
'" t Holland. By far 

with an omission which would have been almost unpardon- 
able in an author who had undertaken a monograph of this 
extensive family. It is but common justice to Mr. Lea to 
insert his conclusive answer to this charge : ' I will he ex- 
cused,' says Mr. Lea, 'in (aking this opportunity to correct 
an erroneous impression on the mind of M. Dcshayes. He 
says that I was not able to examine the collection of the 
museum of Paris. "Malgre cclte imperfection qu'il na 

Kuvait emnecher, le travail de M. Lea se reeommonde i. 
Mention des naturalises par des observations judicieuses, 
des descriptions exactos," Sic. It would be strange indeed 
if, after spending so many years in the study of this family, 
that I should neglect, while in Paris, to see the collections 
from which Lamarck made so many descriptions. I was 
frequently at the museum, and, on one particular occasion, 
by appointment of MM. BlainviUc and Ferussau, arranged, 
in the presence of these and other gentlemen, nil the species 
of the Naiades that were in the museum, and named them ; 
and also presented to the museum about IS species which 
were new to that great national institution. I also did the 
same thing for Baron Ferussae, having designated every 
specimen in his cabinet belonging to this family.' 
Fossil Naiad*. 
Speaking of Anodon, Mr. G. B. Sowerby (.Genera) says 
that he does not know of any fossil species, unless we are 
justified in considering the bivalve from the coal- measures 
figured in Sowerby's 'British Mineralogy,' tab. 38G, under 
the name of Mytilta crauiw. as an Anodon. This Mr. G. 
B. Sowerby stales he is unable, after examining the speci- 
mens, to demonstrate, though ho finds strong reason for 
believing that it may prove so. When treating, in the same 
work, of the genus Unto, the author states that there an 
many fossil bhclls, particularly in the coal-measures, which 
are referred lo this genus ; and, he thinks, correctly to, 
though hu has never been able (o consult the characters of 
Iho hinge ; but, judging [ram the cast of the inside, which 
is very common, lie funis uo dilVireixe U-huren it and casts 
that he made from the inside of recent Untunes. He does 
not however feel authorised to pronounce the shell pub- 
lished in Min. Cu/i., t. 1 -i.'l ( Uui'j craninimtts), to be an 
Vnio; for its hin^e, he observes, is far from being charac- 
teristic, and it has not the compound muscular impression 
of that genus. He thinks that it agrees more nearly with 
some of the Lamarckian Cypricaniite ; at the same lime 
he confesses his doubts about the probability of (hat genus 
being ultimately adopted. His attention appears lo have 
been next drawn to Unto Listeri, U. hybridw, concinnut, 
and others figured in Mm. Con., and placed in the oolitic 
i by Couybeare and Phillips ; and, in confirmation of 
i of the observations recorded in their 'Outlines,' he 
remarks that these, together with Vnio crassimcu/us (Min. 
Con., t. 185), all want some of the principal distinguishing 
marks of the Unio, and, judging even from their hinges, 
remarks that we should certainly hesitate to place them 
with Vnio. He adds that he has never seen any perfect 
specimen of the shell published as Vnio, from the fresh- 
water formation; but if he may be allowed to decide from 
such fragments as he had examined, and from its geolo- 
gical puiitun, he should hardly feel a doubt upon the sub- 
ject. Notwithstanding however what he has above ad- 
vanced, ho concludes by observing that he must still consider 
the existence either of Unio or Anodon in any bed below 
the chalk, except the coal measures, as exceedingly pro- 
blematical. M. Dt-liayiis (7'iW«) makes the number of 
fossil species of Umo (leriiury), 2; of Anodvn, 1 : of Hyria, 
none; and of Iridtna, none. In the last ednion of Lamarck 
he records 2 of Unio— U. r«(fi'»H«s (Sow.), from the inferior 
; near Banbury, in Oxfordshire, and Unio hybridu* 
.) from the Nottinghamshire bods ; both from Mm. Con. 
i)r. Mantell records a Unio (Brit. Min., t, iuu) from the 

N A I 


N A I 

plastic clay (Castle Hill, near Newhaven), and Unions* 
vorrectui, compressw, antiquum, aduncus, and cordtformit, 
from the Tilgate beds (middle division). Also Unto an- 
Hquus from the Ash burn ham beds (lover division of the 
Hastings deposits). Professor Phillips (Yorkshire) enu- 
merates Unionet Listeria concinnu*, and craesiueculta, from 
the lias; peregrinue from the comb rash; and abductus 
from the inferior oolite and marlstone. Mr. Lonsdale 
(oolitic district of Bath) records Unio concinnus from the 
alluvium (Weston) and from the inferior oolite (Widcombe 
Hill); and an unnamed Uniof from the Kello ways rock 
(Christian Mai ford). Dr. Fitton, in his table {Strata below 
the Chalk) notes Uniones aduncus, antiquum, compressus, 
cordiformis, Gualterii, Mantellii, Martini, porrectus, sub- 
truncatus, a species not distinct, a large new species, and 
some other species probably new, from the Weald clay, 
Hastings sand, and Purbeck beds. Mr. Lea gives 21 as 
the number of fossil Union**, and one ( doubtful) of Anodon. 

%* The last-named author, in his arrangement founded 
on the form of the hinge, has deemed it better not to adopt 
D'Orbigny's genus Afyrc/opoda [Mycetopoda] established 
on the natural character or the animal. In its perforating 
habit it resembles, according to Mr. Lea, his Unio orient, 
which buries itself about 12 inches below the surface of the 
sand in which it lives. 

The genera Diplodon, Triplodon, &c. of Spix can hardly 
be allowed to stand. 

NAI'ADKS. otherwise called Naiadece and Ftuviales, are 
aquatic plants forming a small natural order of En doge ns, 
remarkable for the unusual simplicity of their organization. 
As thev live- constantly below water, they require no epider- 
mis, and therefore the leaves consist of nothing more than 
the mesophlc3um,or central stratum of parenchyma. Their 
sexes are usually separate, and sometimes on different 
plants. Their floral envelopes are either deficient or in the 
form of a membranous tunic or cup. or consist of scales, 
to the face of which anthers or carpels adhere. The latter 
are either solitary or in pairs or fours, one-seeded, one- 
celled, with the ovule generally pendulous from the central 
suture Their fruit is usually indehiscent and nut-like, 
but sometimes it is 2-valved or irregularly ruptured. The 
embryo has no albumen, and consists of a very large radicle, 
usually folded up, and containing a slender plumule lying 
in the cavity so formed. 

These plants are inconspicuous objects, inhabiting both 
fresh and salt water in all parts of the world. In this coun- 
try, the genera Potamogeton, a common inhabitant of rivers 
and ponds, elevating its little brown spikes of flowers above 
water during the time of fertilization; Zannichellia, a 
thread-shaped plant, with minute axillary flowers, constantly 
submersed ; and Zostera, or sea-wrack, with long, narrow, 
riband-like leaves, inhabiting estuaries of the sea, are the 
moat common. 

Zotterm marina. 
1. afpaOuoootatnlntnaWaDd female flowers; 2, a female j 3, an anther ; 

NAIA'DS (N<u<Mfc, Nqtfcc) were female deities in th< 
Greek and Roman mythology, who were supposed to p»< 
side over rivers, brooks, and springs. They are represent : 
as young and beautiful nymphs (Horn., OdL, xiii. 1031, 
whom ingle, according to Virgil, was the most lovely it.:, 
vi. 21). Many of the heroes of the Homeric poems x 
described as the offspring of Naiads. 

According to Pausanias (viii. 4, $ 2), the Naiads v< 
called, by the Arcadians, Dryades and Epimelia~. 

NAIRN. [Nairnshire.] 

NAIRNSHIRE, a small county in the northern b^ 
lands of Scotland. It is bounded on the north by M 
Frith, on the east by Elginshire, on the south-east by a : 
tached portion of Inverness-shire, on the south by a deiacL- 
portion of Elginshire, and on the south-west and we>t . 
Inverness-shire. It is situated between 57° 21' and 57 s ■« 
N. lat., and between 3° 40' and 4° 5' W. long. Its form . 
irregular ; the greatest length is, from north by east to *,u 
by west, from the eastern extremity of the coast to ': 
neighbourhood of Cairn Glaschura and the Leonach h ' . 
20 miles; the greatest breadth, at right angles to »L- 
length, is, from the neighbourhood of Culloden Muir * 
the neighbourhood of Loch-an-Tulloch in Elgiosb.' 
sixteen miles. The area of the county is given byb- 
Playfair {Description of Scotland) and by Mr. MacC 
loch (Statistical Account of the Brit. Empire} at 198 squ-." 
miles; the population, by the census of 1831, was *.: i 
Two detached portions belong to the county, the district • 
Ferintosh or Fairntosh, near Dingwall in Ross-shire, -. 
Dunmaglass in Inverness-shire. These detached pan* i- 
not, we believe, comprehended in the measurements g -• 
above; but the population is included in the forego r. 
number. It is one of the least of the Scottish counts 
extent, and is exceeded in population by all the others, ex- 
cept Kinross and Selkirk, and perhaps Cromarty, the pof 
lation of which is not distinguished in the Return (torn U- 
of Ross. 

The southern part of the county is hilly ; the bills fin 
two irregular groups, separated by the river Findhnr 
which flows through the county. The principal sumr. 
are Ben Bui, Cairn Our, Craigerachan, and the Leon*-, 
all on the border towards Inverness-shire ; Cairn Glasch:- 
and Cairn Dui, on the border toward Elginshire. T. 
valley between the two groups of hills in which the Fr 
horn flows is called Strathdern. Along the coast, wl*. 
extends about eight miles from east by north to wes 
south, is a narrow border of level country extending ir*.. 
from one to six miles. The hill country belongs to oce 
the least interesting and least frequented parts of the in- 

The principal rivers are the Findhorn and the Nairn,**. - 
both rise in Inverness-shire, and flow through the oour/. 
a north-east direction. The Nairn has about eleven a 
of its course within or upon the border of Nairnshire, .- 
falls into the Moray Frith at the burgh of Nairn. It < 
stream of little consequence; its mouth forms an indiScr 
harbour, and the salmon-fishery in its waters is of no r 
value. Its name in the Celtic language is UUg Sir 
' the water of alders ;' from this has been derived it* u- 
designation, which it has communicated to the burgh, - 
through it to the shire. The Findhorn has about e.. 
miles of its course in this county, through which it pt- 
to enter Elginshire, where it has its outfall. A nuial • 
small streams flow into these rivers, especially ict^ 
Findhorn. There are a few small lakes or lochs. T 
largest is the Lake of the Clans, about a mile long ao i 
a mile broad, about four miles south-west of tho burd 
Nairn ; Cranloch, near the eastern extremity of the ; • 
is rather longer than the Lake of the Clans, but not qu.  • 
broad. The other lakes are much smaller. 

The mineral treasures of the county are not great. T . 
is abundance of marl, which is valuable for manure, r*. . 
little used. Expectations were once entertained of fir 
coal. A quarry of dark blue stone, which is inflanm. 
is worked ; it neither loses bulk nor is pulverised b* 
There is freestone in Nairn parish, and a few men ari 
ployed in the quarries. Peat is dug. 

The soil is diversified. In the eastern part of the ' 
tract along the coast it is generally a rich loam on a ^ 
or gravelly bottom : in the western part it is either a st;£ 
clay or a Bharp gravelly mould. In the mountainous d> 
it is chiefly a sandy loam, full of gravel and small 


Tho climate in 
are Inter than 
inure favourable 
by frost, not ace 

Tho a sTiculture of Nairnshire is in a very backward state. 
Alirml twenty or thirty years since the farms were small 
imil the- tenantry poor. Most of them held their farms with- 
mit leases. These poorer tenants followed the routine of 
ay ri cultural practice, which had been long established; but 
i In- richer tenants and the proprietors were more willing to 
break through the shackles of custom and to introduce im 
[n'livements. The proportion of arable land was smalt, espe- 
i'iIIi in the Highland district, and almost the whole county 
i. .1- unenclosed. Manure, formed of dung mixed with turf 
nr -and, was accumulated by means of sheep, which on the 
mill farms (on nearly all of which a small flock was kept) 
YuTii housed every night; and also by means of Rome black 
i"it tin and horses. This manure was spread over a portion, 
perhaps a fourth, of the farm, which portion, after three 
I 'bushings, was sown with bear or big, and this crop was 
succeeded by two or three successive crops of oats. A small 
[■lot was allowed for potatoes, and occasionally a patch for 
growing (lax for domestic use. When, as frequently hap- 
tir'ned, the land became too much overrun with weeds to 
;ifT*ird an adequate return, it was left waste for one or two 
i i-ars, and the horses and cows were turned in to feed upon 
ii ; alter which it was again brought into cultivation, as 
hove described. The tenantry were allowed pasturage for 
i heir cattle, either in the open down along shore or in the 
unenclosed moors near the foot of the mountains. The 
'Tiro opulent farmers had introduced fallows into their 
naclice, and cultivated the artificial grasses and other green 
Tops, The poor farmers made their own carts and agri- 
■■I Itural implements, which were consequently of very inferior 

There are in the county about 8000 acres of natural wood 
ind -H'lid acres of plantations. The woodlands are chiefly 
 n the banks of the rivers and their tributary streams. 

The population of the county in 1831 was thus classified: 
M7J inhabited bouses; 2246 families; of which 742 families 
vi.rc chiefly employed in agriculture ; 467 families in trade, 
liiimllictiires, and handicrafts; and 1017 families in other 
icupationa: the population consisted of 4307 males and 
.■'17 females; total, 9354. 

There are no manufactures carried on in the county ex- 
. |it that of woollen cloth, which in 1831 employed about 
,o men, who converted yarn into cloth for family use. Tho^ 
■. ist fishery gave employment to 127 men in the parish of 
Si ii in ; and 532 men were engaged in retail trade or in 

I io rafts, chiefly carpenters, masons, shoemakers, tailors, 

n-1 smiths. 
The county baa no other subdivisions than parishes, of 
Inch it contains three entire, and portions of seven others, 
,<■ remaining parts of which are in Inverness, Elgin, Ross, 
i Cromartyshire, and most of them in the first. . 

There is only one town in the shire, the royal burgh of 
ktiirn, situated on the west side of the river Nairn, near its 
ninth. It appears to have been founded by William the 
...ii (who reigned from 1165 to 1214), and was originally 
illi'd Invcrnaren. The town was afterwards granted by 
t'ibcrt Bruce (who reigned from 1306 to 1329) to the 
.ii nf Ross, Lord of the Isles, under whose descendants 
probably continued till a.d. 1475. The site of the 
lore nnlient town was at some distance from that of 
!■■ prevent town: this change has resulted from the gra- 
ril advance of the sea upon the land, and the shifting of 
ii- bed of the river. Tho ruins of the an lien t castle which 
tended the town have been long covered by the sea ; but 
i-rty years ago some of tho older inhabitants remembered 
. have seen them at spring-tides. The present town con- 
i»tsof one principal street parallel to the river, and of a 
■nibcr of smaller streets or lanes branching from it at 
: ,'lit angles. Soma new streets of greater regularity have 
i i'ii laid out on the north side of the town, near the shore; 
it little progress, if any, has been made in building them, 
in- kirk lies back from the main street near the river; the 
■a ii !:.-)]!, a part ofwhich is used as the burgh and county 
--mi, is in the main street; it was rebuilt about twenty 
irs since. There are two dissenting places of worship, 
ii. -re is abridge over the Naim. 

Considerable expense was incurred, some time since, in 
Lining a harbour; but the great Hoods of 1629 almost 

some resort as a bathing-place, and several villas have been 
erected in the neighbourhood. Some coal and lime are 

imported, and a number of boats are engaged in the her- 
ring fishery. The burgh and parish, which comprehends 
an extensive rural district, contained, by the census of 1821, 
679 inhabited houses and 3228 inhabitants ; by that of l«31, 
721 inhabited houses and 3266 inhabitants; 38 of the houses 
were assessed at 10/. a year value or upwards, and more 
than GO were estimated to be worth 10/. a year or more. 
There is a weekly market: and six stated fairs are held in 
the year. 

The burgh of Nairn belongs to tho Inverness district of 
burghs, which comprehends Inverness, Fortrose, Forres, and 
Nairn, and returns one member. The number of council- 
lors, as determined by act 3 & 4 Will. IV.,c. 76, is 9; the 
number of registered voters is above 60. The yearly revenue 
or the corporation is upwards of 140/.; the expenditure 
about 10/. more. The whole of the trades make but one 
corporation. The jurisdiction of the burgh magistrates has 
dwindled to the cognizance of petty thefts and assaults. 

Several Roman cuius have been discovered at Nairn. 
(Carlisle, Top. Diet, of Scotland.) 

Auldearn, a parish, the kirk of which is about two miles 
south-east of Nairn, is a burgh of barony. The parish had, 
in 1931, 330 inhabited houses and 1 (■ 1 3 inhabitants. 

Nairnshire is united under ono sheriff with Elginshire- 
the sheriff, as in the other counties of Scotland, is a paid 
legal functionary or judge, with extensive jurisdiction in 
civil cases and more rostricti'd jurisdiction in criminal 
cases. (MacC ul loch's Statistical Account of the British 

There is little crime in tho county, and that little is de- 
creasing, from greater decision in enforcing the laws against 
smuggling, and from the growth of self-respect, the result 
of tho increased civilization of the people. Petty assaults 
and other breaches of the peace, almost all arising from 
drunkenness, are the most common offences. Drunkenness 
is however diminishing ; but tbe condition of the people is 
much depressed. Most of the adults are able to read, and 
the men can generally write. {Second Report of Inspector* 

There is much suffering among the people from poverty: 
in the parish of Nairn alone, in 1 636, 200 persons were on 
the poor-roll. The condition of the able-bodied labourer hat 
however improved. There is a savings' bank near Nairn. 
Potatoes and herrings form a considerable portion of the food 
of the poorer classes. 

The three parishes which are wholly within the county, 
and two of those which are partly within it, are in tho pres- 
bytery of Nairn; the remainder of those which are partly 
in the county aic severally in the presbyteries of Inverness, 
Forres, and Dingwall. The presbytery of Dingwall is in 
the synod of Ross ; the other presbyteries ate in the synod 
of Moray. 

For parliamentary purposes the county is united with 
that of Elgin : the two return one member. Before tho 
Reform Act, Nairnshire returned a member alternately 
with Cromartyshire. 

This county was formerly included in the district of 
Moray. It contains some antiquities, or which the most 
interesting is Calder or Cawdor Castle, the antient seat of 
the thanes of Cawdor. In this building tradition has fixed 
the scene of the murder of Duncan by Macbeth, and the 
very bed in which he was murdered is professedly shown ; 
but the tower, which alone remains of the old castle, and to 
which is attached a more modern building, is obviously of 
later date than the transaction connected with it. In the 
parish of Nairn are the vestiges of an antient fortress, called 
Caistle Fionlah, i.e. Finl ay's Castle' and at no great dis- 
tance are the remains of the castle of Rait, tbe seat of tbe 
Cummins. Below this castle there is a place called Knock- 
na-Gillan or Knoch-na-Gi/Iaw. i.e. 'the bill where tho 
young men were killed.' It takes its name from the slaugh- 
ter, by the Cummins, of eighteen of the clan Macintosh 
with whom they had a feud. 

In the year 1643 the low country, the people of which 
favoured the Covenanters, was ravaged by Montrose, who 
destroyed the fishermen's boats and nets. The Covenanters, 
under General Hurry or Urry, attacked him at Auldearn 




os ; and if in any instance there is any deviation fr »: « 
rule, it is for some special reason, and we see it to be ju 
ception to what was the usual practice. 

In the other nations, the fathers of European civil ;ir 
it was the same, Egypt, Syria, Persia, and Greece ; u; 
son f one word: and so in the earliest periods to wh 
can ascend in the history of the Latin nation, we ha?? r- 
more than one word to denote one individual, or if it. 
i a «ccond word emploved, it bespeaks an origin in svzn 

St- - - i » 

NAKED SEEI^S. T *s naiie ins allied by Linnaeus 
♦> a siz-ill i.z-ji *>t fruit wh.:h d.os n:t directly War a style 
i' the i'^x. an i Va ?h hi* the aprearance of a seed, as in 
:.:e >-.?». tie EXad-nettle, the B-»~.r?. Ate: such fruits are 
n.-v ■•i»j t «i n~~~\.Li by many writers. Naked seeds 
>tr z*\s so zi'li. i a-e se--«is wh :h are fcrtii sed by immeJi- 
i* r.'i'j.:: t.:: r-.^:u ;-i wh::h hive no periearrial 
r .-r z^: i"_e- it.- :: ;rrso:i: in: -2 }~i*y in the great class 
..-' G~-lz --nr^i^ th-ii is i- say. i^ Cniierx, tyeadaeeap, 
l: i I*.-.- *j.i *fr. I: b.w£-er s> tzrt.zi-s hir>?ns that 

u;\ a:"*er the irJi-ence of 

— .-—-I-.-, x~ .1 Lc - .-: t>il.:tr ::e>- In such 
_= r s. • _- : .t j-»:-*.-r. " -i- i- h -: n;: m the sense 

r-*ar Nairn, bat were beaten with the loss of 2000 mea. 

II -tr -se bcrr.t the towns of Eig'.n and Nairn. 

I- the RrS.. ..a of 1745-46 the royal army in pursuit of 

the Pr**ezder> forces crossed the county. The battle of 

Ci-L *i=- wis f jjht just beyond the boundary, in the 

eu--*v .: Ir^ert-ws. 

ip.i-.;lr' 5 Zv^ni.'rn .-./■ SyM-znd : Beauti** of Scot- 

li-i: M:.C-.l •:-'* S ':'»»**** i/ A<—iunt of th* British 

k. i;** : -V - - •'.: * 7.if . ». 7 1 -y r - * "! ^:*» »7 **<?rf * B*rort* j a «ccond word employed, it bespeaks an origin 

zer Par :-i~ emir} Pa;ers; Corbie's T^p. D«£/. o/ wh:ch is apart from the simple, colloquial, and Usuai ! 

nation of him. 

In the Celtic and German nations it appears to "' 
been the same; Arminiut, Ariorishu, and the lib.': 
in Britain, Caractacut. The Saxons were a nation m ■>. 
this, the primitive system, was still prevalent, not on'.* * 
they first established a colony in Britain, but during the r 
period when the descendants of Hengist held the *-* • 
authority in this island. Persons do, to be sure, r* 
themselves in the pages of historians with such a f l! \ 
H:rw>;/, Ir,nn-ie y but it may be reasonably c 
whether these terms can be properly regarded zs »• 
and if it is admitted that they may be sucb, still th-.- 
^ mz-1. :'t-:V thrtz. ani 1-^L^ j only exceptions, the srreat mass of the Saxon p r .'. 

of whatever rack, having bat one single word by «v 
individual was denoted, such as Edwin? Af/ri-^ '» 
I"/, To* ft', //j/r-'i, and the l:ke. 

As nations advanced in refinement, the names tf : ; 
divi !ua!s comprising them became more complex. A: 
z -... -. ~*-r. .:s„ in 17*1. ar.d I the R. ruins, f_r instance, we hare Publius Ccrue' ■. * 
.i Y. >: . w. A".*:ri."j to the s fio Ar'ri.\;nus. C&us Ju.iwt C^pfjr, Publius Orrir:* ' 

an-1 names of this chss farmed the rule, at least in f 
which were free. The slaves probably remained w. . 
single Wvrdonly. 

We have n^t room to er.ter into an examirat!- •* 
principle on which this new form of personal den« w. '. 
was constructed. A un»:»jrm pnnc.pie, like that very \. 
b!e one on which our own personal nomenclature is af  
sent constructed, r/erLaps d. I n;t exist, so that cur p: 
system is rather to be recariei as the inrenticn of rr 
nations, than as borrowed by them from any of the • 
of more antient civil^ratirn. 

The principle of the mrrtern system cf persona! n»n. 
ture in our own cation is ths: to have one n:.T.: * 
individual, jcined to a <tc?~d carce, which is c n:_ 
some panic -Lar stirrs in ihe great Erjlish x., *. 
he belong We c^ll the tv.o the n~m<? and the ■. • 
We think in those «iiys c.:h r:^ t f the latter \ 
the tVriuer. B-t iu t^e ni. % re sclemn acts of c-r I 
find the pr:rcr c. v :>c<:ue=-'e civtn to that whi'*h 1- 
the name: 1:1 v p\-m. l^ c.;z.^Lt-ry^tiaa ;. 5 ". 
at niairuj^e. **ht^ the nazie ^ tbe thing :n que-* 
that « \ur. is ?r n t*"> the r '.r-e. and r.M t^ie sum i~~  

— .«. 1 —1 1" ~-I r •_! 

AE%TTCH. a Rus-Ian 

^  » **.. 


J. r--. III. L" 1 

- .1 1; -. -.-.1 lie : 'iry M?m^ 

1 -.*_._ j : ~ _-e -T- .: ; f-r. -ti the 

-•-•i :*\:i:k.T. he e-.r.l^l him- 
,2 ' — i- * • 1 *-'"a*"re 

^- r :.-: is .. r\.-:e £rz.crai a?t;n^>h- 
':_» :-rr^?. h* ret.rci to his own 
^ :f l::er^:T erj.vnient 

-, .(-. 


that ii.nie>t:c 

* -- * • 

1 •_- 3 r .".:« :•;"•;: ^-— 

- ti 1 i: si":-".. 1: =r Sc-r^rv-i to himself by his 

j. i. - : -t u lr "i-j.r^ *.iy. Thus eminently 

--._-. l .; *" = "• r=>.c.^ 1^ tr^i. ;-.*. of his life met 
i - - ^r- • -7_.t .:: tr.AU ih^: v^f a premature death, 
-_ - I/t^ •..!.-... rliTci.Jb} afover. July 17-29, 1814. 

: _ T £ - T — : 1^ -^e, leaMiij behind him two infant 

_;..-..•: — 1= ^a I . fc Ae\i as ploiUes of the increasing 

7. .:i .: 12 1 .; I -. •>t;.n ard possessed of a fund of 
^ . ?. ^c uii ; >-? ;• Nikh.:nov had main singular!- 

i.rl ".> >h> e\cn atu. 1 :^ his most 

A...^vC t-.;:; m h.s ehaiaeter was 

 i: » »» T i taleir.s, r.ot\uth- 

.* *- . .* >. a::d :!.i>e ::i vh.oh he 

i_i 1 * -^ i* 

.. ?■ ~ J.U'l -_1:*.V 

*». - • ^* * _ .. *' 

a -^ : '^» va>t 

4 * 



Ci Ji v 

. .•» 



► >' 

. v. 

Fa.'cs/ waioh ' Ivvks, e^er. d.-y^ t.» the c( the se^ 
l>o>.Jes Iks tha: catilj^ui* iri ^:if\es »re «* ^:e:.n:es so r;-;j" 
tLa: the zi^cs* 1 i r.:t tl : s_ rz.azitrs» ire rarj--. ; .- 
bctual cri^r. Fi. ^-.-"s * 1^-: -.^--ji P^-etaruni * { . : * 
-. » .1 i-ja':;^! 111 dv ;;>.::! late iiista-.v. 
: , k " R .— a l\* N.vlv iu a:id • T^e val-ie ^f :!:I< rrr.-:.rle L:s here: th^t :t is s 
1.- .> ii'^YIares* M.^rvtue- aiii».i>\ iz;«ie cf «h:w^.j. tc k^e ex:e~t, t«j w_* 

it i\ir:ae*e 

« .« 1.. -. .k. . » I. ll I .I....VV4 

w _ X •""•.\u " t .v ^f* \* > »*> ♦*• : *-* 1* *"-•* - -- - •* •»• — -•-.2. A— . l 

» ■* • 

. :.». Ttf :* .2-jC 

^ . i i.w^": 

^. 1. 

- M. »s «• 

Sn.-*is »h: ziiv ferfi azv -'.r *.:v c 

<:i t^e ancx-** -* 

re^i an* -.r «.:v c-. tr.e s--* 


-v a:i<r- 


.-^. v:.-. i^z 1. i.^*. j to a*o::* 1 b<y 

. ^ very ^..".e ?no.^?s^ w...;n .t w_< -„ 
* - > c* 1* . -. w*: *:<. I » ve. p r. v 2 .> .1 ::_ 

. :. ■» 

. .. l_ : .^ **■•• a • 

L=- - 1 Ij^.IV: 

— - 1 r •- :• 

>-^ . . 1 . 

>'.-.. i.~- :e. I- E-.: izl .: .< 2 ' -_ 

T* .» r-\" a. : -:*c ? E - r .iz 1 f:r*r.s _ 

>• tijs- li: ;. ^ r*>;.o:: **«e b. «s^ .:' 3.":;5i .-;x : ? . 
< ' ^ _«o5 ,*:* S*\.. Nsscsi- ^- -:> i.O:*.:-s» and a f v - 

j > : .-.:>.:.. ^ »-.\i 1^ :> ; *1n *,m.' :«:^ :^ cr.c t - 

«. ... -^ L.rrU *.x» o.->- :«.-i ^y n~t ar.i ^ • 

. t»^ ».... ~i - «». .j .^ ..-.» _ _. _ 

■-.._--. j. : -?^~ . : E ^ t «r .*_>-.» -^ i • * S " _ir*s* it n- 
t .-^ ia 3*r-..\i» az«i *x*:^» i*«f T.i. -^ *:-t r.t C; p _i 

- r.;^ 1 -i :r. -*-v ^\.*\ * '. :<■ :j ii^..<es cf :^r. r 









1. Foreign names, 142. 

2. Names of locality. Generic, 57; specific, 249. 

Total 306. 

3. Names of occupation, 79. 

4. Patronymical, 172, of which 43 were Saxon 


5. Descriptive, 35, 

The results would be somewhat different in a population 
of a different kind. There are six families who have names 
of occupation in the English peerage. The number of the 
individuals bearing the names varies greatly in the five 
classes. The ratio of the number of persons bearing the 
name to the name itself is the lowest in the first and second 

The nations who contributed the 142 foreign names were 


Italian, 2 
Portuguese, 2 
Cornish, 2 

Scots, 44 German, 9 Italian, 2 Poles, 1 
French, 39 Dutch, 6 
Irish, 32 Welsh, 5 

Thus much fir the surname. 

The aaei of the antient Saxon population of England 
were nearly all descriptive of some quality of mind or body. 
Thus Edward is truth-keeper ; Winjred, win-peace ; Alfred, 
all-peace ; Edmund, truth-mouth ; Ailurin, of all beloved ; 
Llf, wolf. But a great change took place soon after the 
Conquest. We see in the names of the Normans who 
became settled in England many which continued for ages 
labourite names of the Er.ziish nacon ; Ro^er, lialfh, Hugh, 
Humphrey, Geffrey, Giliert* To tbem also we owe the 
inir>iwCt^Q aux>n£?t us of names of religion. If these 
names ex.^red at a;* in E&*iarul before the Conquest, they 
were exceetLngiy rare. In the catalogues of Saxon bishops, 
not o.^e occurs. Even am jngst the first rare of Normans 
they did not abound. We find Adam, John, Stef>hen, 
I>xrxd, Peter, ilillhew, ar.d perhaps a few others. But in 
tee century and a half after tiat event, names of this class 
bez-an to prevail in a great degree. It was a period of 
extraordinary Christian devotion : the exertions in founding 
monasteries, bu/i*Lng churches, and maintaining the war 
a*2i2»*t the infricis show it. In th»s stale of the public 
B nd the new system of taking names of religion spread 
ax>i strengthened. The names of religion weie almost 
wik/.ij frocu the Old and New Testament, a few only being 
taken from the names of persons who have been eminent 
m hies tzses for their Christian virtues. 

Sjice L-en little change his taken place. A few names 
core ecmmoQ have >>il their popularity ; a few others have 
b^en introduced. There have been periods when names 
t»>^ae*s^at ltzz+&l)c have hxl a popularity; such as the 
macs of the virtue*, as Pmitnce, Truth, PnaUnce, Faith, 
bv wh.<?a women have been named ; Thankful, Faithful, 
SiaU>*:h, acd others more extraordinary, have been given 
t« :aea. Jv-me west for a tune into another extreme, and 
we hid Hjnnit'sl, Stxpio, Cottar, and HercuUs. 

We tav» hovever not beea iuffio.endy attentive to the 
lay.r'^zM of keeping up a s^>ck of what we call Christian 
fcm**. Oar po^-^u.n has increased to a very great 
er:eit, w*~«e &»*r i'lrnaaae* have rather diminished than 
t^<e ^"•trary. We *i*,^i thenrf^re, if we wi»u that names 
%:**+A ae. -mzai tfcey are intended to be, Sotamina, increase 
tae i «svver A U+j*e eimei out of which we have the power 
v>r*rr.» U ttierJjM. As it is. with a population of 20 or 
3»i x^.ocl*. we &a«e bat £3 names of men which can be 
sn«< wjumuZ «-,oe appearariee of singularity. Of these 12 
are ** mwxx U*r A +*at use than thereat: — 

J.-.s W.'.aaa Henry Gecrpe James Robert 
T~.esa4 \tvjc* Charles Edvard Richard Samuel 

Of * ■***„ 4 are same* 'A rei:g>xi ; 4 are names introduced 
ax :^*r Gjo-. .*« : J cases m:r>ij<ced at a later period from 
t.-->«re .-,/ oc^er countries; 1 is pure Saxon. Of 
*...» i. £asa** ',f serrjciary fr*r t -ency, 2* are names of re- 



t£ie *£ r*a^»e* of men in ordinary use, 32 
*f» u.»s rX t-\ zxs^ or ccc^ideraoiy more than one-half. 
a~i: • .^t \r* \„ tax-en from the Scr. p Cures. 

\ „• . -. ••,* -_^ at the + 3 names in respect of the lan- 
^p •«■» •«-rh they are derived, it appears that 
2-# are ,f Hebrew orvzin, 
1> frva t'rus* *La!ecU of Western 

£ fr joa lae Gr%*k, and 
4 from tiie lafco, 

There are a multitude of names, once in use in Rngi. 
which might easily be revived, and it would be a mat:, 
some public convenience to do so. Few persons ha%< 
found inconvenience in some form or other from the • 
of sufficient distinctness in the name he bears. TL. 
little time ago there were two antiquarian Chalmers* : 
Parkes upon the bench ; two Whitakers, both, clergy, 
and both writers on Lancashire topography: some - 
ago there were two Dr. John Thomas's, both chapla : . 
the king, and both bishops; and two Dr. Gray*, 
divines, both writers in their own profession, both ounr. 
with historic literature and poetry, and both eiiga^-- 
controversies with Warburton. This occasions coai. 
To change a surname is a difficult and expensive pr» 
the che a p e st and simplest remedy is to give a laj 
baptism which will be marked and remembered, as /. 
HaiL Of neglected names there are, Austin, Allun, At. 
Arnold, Baldwin, Blase, Barnard, Fabian, Ferdinand, J 
line, Miles, Sylvester, Theobald, Theodore* and a I • 
others. But it might be worth the consideration of c 
ment, whether some facilities should not be afforded = . 
creasing our very scanty stock of surnames by the :-. 
of many which are now extinct and lost in per»ou> 
descend from those who bore them. 

N AMUR, the French name for NAM EN, a pro 
the kingdom of Belgium, bounded on the north by B. . 
on the northeast and east by Liege, on the south e^ 
Luxemburg, on the south by France (department of A- 
nesX and on the east by HainaulL Its greatest len?t I * 
north to south is 55 English miles, and its greatest b> 
42 miles; its area is 366,181 hectares, eoual to  
English acres, or 1413 square miles, and is thus emp: - 

In cultivation . . 181,306 

Marshes and waste land 48,343 

Woods and forests . 125.541 

Sites of buildings . 1,277 

Roads and streets • 7,523 

Rivers and streams • 1,658 

Undeseribed ... 533 

366,181 hectares. 

The province is watered by the Maas, the Sambr-j. 
Lesse, and several small streams, br which it is trave - 
all directions. The Maas enters Namur from Frarv- 
the town of Givet, and runs north-north-east about 
to Dm ant, when it flows to the north-north-west * 
miles to the city of Namur, and turning to the e:-; - 
east, enters the province of Liege at the distaio-. 
miles from Namur. The Sambre enters the pro\ 
Hainault about 10 miles east of Namur, at which 
fulls into the Maas. The Lesse enters Namur f. i. 
emburg at Palizeul, and flowing first to the n . 
then to the north-east, falls into the Maas a short i 
south of DinanL 

The soil of the province is generally fertile, c^ - 
for the most part of an unctuous marl, but without a > 
depth. Of the three arronJissemens or districts ir. • 
the province is divided, viz. Namur, Dinant, and P 
ville, that of Namur is the most productive, the <. * 
being more stoney. The principal agricultural prod-c 
whear, rye, oats, barley, hemp, flax, and chicory, 
grain harvests do not more than suffice for the const. * 
of the province. There are few natural meadow» 
district of Namur, but in the other parts of the ; - 
the meadows are the most profitable of the lands. A - 
grasses are also much cultivated, especially trvf. ^ 
district of Namur. Wood grows abundantly in die \ r 
The trees are principally oak (the bark of which i 
article of export), beech, ash, hornbeam, birch, ar*: 
With the exception of the oak trees, which are -- 
building purposes, the wood which is cut is eonver . 
charcoal for the use of smelting furnaces. A grev. 
plantations have been made of late years, e-pe-- 
places where, through a want of depth in the sv-.l. . - 
vation cannot be profitably conducted. The brv- 
draught horses forms an important branch of run**  
tion ; they are at once strong and active, and the ' 
are careful to preserve the breed unmixed. Great l 
of swine are bred, and are mostly sold to itinerant ~ 
Near to Dinant some are killed and salted for exj» 
The fanners occasionally suffer from the visits t>:* * 
and there are great numbers of foxes, rats, 


11 lilt c< 

garble, a. 


mi 11 Lilly ihe produce of 6(100 to 7000 hectares (16,000 acres). 
lit number of people employed in the iron-works U 9 13, in 
ddition to niintis, wood-cutters, charcoal-burners, wag- 
micrs, Ktc., amounting to 13,700 persons. The lead-mines 
Iiii.Ii are near the city of Namur have been open since 
(113, but their working has been discontinued at various 
nits. These mines are worked by a company, who employ 
i ilium about 200 men. No return of the produce baa 
Lti) given. The coal-field of this province has already 
nil sutliciently described. [Belgium.] The marble quar- 
i'il in Namur is found in various parts of the province, and 
ives employment in sawing and polishing it to a great num- 
cr o f persons. It is of various colours, red, grey, blue, and 
inck ; the greatest part of what is raised is exported to 
ranee. The potters' clay found in Ilie province is used 
liielly at Namur and Ardenne. 

In addition to the branches of industry already mentioned, 
n.iraur contains the only copper-works in Belgium. The 
iw material is procured chiefly from Sweden, and the prin- 
l>al market for the manufactured goods is found in 


province of Namur contains only five towns, 
in-, Ardenne, Dinant, Fosse, and Philippeville. With 
iht exception of the capital, they are all inconsiderable 
places. Ardenne is situated on the right bank of the 
Maas, near to the border of Liege, in 50° 30' N. lat. and 
5- -l' E. loDg. Its population in IS37 was 4314. Various 
kinds of earthenware are made in tbe town, and there is 
a paiier-mill in which 140 workmen are employed. Dinant 
is likewise situated on the Maas, in Su° 17' N. lat and 4° 
14' E. long. Its population in 1837 was 5033. They are 
engaged in manufacturing woollen cloths, paper, and hats, 
and in cutting and polishing marble. Fosse, a small town 
.vn)i 2?ii inhabitants, is situated in 5Q° W and 4 s 
i-1' E. long., about 9 miles south-west of Namur. The coal- 
mines and marble-quarries in the vicinity give employment 
to many of the inhabitants. Philippeville, in SO" 12' 
and 4" 32' E. long., although the capital of an arrondisse- 
nii'iit, bos only 1 1 27 inhabitants. It is built on an eminence 
yud fortified: the walls form an irregular pentagon. The 
town is composed of ten wide well-paved streets. 

The population of the province, on January 1, 1838, was 
220,665. The movement of the population during 1837 was 
as follows:— 

Malm. Fstult*. Total. 

Horn— in towns ... 567 628 1189 
„ in the country , . 3211 3046 6237 

3778 3688 

2002 1902 
2516 2393 


." 48' E 

I'Tig., at the confluence of the Sombre and the Mans. It 
is considered to be the strongest fortress in Belgium. It is 
entered by eleven gates; the streets are wide and clean; 
i lie houses are mostly built of a bluish stone and are slated, 
i'litre are several squares; two bridges, one over the Maas. 
(lit other over the Sombre ; and six churches, one of which 
is tbe cathedral dedicated to St. Aubin. This is a fine build- 
ing of modern architecture; the front is ornamented with 
twenty Corinthian columns, sustaining a cornice which 
bears several statues of white marble. On either side of 
'lit great altar are fine Btatues in Carrara marble, represent- 
ing St. Pete: and St, Paul. This building was begun in 
1 : jo, and finished in 1767. 

The situation of Namur, at the confluence of two naviga- 
 •!«■ rivers, is favourable to commerce. The two chief 
kanches of industry are the manufacture of cutlery and 
'Uiiniug. Great numbers of workmen ere employed in the 
neighbouring collieries, marble- quarries, and mines of iron 
P. C, No. 986. 

eudpf the sixth century, and for more than four centuries 
thereafter the city was of very insignificant dimensions. 
Early in the eleventh century, under the reigns of Albert I. 
and II., it was much enlarged, and by the beginning of tbe 
fifteenth century Namur bad attained its present duuen- 

This fortress has sustained several sieges, the most 
celebrated of which was successfully undertaken by Louis 
XIV., assisted by the renowned Vauban, in 1692. The 
French maintained themselves for three years in the for- 
tress, to the defences of which they made several additions. 
On the 3rd July, 1695, the town was invested by the 
English under William III. The garrison, under the' Mar- 
shal de Boutuers, consisted of 14,000 men, but the attack 
was so fierce, that tbe marshal capitulated on the 4th of 
August. Namur was unsuccessfully attacked by the count 
ofNassauin 1J04; it was ceded to Austria, in 1713, and 
put under the care of Holland in 1715. In 1746 it was 
taken by France, but was restored to Austria, under the 
treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748. The fortifications were 
demolished by Joseph II. in 1 784, but were afterwards re- 
stored. It was taken by the French in 1792, retaken by 
the Auslrians in the following year, and falling again into 
the hands of France in 1794, was constituted the capital of 
the department of the Sambreaud Meuse, and so continued 
until 1814, when tbe Netherlands threw off the yoke of 
France. Namur was the scene of an obstinate battle in 
1815, between the French and Prussians. 

The population of the city, on January 1, 1838, was 

NANCY, or NANCI, an important town of France, 
capital of tbe department of Meurtbe, situated on the left 
bank of the Meurthe, 172 miles east of Paris in a direct 

E. long. 

Nancy is not known to have existed before the twelfth 
century. In the middle ages it was tbe capital of Lorraine, 
and was several times taken and retaken, especially in the 
struggle in which Rene II., duke of Lorraine, bad to engage 
with Charles le Temer&ire, duke of Bourgogne [Hour- 
ooonb], for the possession of his duchy. It was under the 
walls of this town (Jan., 1477) that Charles experienced 
his last fatal defeat, in which he fell. In the reign of 
Louis XIII. (a.d. 1633} it was taken by that prince from 
Charles III. or IV., the then reigning duke of Lorraine. 
The fortifications were demolished on tbe restoration of the 
town to the dukes of Lorraine. 

The town is situated In a fertile and pleasant plain at the 
foot of wooded and vine-covered hills. It consists of two 
parts, the old town on the north and the new town on the 
south. The old town retains some portions of the old for- 
tifications: the streets are narrow and crooked. Tbe new 
town, commenced in the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, has wide and straight streets, lined with good houses : 
the stateliness of its public buildings, and the exlent and 
beauty of its squares end public walks, render Nancy one of 
the handsomest, though it is one of the dullest, of tbe great 
towns of France. La Place Royale is the finest of tbe 
squares: one side is formed by the town-hall (one of tbe 
handsomest in France), containing a gallery of pictures; 
two other sides are occupied by the office of the prefect, the 
custom-house, the theatre, and some private houses. In 
the angles of the square are four fountains, and in front of 
tbe town-hall a triumphal arch, erected by Stanislas Lcck- 
linaky. duke of Lorraine, to Louis XV. Two streets run 
in a direct line from this square to two of the town-gates, 
built like triumphal arches. Tbe cathedral is not remark- 
able, except for a portal with a triple row of columns, and 
for the high altar. The little church of Bon Secours, in 
the suburb of St. Pierre, is adorned by the monuments of 
Stanislas Lecluinsky and his wife. This church was erected 
by Stanislas to replace one built by Rene II., on the spot 
where Charles of Bourgogne fell. There are fine barracks 
both for cavalry and infantry, an Exchange, and other public* 
buildings. In tbe old town is the anticnt Gothic castle, 
the former residence of the dukes of Lorraine; and adjacent 
small church of Gothic architecture, the burial- 

N A. N 



others are in the church itself; other* are in a round cha- 
pel attached to the choir. This chanel was restored in 1822, 
at the joint expense of the French and Austrian govern- 
ments : it is lighted by some stained-glass windows in the 
cupola by which it is surmounted, and contains seven mar- 
ble tombs erected to the memory of tbe dukes of Lorraine 
or members of their family, a marble altar on which is a 
sculpture of Christ in his grave-clothes, and other orna- 
ments. The remains of several of the princes of Lorraine 
lie in the vault beneath. 

The population of Nancy, in 1826, was 29,122 for the 
communo; in 1831 it was 29,001 for the town, and 29,783 
for the whole commune ; in 1836 it was 31,445 for tbe com- 
mune. The inhabitants manufacture hosiery, hats, and 
§ loves ; and embroider muslin. This latter branch of in- 
ustry employs many hands; the embroidery is sent to 
Paris and to tbe colonies. They spin cotton yarn by the 
agency of steam ; and make coarse woollen cloth, calico, 
muslin, and other cotton goods. Some chemical prepara- 
tions are manufactured; also vermicelli, liqueurs, paper- 
hangings, and earthenware. There are several establish- 
ments in the town or neighbourhood for spinning woollen- 
yarn and weaving muslin and calico; besides tan-mills, 
tanyards, dye-houses, breweries, and oil-presses. There is 
near the town a largo bed of stone well adapted for litho- 
graphic printing. Trade is carried on in the various manu- 
factured articles ; and in grain, wine, brandy, wool, and iron. 
There are two yearly fair*, one of twenty days. 

Nancy is the seat of a bishop, whose diocese comprehends 
the department of Meurthe, and who is a suffragan of the 
archbishop of Besancon ; of a Cour Royale, whose jurisdic- 
tion comprehends the departments of A eurthe, Meuse, and 
Vosges ; of a subordinate justice court and a commercial 
tribunal ; and of several fiscal or administrative government 
offices. There are several hospitals and charitable institu- 
tions, and a house of correction. 

There is a public library of 23,000 volumes ; and there 
are libraries attached to the bishopric, tbe Cour Royale, and 
the high school. There are a rich museum, a cabinet of 
natural history, and a botanic garden ; an academic unfver- 
sitaire, a high school, and a seminary fir the priesthood ; a 
school of design, and a secondary sohool of medicine ; a 
central agricultural society, a royal society of sciences and 
arts, an elementary Protestant school, a Bible society, and 
a society formed by the wealthier Jews of the department 
for the instruction of the poor children of their nation in the 
useful arts. 

Nancy was the native town of Marshal Bassompierre, of 
Claude Lorraine the painter, of Calmet the Benedictine, 
and other eminent men. 

The arrondisseraent of Nancy has an area of 551 square 
miles, and contains 187 communes ; the population, in 1831, 
was 127.944; in 1836 it was 129,841. 

NANOASAKI. [Japan.] 

NANI'NA, Mr. Gray's name for a genus consisting of 
the phanorbicular species of Helix, with large umbilici, in- 
cluded in the subgenns Helicella of De Flrussac. The 
animal was first discovered and figured by General Hard- 
wicke in 1797. Mr. Gray characterizes the genus, and 
enumerates the species in the ' Zoological Proceedings for 

NANING is the name of a country which up to 1832 
was possessed by a Malay chief, who was tributary to the 
British province of Malacca. In the year 1832 Naning was 
annexed to that province, tbe chief having risen in rebellion 
against the East Indian government. It lies at the back of 
the other territories, and separates them from the small king- 
doms of Rumbowe and Johole. It extends north and south 
about 40 miles, with an average breadth of 10 miles, which 
gives an area of 400 square miles, or nearly the extent of 
the county of Bedford. The surface is undulating, inter- 
spersed with high knolls thickly clothed with jungle; the 
hollows or flats between the undulations, where the water 
lodges in the rainy season, average seventy or eighty yards in 
width, and either form a swamp or paddy ground. The 
sod on the high grounds is red and generally gravelly ; on 
the ffatn it is soft and whitish. Water is plentiful, and 
may easily be got two or three feet below the surface, on 
the slopes of the rising grounds. The chief products 
are nw, timber, and fruits ; pepper and gamboge are 
cultivated. Among the fruits are raaugosteens, pine-apples, 
jack-trees, and many other kinds. There are forty-five 
species of trees in the jungle, of which the fruit is edible. 

A smalt portion of gold is found, and tin fn considerate 
quantities. According to a census taken in 1829, the p« r .- 
lation amounted to 3458, probably males, as it is addr-i 
that 1800 were capable of bearing arms. They are Malaj *. 
profess the Mohammedan faith, and live in villages.' 
which the largest, called Sabany, contains 148 hou^. 
(Moor's Notice* of the Indian Archipelago, Singapore, 1 i 7. 

NANKEEN, a description of cotton cloths, usual ly ..f; 
yellow colour, imported from China, and taking their tui- 
from the city of Nankin, in which great quantities of th>?* 
are made. The peculiar colour of these cloths is natan. 
to the cotton- wool of which they are made, and not the effe-: 
of any dye. White cloths of similar texture are imports 
from China, and these, to distinguish them from the yelk-* 
cloths, are called white nankeens. Nankeen cloths w 
formerly very much used in England for gentlemec'i 
summer clothing, but better fabrics of home man t far 
ture being now procurable at lower prices, these hat- 
taken the place of the Chinese goods. Within the last v. 
years the annual importation of nankeen cloths into r* 
United Kingdom, from China, has exceeded 900,000 pietv 
but the quantity brought in 1838 was under 60,000 pk«.< 
and the greater part of these was re-exported. 

NANKIN, a town in China, on the south bank of tb: 
river Yantse-kiang, near 32° N. lat. and 117* E. long., ar/i 
about 120 miles from the mouth of the river. It is s : 
that at some remote period sea-vessels were able to ascer.j 
the river to the town, but the very low and swampy sb." 
which extends in these parts along the Hoang-Hay (Ye!! - 
Sea) renders this statement improbable. This town w* 
the capital of the empire to the end of the thirteenth n- 
tury, and at that time the largest town on the globe. I 
give an idea of its then extent, the Chinese historical reccri 
say, that if two horsemen were to go out in the morning * 
the same gate, and were to gallop round by opposite «3}< 
they would not meet before night. This is certainly: 
exaggeration. The Jesuits, when surveying the town ? • 
the purpose of making a plan of it, found that the circuit 
the exterior walls was 37 lie*, or nearly 20 miles ; and rt 
agrees pretty well with the description given by Ellis, «t 
estimates the distance between the gate near the river a 
the Porcelain Tower at about six miles, and says that r 
area of not less than thirty miles was diversified with grorr; 
houses, cultivation, and hilts, and enclosed within the ev 
rior wall, which forms an irregular polygon. But the ah 
of this area is not covered with houses bnilt in re;- 
streets ; only about one-fourth of it at present ts corerw * 
the town, which occupies that part which is farthest f. - 
the river, and is about six miles from its banks. 

The town began to decrease when Kublai-khan rem 
the Imperial residence to Pekin, and still more ra; 
when the six great tribunals, which for some time » 
kept at Pekin and Nankin, were attached to the court . 
Pekin. When this took place the name of the town N 
kin (the southern court) was changed into that of K 
ning-foo, as it is now always called in public docume • 
though the people continue to call it Nankin. 

The present town consists of four principal streets, r* 
ning parallel to one another, and intersected at r.; 
angles by smaller ones. Through one of the larger $::- 
a narrow channel flows, which is crossed at intervals 
bridges of a single arch. The streets are not spacious,  
have the appearance of unusual cleanliness. The ;. 
within the walls, which is now only occupied by gar 
and bamboo groves, is still crossed by paved roads, a • 
which seems to indicate that the whole area was once t. 

None of the buildings of Nankin are distinguished 
their architecture, except some of the gates, and tbe fan. - 
Porcelain Tower, which is attached to one of tbe pag ' 
or temples. This building is octagonal, and of a consider: 
height in proportion to its base, the height being more th* 
200 feet, while each side of the base measures only 40 fo 
It consists of nine stories, all of equal height, except ' 
ground- floor, which is somewhat higher than the rest. E* 
story consists of one saloon, with painted ceilings ; ir.- 
along the walls statues are placed. Nearly the whole oi ': - 
interior is gilded. The material of the wall seems to U 
highly polished stone ; but probably it is composed of br 
made of a fine clay, susceptible of impressions, as the fijj.. * 
show which appear on them. On the outer side of the ■.» 
they are white, and, according to Ellis, are merely the v: 
bricks frequently used in China, At the termination «•: 




by tho force of the stream. Vessels of 200 Ions come up 
to Nantes at spring-tides; at other times only vessels of 
100 tons or less can get up. Larger vessels either remain 
at PairahcBuf, 25 miles lower down, or at least discharge 
part of their cargo there. The quays at Nantes extend 
along the river side from the eastern extremity of the 
suburb Richebourg to the western or lower extremity of 
the quarter of La Fosse. 

There are quays all round the He Feydeau and in one 
part of the He Gloriette, and along the bank of the Erdre, 
which expands into a fine sheet of water, resembling a lake, 
with its banks adorned with country-houses : it is navigable 
to Nort, 12 or 13 miles above Nantes. The merchant* of 
Nantes enjoy a high reputation for the punctual fulfilment 
of their commercial engagements : they were formerly ex- 
tensively engaged in the slave-trade ; and during the last 
general war a hundred privateers were fitted out here. 
The manufactures are considerable, and include coarse 
woollen cloth and flannel, calico, handkerchiefs, fustian, 
bed-ticking, and other cotton or linen fabrics. There are 
copper-founderies, and iron-works for making chain-cables, 
casting cannon, and furnishing other articles for the equip- 
ment of vessels; ship-building yards (at which corvettes 
und other small ships of war are built) and ropewalks ; 
breweries, brandy-distilleries, vinegar-yards, refining-houses 
for colonial aud beet-root sugar, a glass-house for bottles, 
tan-yards, currying establishments, &o. Pottery, tobacco- 
pipes, chemical products, brushes, corks, and fishing-nets 
are also made. There is a victualling establishment for 
the navy, from which Brest, Lorient, and Rochefort are 
supplied. Provisions are very cheap. The trade of the 
port is not limited to any particular part of tho world: 
the principal articles of export and import are grain, flour, 
ship-biscuit, butter, dried pulse, hides, morocco leather, 
timber, agricultural implements, Spanish and Portuguese* 
wino, liqueurs, colonial produce, ana French manufactures. 
Vessels are fitted out tor the Newfoundland cod-fishery, 
and the fishery of the sardine, or pilchard, is actively 
carried on. The navigation of the river facilitates commu- 
nication with tho interior of France, and the dangerous 
navigation of one part of the coast is superseded by the 
canal from Nantes to Brest. The salt from tip salt-pans of 
the coast about Noirmoutier and Le Croisic is in great part 
conveyed into the interior by Nantes. There are two 
weekly markets and twelve yearly fairs. 

Nantes is the seat of a bishopric, the foundation of 
which some carry back to tho third century : the diocese 
comprehends the department of Loire Inferieure: the 
bishop is a suffragan of the archbishop of Tours. It is also 
the seut of a Lutheran consistory. There are nine churches, 
six nunneries, and four hospitals. There are a subordinate 
court of justice and a commercial tribunal, a custom-house, 
a mint, and a variety of other fiscal or administrative go- 
vernment offices. There are a high school, two seminaries 
for the priesthood, a school of design, a free school for 
navigation, a secondary medical school, and one or two 
courses of lectures. Besides the publio library of 30,000 
volumes, there are a library at the episcopal palace, museums 
of paintings, natural history, and physical science, a botanic 
garden, an observatory, public baths, and a theatre. There 
are various societies for literary and charitable purposes. 

The arrondiasement of Nantes has an area ot 685 square 
miles* and comprehends sixty-six communes: the population, 
in 1831. was 205,627; in 1836 it was 205,892. 
NANTUA. [Am.] 

NANTUCKKT BAY. [Massachusetts.] 

NANTYY1CH, or NAMFTYV1CH, a market-town in 

the hundred of Nantwich, in Cheshire, on the river Weaver, 

192 miles from London on the road through Lichfield and 

Stafford to Chester. The first part of the name is said 

to be derived from mm/, a British word signifying a brook 

or valley; the second part is an Anglo-Saxon corruption 

of the Roman rtcau>; and though locally assumed to be the 

appropriate designation of a salt- work, is in reality a general 

designation of a group of habitations, whether in town or 

country. The termination wick or wich, for it is written 

both *aya, and is sometimes separate from the other part of 

the name, is found in the names of places (e.^r. Green-wieb, 

Woolwich, Nor-wich, Ipe-wich, War-wick, Aln-wick, &c.) 

which have no peculiar connection with the manufacture of 


Nantwich is mentioned in * Domesday* by the simple 
deaifuauon Wtch, and the salt-works are there mentioned. 

It was then enclosed by the river Weaver on one aide, and 
on the other by a ditch. In 1069 Nantwich was the *«** 
of an unsuccessful attempt by the Cheshiremen to ra*t 
the advance of the Normans under Hugh Lupus, earl *A 
Chester. It was afterwards made the head or a Normac 
lordship, and the lords had a castle here, of which then 
are no remains. In 1438 and 1583 the town suffered coo- 
siderably from fire. The damage on the last occasion w 
estimated at 30,000/. In the civil war of Charles I. th? 
town was oeoupied by the Parliamentarians, from whom e 
was taken by Lord Grandison just before the battle d 
Edge Hill. Sir William Brereton, the pari iamentary geneni. 
afterwards re-occupied it, and made it his hesd-quartm 
during the war. It was besieged (January, 1643*44) by i 
body of the king's troops, partly Irish, under Lord Byron ; 
but though defended only by works hastily raised round uV 
town, was gallantly held by the townsmen and others nadir 
Sir George Booth until the siege was raised, and the enenn 
entirely defeated by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Six W iliac 

The town is in a low flat situation* on the right or etst 
bank of the Weaver. It is irregularly laid out, and coins* 
of three principal streets, which unite near the church, art 
some others. The streets are indifferently paved, and ibe 
houses are commonly old, built of timber and piaster, 
with large bay windows and projecting upper stories. Tbt 
church is a cross church, with a mixture of various styles oc 
architecture. The west door is early English; the n*t 
of the church decorated English or perpendicular, v.u 
some portions of a transition character between them. T * 
nave lias flying buttresses within, and is marked by wrjr 
other peculiarities. The north transept has a fine decontn- 
window ; and the south transept and the choir or chau* 
some fine perpendicular windows. The tower, which n** 
from the intersection of the nave and transepts, is an octag • 
of perpendicular date, with small crocketted pinnacles. 1 
is small in proportion to the other parts of the churr 
The whole is of red-sandstone of friable texture. In tr 
churchyard is an antient timber building, formerly iL 
town-hall, but now used as a free-school. There ia a mark* 
house and town-hall, built in the last century, art * 
stone bridge over the Weaver. The dissenters have sever 
meeting-houses, and there are several ranges of ale- 

The parish has an area of more than 3490 acres, with i 
population, in 1831, of 5357: it comprehends the vb * 
townships of Alvaston, Leighton, Nantwich, Woolstanwdoe. 
and part of that of Willaston. Nantwich township com- 
prehends 780 acres, with a population of 4886, scarcely i_-t 
part of it agricultural. The prosperity of the town « 
formerly owing to its brine-springs and salt-works, wb.-i 
were of great celebrity and antiquity. Only one tpr.u 
is now worked. The chief manufactures are of &W. 

S'oves, and cotton goods. The Chester, the Ellesiur 
e Liverpool and Birmingham Junction canals, and £ 
Middlewich branch canal, unite in the neighbourb- 
of the town ; and the Grand Junction Railway passes t 
no great distance. The market is on Saturday, and tfc* 
are three yearly fairs. The cheese made in the neighK-- 
hood is highly esteemed. Petty-sessions for the huod-r. 
are held here ; general Quarter-sessions were formerly K- 
here, but were removed to Knutaford in 1 760. The tor. 
was once governed by a guild, but this was suppressed 
Edward VI. The living is a rectory, in the diocese t 
archdeaconry of Cheater, of the clear yearly value of 26-. 
with a glebe-house. 

There were in the township, in 1833, a day-school, vi..» 
65 boys, partly supported by endowment; smother dv 
school, with 58 bora and 8 girls, partly supported by ewLf 
ment and partly by peymenta from the children ; four** 
other day-schools, with 431 children; and four Sundai- 
schools, with 836 children. The other townships eonuia 
only one day-school, with 20 children. 

Major-general Harrison, one of the Regicidea* who n* 
put to death on the restoration of Charles H„ was a rami 
of Nantwich. Milton's widow was born in the neighbor 
hood, and died here at an advanced age in 1726. 

(Ormerod's CheMrt ; Btamtie* o/ England and Wdt% « 
Parliamentary Paper*.) 

NAPHTHA. [HYDftOGZN— Carter*/*.] 

NAPHTHALAMIDB. This compound is formed if 
heating naphthalate of ammonia in a retort; ammoaa arl 
water are disengaged, and naphthalamkie sublimes withc^ 

i) deposits ecieular crystals as it cools. 

lU'ii, crystali or napbthalamide are deposited- Dilu 
Is do not act upon it ; when boiled in a strung solution 
i.itosh, ammonia is disengaged; sulphuric acid separates 
mphthalamida from the alkali. 
L wording to M. Laurent this substance consists o. 

Hydrogen  . 3*10 

Carbon . . . 64*69 

Oxygen . . . 23 '3 o 

Azote . , . 8*90 

N APHTHALASH, a compound discovered by M. Lau- 
i-]][ in 1835. It is prepared by mixing nitronaphthalasn 
mli about ten times its weight of lime, slightly moistened 
n a retort filled to the neck ; when beat is applied, a brown 
ill is formed, containing much napthlbalin, some ammonia 
ml un decomposed naphthalase, and in the neck of the re- 
<it a thick oil is condensed, which on cooling becomes 
ulid ; this is separated by cutting off the neck of the retort, 
ml when washed with mther, the foreign matter is dissolved 
ml iliu naphthalase remains. 

lis properties are, that it ii pulverulent, of a yellow colour, 
ii soluble in water and alcohol, and nearly so in tether. At 
i'j° it begins to sublime but does not melt; at a higher 
r ui]iL'iaiute it fuses and boils; the vapour is of a yellow 
iliiur, nnd it condenses either in yellow scales or needles. 
V small quantity dissolved in cold sulphuric acid imparts 
o it a fine deep violet-blue colour, and water precipitates 
t unaltered. 

According to Laurent, it consists of 

Hydrogen ... 4'S 
Carbon .... 87' 
Oxygen .... 8'2 

M. Laurent considers it as nitronaphthalase minus an 


N.\ PHTHAL1C ACID, a compound obtained by a very 

'■ilioiis ami complicated process from naphthalin by Laurent. 
is properties are, that it is white, brilliant, and in long 
r-athery crystals, which are four-sided prisms; it con- 
icierubly resembles benzoic acid. It melts at 221*, and 
n cimling concretes into a fibrous mass, and when more 
trongly heated, it volatilizes without decomposition in a 
undent white vapour, wbich is readily combustible. 
This acid is devoid of smell, has little taste, is unaltered 
<y exposure to the air, reddens moist litmus paper, is only 
li^'lilly soluble in cold water, but dissolves to a consider- 
Lit? extent in hot water; alcohol and Bather dissolve it 
. iilily. Chlorine has no action upon it, but hydrochloric, 
line, and sulphuric acid dissolve it while hot without de- 

Acoording to M.Laurent, it consists of nearly 

Two equivalents of Hydrogen . 2 or 213 

Ton equivalents of Carbon . 60 63-83 

Four equivalents of Oxygen . 32 34-04 

Equivalent 94 
The crystals contain one equivalent of water, 
-lipminds are called naphtbalates, but they t 


APHTHALIN. [Hymogii* -Car&urW*.] 
A PIER JOHN, baron of Merchiston, was bom at 
-histon Castle, near Edinburgh, in the year 1530, at 
■Ii tiine his father was but sixteen years old. His 
ilje is traced from John de Napier, who, in 1296, swore 
nance to Edward 1. of England : and among his more 
L-iliale ancestors are mentioned William Napier, go- 
or of the castle of Edinburgh, and Alexander Napier, 
admiral of Scotland. His father. Sir Archibald Napier, 
master of the mint of Scotland. Napier was never 
il to the peerage, as might be inferred from the writings 

la t ion of the logarithmic canon, which work was revised by 
Napier himself the year before his death. The name at the 
head of this article appears to have been the family name, 
and is certainly that by wbich he is now generally known. 

Napier's matriculation into the university of St. Andrew 
took place in the year 1562-3, aa appears from the books of 
the university. (See the ' Pursuit of Knowledge,' in the 
Library q/ Entertaining Knowledge, and the subsequently 
published Life of Napier, by Mark Napier, 4to., Lond., 
1834.) That it took place early also appears from the 
following passage in the preface to his ' Plain Discovery 
of the Revelation of Saint John,' published at Edinburgh 
in 1593, 4to. Speaking of the university, be says, 'In 
my tender years and bairn age at schools, having on 
the one part contracted a loving familiarilie with a certain 
gentleman, a papist, and on the other part being atten- 
tive to the sermons of that worthy man of God, maister 
Christopher Goodman, teaching upon the Apocalyps, I was 
moved in admiration against the blindness of papists, that 
could not most evidentlie see their seven- hilled citie of 
Rome pointed out there so lively by St. John as the mother 
of all spiritual whoredom : that not only unrated I oute in 
continuall reasoning against my said familiar, but also from 
thenceforth I determined with myself, by the assistance of 
God's spirit, to employ my study and diligence to search out 
the remanent mysteries of that holy booka, aa tothia boure, 
praised be the Lord, I have bin doing at all such times as 
convenience I might have occasion.' One object of the 
' Plain Discovery ' was to show that the doctrines of the pope 
were aniichriatian, which so accorded with the views of the 
French Huguenots, that a translation of the work, staled in 
the title-page to have been revised by Napier, appeared at 
Roche! le in 1603, and the same year the council of Gap 
formerly declared tbe pope to be Antichrist. In the same 
work he fancies he has determined tbe dales at which the 
completion of the prophecies will take place, and he assigns 
tbe destruction of the world to the year 1786. 

From the time of his entering the university to the publi- 
cation of the above work, scarcely any thing is known con- 
cerning him. His biographers, David Stewart, earl of Bu- 
chan, and Walter Minto, about the close of the last century 
made inquiries among the descendants of Napier for letters 
or other documents which might throw light an his history 
during this long interval. Their exertions in this respect 
seem to have been attended with little success. MacKenzie, 
in his ' Lives and Characters of the most eminent Writers of 
the Scottish Nation,' fob, published at Edinburgh in 1708- 
22, informs us, but without mentioning any authority, that 
Napier passed some years in France, the Netherlands, and 
Italy, and that while absent he applied himself to the study 
of the mathematics. This is confirmed by his biographer, 
Mark Napier, who supposes him to have left Scotland as 
early as the year 1566, and adds that his college residence 
had been too short to entitle him evon to the degree of B.A. 
In 1571 he had returned to Scotland. In 1593 he was 
chosen by the General Assembly one of the commissioners 
appointed to assemble at Edinburgh to counteract the 
attempts or the Roman Catholics to put aside Protestantism, 
then recently established. We are left to conjecture at what 
lime prior to the year 1594 the mind of Napier first became 
occupied with tbe discovery of a method which should 
supersede the long and laborious arithmetical operations 
which tlie solution of the most simple trigonometrical pro- 
blems then exacted. That he was thus occupied in the year 
1594 is probable from a letter written by Kepler to Cru- 
gerus, dated 1624, wherein, sneaking of Napier's logarith- 
mic tables, which had then been published ten years, be 
says, ' Nihil autem supra Naperianam rationem esse puto: 
etsi quidem, Scotus quidam, Uteris ad Tychonera anno 
1594 scriptis, jam apem fecit canonis illius miriflci.' 
(Kepi., Split, Lips., 1718, fid., p. 460.) The Scotch- 
man here alluded to was Dr. Craig, of whom a circum- 
stance is related by Wood, in his * Athena* Oxonienscs,' 
under the article ' Briggs,' upon the authority of Oughrred 
and Wingate, and cited by several authors with reference 
to Napier's invention. The substance is this:— Craig, 
coming out of Denmark, called on Napier at MerchUton 




tad informed him, among other things, ef a rumoured dis- 
covery by Loagomontanus, ' as *ti» said,* whereby the tedi- 
ous operations of multiplication and division m astronomical 
calculations were avoided; and intimated that this was 
effected by mcem of proportional numbers, of which in- 
formation Napier availed himself ao skilfully, that upon 
Craig repeating Li* vi*it a lew weeks after, he showed him a 
draught of what he called canon mirabius logsxithmorum. 
The correctneu of this story, as regards Longomontanus, is 
disproved by the fact that Longomontanus attributes the 
invention to Napier. {Astronowuca JJanica, p. 7, fee* 
Quoted by Dr. Hutton.) There appears however to be no 
doubt tbJt Craig did write to Tycho Braheat the time 
stated, acquainting him with the progress which Napier had 
then already made. 

Besides Longom jntanns, several authors have been men* 
tkmed, and their works referred to, with a new te detract 
from the merit of Nap»er by bringing bim in debtor to some 
of hit contemporaries. All the*e attempts appear to pro- 
ceed more or let & on the supposition that the principle of 
logarithms was in Napier's time a novelty. loe fame of 
Napier however does not re»t on the discovery of that pro- 
perty of numbers upon which all the advantages of loga- 
rithms depend. Long before his time it was known that 
if the terms of an arithmetical and geometrical series were 

ftlaeed in juxta position, the multiplication, division, invol- 
ution, and evolution of the latter would answer to and might 
actually be effected by a corresponding addition, subtrac- 
tion, multiplication, and division of the former. To a certain 
extent this property was employed by Archimedes, in his 
• Arenarius,* or treatise on the number of the sands. Stifel 
also, in his * Ariihmetica Integra.' Nurnberg, 1544, p. 35, 
exhibits its principal uses, and evinces so clear a conception 
of the nature of logarithms, only not under that name, that 
had he been funit&hi-d mtb a table of Mich numbers, he 
would doubtless have bten able to make use of them. He 
might even have constructed a table, but the natural num- 
bers would not have been consecutive, and the omissions 
would have been by far more numerous than the insertions, 
and thib would have happened simply because he, in common 
with all other ui-ilhemalicians previous to Napier, possessed 
no mean 5 of determining the logarithm corresponding to 
any proposed number, but merely those corresponding to 
particular numbers. Until such means were supplied, no 
table of any practical utility could have been constructed. 
Napier discovered the means, but had he not been of a 
peculiarly ardent disposition^ he would have shrunk from 
the labour which their application required, and his disco- 
ver}' would perhaps have remained a mere sterde truth. It 
happened to him, as it has happened to most original dis- 
coverer*, that the view which he took of the problem was 
Dot the m At natural, and consequently not the most simple. 
The problem itself was purely arithmetical ; Napier arrived 
at it* solution through geometrical considerations. But not- 
withstanding this circumstance and the disadvantages be 
must have laboured under, arising from the imperfectmethods 
of a*jal)sit then in use, and the almost total absence of nota- 
tion, his processes even now are to a certain extent the most 
eligible, and are analyze us to those employed in the con- 
struction of the great ^Tables du Cadastre.' * Modern for- 
mula?,' says DeU'iibre, ' have furnished processes more sure 
and exact, but not more convenient.' {Astronomic Mo- 
dern*.) Concerning Napier's principles we have not further 
to speak ; the reader will find them explained in the article 


With regard to the importance of the invention, and the 
claim of its author on the gratitude of his successors, we 
may cite the words of Laplace. {Exposition du System* 
du Monde.) * By reducing to a few days the labour of 
many months, k doubles, as it were, the life of an astro- 
nomer, besides freeing him from the errors and disgust in- 
separable from long calculations. As an inventiou it is 
particularly gratifying to the human mind, emanating as it exclusively from within itself. In the arts man avails 
luiuhelf of the materials and forces of nature; in this in- 
suure the work is wholly his.' 

Ilis tables were published in 1614, by the title of ' Miri- 
fi>i Logariihmorum Canonis Description Edinb., 4to. As 
the.r principal object was to facilitate trigonometrical com- 
putations, they contained only the logarithms of the natural 
sine* corresponding to each minute of the quadrant and to 

radius = 1Q\ The principle of their construction Napier 

el flret withheld. 

judgment end 


the remainder to the 
lignity of the e»**ou*-" This explanation was p\eu z 
posthumous work, edited by his son, and published it. & 
Edinb., 4 to. It is entebid * Mirinri Loganihmorum U y 
Construct 10: una cum annntationibna aliquot Poetic U 
Henna Briggii.' The two works were reprinted at L\ 

From the dale of the publication of the logarithmic < 
until the death of Xajaer, which took place the k-\ 
year, there is little recorded of him which demaiiu* 
ticular notice, except his connection with Briggt, ^ 
noticed. [Baiccs.] His ' Rahdologia?, sen Numm 
per Virgulas, libri duo,' Edinb., 161 7, 12mo«, was the - 
his literary productions. [Napxxb's Bonks.] 

Napier died at Merchiston on the 3rd or 4 th of A 
1617 (not 161 H old sttle, and was interred in theca 
church of St. Giles at Edinburgh- On the eastern - s 
the cathedral is a stone tablet with a Latin inscript ;>•!., 
eating the spot of his interment. He was twice 
his irst wife, the daughter of Sir James Stirling cf K. 
Keir, he had one child, Archibald, who became pnn- 
seHor to James VL, end was raised by Charles It 
pee i age in 1617, by the title of Lord Napier. By hi> * 
wife, the daugh t er of Sir Janes Chishotm of Croat" 
had ere eons and ftvw daughters. To his third son R 
to whom he had taught the mathematics, he confix. 
cere of ptrbfashmg his posthumous works. 

Of Napier's improvements in trigonometry it is si* 
to refer to the elegant theorems known as Napier's ' A 
gies' [Teigoxometrt], and to his theorem of the ' G\ 
cular parts,' which furnishes a ready solution of ^ 
c ase s of ri?ht an<*k-d spherical triangles. 

The only work of Napier not already mentioned is a 
to Anthony Bacon, entitled 'Secret inventions prof 
and necessary in these days lor the defence of the k 
and withstanding strangers, enemies to God's truL 
religion ' (the original is in the archbishop's library I 
beth; two copies are in the British Museum; it :• 
printed in Tilloch s * Philosophical Magazine,' \ o.. \ 
Watt, in his ' Bibhotheca Britannica,' adds * Ar.ii, 
Logarithm ica, 1 Lcwid_, 1624, foL; but this is a m 
Briggs being the author of that work. 

{Life, Writings, and Inventions of John S .- 
David Stewart, earl of Buchan, and Walter Miutu, U. 
Perth, 17S7, 4to. ; Hutton s Tracts* &c) 

NAPIER'S BONKS, or RODS, a contrivance of > 
to facilitate the performance of multiplication and (\. 
explained by him in his ' Rabdoiogia,' published i. 
The invention would have been perhaps more en/ 
but for his discovery of logarithms : and even yet i: 
be used with advantage by young arithmeticians in *> 
tion of their work. \Ve shall therefore describe i\ • 
very slight modification, which somewhat facilitates »> 

The preceding cut represents one of the rods beV. 
to the number 3. It is a parallelogram with en angle > ' 
containing nine equilateral parallelograms, with one u 
diagonal in each. In these are distributed, in am 
which will be visible at a glance, the multiples of th : - 
bar which stands at the head, op to nine times. A 
cient number of rods must be provided for each of tin 
ings 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, so that by placing the ; * 
rods side by side, any number may be seen at the h* 
in the following diagram, which represents rods in jtf* 
position ready for the multiplication of 709956 



2I29S 74 

xhh to multiply by 32978 we look at the eighth 
1 multiples, in which wo we the following disposi- 
gum (which however it a not necessary to write 

nay be added on the rods, and the result 5679864 
iwn in its proper place. The same is done with 
digits, and the results are added in the usual 

no only difference between the preceding desrripti 
Napier's rods is, that in the latter the rods are i 
it, and tho additions that are made from the rods e 

L-i'oro made diagonally. The compartments should be 
[i; largo enough to allow of the figures which are to be 

i '1 -landing directly under one another. 

;;i|iior'a bouet, as they were called, have been much 

a uficn described in historical works than in thosi ~ 

ltd i">r use. Sir Walter Scott must have had an ii 

I remembrance of them, without however knowing what 

phrase meant, when he made Davio Ramsay, in the 

mines of Nigel,' swear by * the bones of the immortal 


■c name commonly given to the Continental part of the 
.il kingdom of the two Sicilies, which, in the adminis- 
. o luti^iia^e of the country, is styled ' Sicilia Citeriore ' 
,' r Sicily), or ' Dominj di qui dal Faro' (territories 
!.is Mile of the Straits or Messina). This fine region 
^ the southern half of the Italian peninsula, being 
1 on the north-west by the Pi 
i- >\tV: by the sea. Tho frontier 

lit' Naples and the Papal Slate begins on me coa: 
.Ifdilurranean, at the toiler  Dei Con Oni,' which 

or two south-east of Terracina. whore tho mount 
1«: fi-'iin the sea, and at the opening of the basin of the 

, f Fundi. The boundary -line then follows an offset of 

 .li'e of the Lepini mountains as far as the valley of the 

 S no, an affluent of the Liris, which opens a natural 
intu the kingdom. Crossing that valley, the line pro- 

-; first in a northern and afterwards in a north-north- 
(.■rii direction, along several ramifications of the Apeil- 
-. which divide the waters of the Liris from iho.-e of 
Auio; then ascending the loftier group which, to the 
. bounds the basin of the lake Fucino, it descends 
■lluwing tho downward course of the river Salto 
;ho vailcy of the Veliuo, crosses that river a little 
ii.- i-i-i of" Rieti, which belongs to the Papal State, and 
.„' nil asc?nds, crossing the backbone or central ridge 
\,a Apennines between the sources of the Nera and 
;  >f the Tronto. Descending along tho eastern slope 
,i.< central ridge, the line follows an offset which skirts 
_;lit bank of IheTronlo, and afterwards, below Ascoli, 
-. ■■!■ ;: -.-I f fauns the boundary down to the Adriatic. 
« hide of this tortuous boundary-line is about 150 
i-li miles, but the direct distance, from itiextrcme point 

 if Mediterranean to the corresponding point on the 
,.itic coast, ii not quite 120 miles. Four roads, which i 

m i*im»tdy redacod to two, lead into the kingdom: 
one by lerraerna to Fondi, along the coast of the Mediter- 
ranean ; the second from Rome, by Palestrina and the valley 
of the S*eeo, into the valley of the Liris, and from thence 
into the valley of the VoHumov where it joins the former ; 
the third, by Rieti, Civita Dueale, and Antrodoco, to Aquila 
and the valley of the Peseara ; and the fourth by Ascoli 
to Teretno, and along the eosst of the Adriatic to the banks 
of the Peseara likewise. It is a remarkable fact that the 
boundaries of (he kingdom of Naples, since the foundation 
of the Sicilian monarchy by the Normans, about eight cen- 
turies ago, have not varied throughout all the political vicis- 
situdes of the country. 

The greatest length of the kingdom of Naples, from the 
Tronto to Capo Spartivento at the southern extremity of 
Calabria, fa about 400 miles, in a curved line running through 
the centre ef the peninsula. Its breadth from sea to sea 
varies greatly. In its northern part, from the mouth of the 
Gangliano to that of the Peseara, it is about 85 miles wide: 
farther south, from Cape Misenum near Naples, to the 
mouth of the Forlore. on the Adriatic coast, it is 100 miles; 
and from Naples to Vietri, on the promontory of Mount 
Gargano, it is 125 miles. From Naples to Manfredonia it 
is about 100 miles. South of Naples the golf of Salerno 
le side, and that of Manfredonia on the other, reduce 
the breadth of the peninsula to 83 miles; but farther south 
it agnin widens from the point of Licosa near PaJstum, to 
Mola di Bari, on the Adriatic, a distance of 130 miles, 
which is the utmost breadth which the kingdom of Naples 
attains, but in which we do not include the length of the 
lapygian peninsula, which projects in an oblique direction 
to the line of breadth measured across the main body of the 
peninsula of Italy. The length of the lapygian projection 
is nearly 90 miles, with a mean breadth of 30 miles: the 
description of this district is given under Otranto, Tek- 

The breadth of the kingdom again becomes contracted 
between the deep gulf of Tar an to on one side and that of 
Policoslro on the other, it being about 65 miles from the 
mouth of the Bradano to thai 3f the Treeehina. [Basili- 
cataJ It becomes still narrower as we advance southwards 
into Calabria: it is 45 miles between the gulf of Lao and 
that of Taranto. and 35 from the mouth of the Cratis to 
Cape Cetraro, after which it widens again to near 60 miles 
for a length of about 50 miles. South of the Lacinuim 
promontory, now Capo delle Colonne, the land becomes 
contracted into a narrow isthmus about 14 miles across, 
between the gulfs of Squillace and Sent Eufemia, beyond 
which it spreads again to a breadth of 25 to 35 miles 
throughout the length or the province of Calabria Ultra. 

The area of the kingdom of Naples is estimated at 
about 31,600 square miles, or about 2700 square miles more 
than the area of Ireland. The population consisted in 1815 
of 5,059,000 inhabitants; in 1825 it had increased to 
5,456,604; in 1632 it was 5.809,000; and in 1637 it ascended 
to 6,021,294. (Petroni, Cenirmeirto dri Reali Dominj di 
quA dal Faro, 1826; Sorristori, Snggio Stalistico dell' Italia, 
1833 ; Bollettino Slatisticadi Miltitto for January, 1839.) Of 
this population more than two-ihirds, or about four millions, 
live by agriculture, about half a million by manufactures 
and other mechanical labour, another half million by 
trade, including sailors and fishermen ; the priests, monks, 
and nuns amount to about 40,000; lawyers 8000; me- 
dical men 9000; persons employed under government 
30,000; the military amount to 40.000; household servants 
to 50,000. The illegitimate children are to those bom in 
wedlock as 1 to 22 ; but in the capital they are as 2 to 

Tho main features of the physical geography of tho king- 
dom are— 1, the Apennines, which run through the centre of 
the country, forming in several parts large masses and high 
table-lands, which, with their numerous offsets, occupy, espe- 
cially in the southern part, the whole breadth of tho penin- 
sula [Apbnninks]; 2, two extensive plains, Apulia and 
Campania, the former to the east and the other to the west of 
the Apennines; 3, numerous valleys between the offsets of the 
Apennines, of which those on Hie side of the Adriatic are 
lostly transverse, while on the side of the Mediterranean 
le valleys ol the Volturno, and its affluents IheCalore, Sab- 
ito, and Tamaro, and tho valley of the Tanagro. an afflu- 
ent of the Sclu, and some others, are longitudinal, running 
between ridge* parallel to the central chain ; 4, a strip of 




for mad Stan* the 
amd the sea, irartjog 



tattOeefcjS* VMS 

/*bj feruk, fa* 

tv juusiowUMa* irvm the 

The prwiiasn uaamstr 
AWj* # vr 

jorh riamg <b* waumogs of tie 
Mount fsmttrrsiai. as tie Akrwj**, to 
arte of m*j**A *ivu*mm- lav keeadib of the 
upper conn* of the rrMt* » ■**»* contacted bet 
emrtoai Af«au *ues t* the cart and lie 6abme 
lb* »Mt »ii*ta» janer 4jrjfe it from the basin of the 
hut attar swaatu; fr« * epaead* 10 about 2* aules in breadth. 
iuriudua; the ****** of the RaseM, Meim, lUpido, Fri- 
**6v. atd ylher amteaas, Il afco <b» part of the Papal 
jevutaet **? (•iiej'^rrii throozh the rhannH of the river 
fcaoov. Taw <^^i*s»* a deeomer, always fall of 
*ui m ur>i&JL>* 1m hosts a the lower part of its 
VTm* if the beta of the Garighano, aad sep a ra t ed from it 
I? the snoornrm U Itn, it the small bant of Fondi, coa- 
tavmao; * xvw juacfc of ihoart >* iquae miles in extent and 
dnuuot W tier aauw nt<* Vetere. 2. The basin of the 
Voii.nruv j» *.** larzwet aad most amortant in the kingdom. 
Tut Vul-wtu* dr*»ut the crealer part of the province of 
1»m <l Lr»vnt, asii *u aSaent the Galore is the drain of 
J'juuwpaH L*£** ma& ^r m all an area of nearly 3000 
•uuaet am**. To* V .vara* has a tortuous coarse of nearlj 
> w** «rt lae Um* runs fee aboot 60 miles before its 
■uuq^jl ojti Imt Yvlt^rao X The fertile plain east of 
kwtf Vtaan.M and between it and the Apennines forms 

s> cra»c«d bv the river Sarno. 4. The 

W* of the h**r auft it* amaewt the Tanagro includes the 
greater pe/i 'A the svwn^ee of Frmcipato Cilia and a part 
44* isotf vf flaw ii an wh,ch fees vest of the central ridge. 
Tj* fccac has a cobne of aboot 60 miles altogether, and the 
Xaaaar» twm of about 35 shore its junction. Sooth of the 
amnn if ia* V>t, the aesuiuala becomes narrow, the Apen- 
sjuuwunaan *4*** awoa thesea, aad the course of the rivers to- 
war w* hveh eoasU w> very short. In met Cambria has numer- 
ous MomSa+a-tomats, each of which drains its narrow val- 
ley. Am czeefUfM however is found in 5. The basin of the 
0*r. a Caiahna Crtra, The Crati has its source south of 
a the high leads of La Sila, a vast group project- 
*A the aaa ndge of the Aprnirines and extending 
fcmrfa tae «wast of the cuUb of Taranto and Squillace. 
Tae Crat* flows m a north dueetion bet w ee n the main ridge 
t> ta# west mmk the mountains of La Sila to the east, drain- 
AKr taw taw valley of Coseaxa; turning eastwards after 
■woiin^ urn town of Tarsm, it enters the gulf of Taranto. 
!u w'v^r &mn* is afcoot 60 mile?, and it is the largest river 
of t*«t*r,a. 6. The basin of Bastueata, with its four parallel 
/vera, to* Acn, htnno, Bradano, and Basiento, is fully 
4**xmiA >• the artide Basiijcata. &st of Basilicata, 
u* Mrrvw laovipan peninsula, which is intersected in its 
V**.z*.« by a low barren ridge, has no water-courses of any 
**'s*~Ats*\ aod u*«» is aUo the case with the province of 
7 vr* 4, Jfovv 7. Toe Ofanto, one of the principal rivers of 
fa* k '-/-vflev rnes in the Apennines of Conza within the 
ivr^,/^U/>« A Pnr*\f*U> Ultra; it drains the part of that 
frv.rsj* wb»d> I»^t east of the Apennines, and also the 
juvr.'^ffr sort of Hasilxata, as well as a part of Capitanata 
%.A J*rrz <\\ Ba/i, and after a course of above 70 miles 
«r. wt u* AAtvHte, It recenes no affluents of any import- 
%*s* *, TKe %i**X plain of Apulia is drained by the Cara- 
y%\.+. <>,;■>*/>, *s A CatvUforo, the courses of which are 
**«/!? ft*/<t„«i. a/*^ run from the central Apennines to the 
•** Tt*K <s*:S>,**r» baa several affluents, and drains a con- 
sv^>. v»*i u*fX of vAHitry between the group of Mount 
(i%<%\**$ %$A \\* Aoct«ruoes of Lucera and San Severo. 9. 
1\$* Am nix* f*» 4 **n fibrricroui and rapid streams which 
t »n 4*t*ei to \\*t «ea alon^ deep valleys between lofty paral- 
lel iAim\ but Ottre are no exiensive basins, with theexcep- 
l^/^ *,i • r^w r/f the nt er F«scara, whtch has a course of above 
%h h>.*», urA rwtvm on one side the waters of the central 
'#,*;» tA iU Ap^.ornnes, including Mount Velino, which 
#,,.,* r«/,r<r. vf |^ic#; Fun/i/>,and on the other those of the lofty 
tt>**+'A It'*.'* <>*tk>, which projects eastwards towards the 
A4/.4V '//««'. a/i/1 J*jm «r>'/w on iU summit almost the whole 
» «r, 7»^» F«v4/i tU/>« the middle of its* course passes 
U*/'/-<i£}» a fcftrr/w defile uear tho town of Popoli and turns 

receiving from the soutl *j 

owilying group of Apennines, r- 1 

the province of ChietL 10. Theba^: 

ai the centre of the peniD*u'.v 

on every side. The lake, vh^ | 

miles broad, receives the vatr* | 

mostly of high lands covered \ \ 

part of the year, and yet it has do ' • 

rraneous drains free i 
of the lake, which is much higher then the r-  
of the Liris on one side and the upper . 
On the aide of the Liris the intent | 
about Ca p wt reC o k much depressed, and theft 

made in the time of the em.' 

in course of repair. The Lin- r 

valley about three miles from the . 

of Naples has a coast-line of about 
miles m tsnzth, twe-ifths of which lie on the west or M 
and the rest on the Ionian and Adnatr - . 
according to the Italian denominate 
tends from the Straits of Messina to Cape Leuca, t. _ 
exU e miti of the lapygmn p*" 5 f*T"lr Unibrtunaieif 
tensive Lne of coast has few harbours. Tv , 
of tides in the Mediterranean renders the s»tu. 
of rivers aiiUai mr the p wjpose of navigation ; and ^< 
a great and lasting disadvantage to the countrie* ? 
that sea, which alone would determine their mantiac 
riority to the countries tendering upon the ocean ! 
Garigla no, TolUirno, Sele, Crati, Ohmto, Pescara, aod 
rivers of the kingdom of Naples, if they were tide r 
would afbrd good natural harbours for large \c~ 
whilst, as it is, the bars at their entrance are impas&a. 
cept for very small craft. The only harbours on the . 
diterranean coasts are those of Gaela and Naples, an'' 
these are not safe at all times, and do not admit of 
vessels. But the Gulf of Baiae, in the Bay of Nantes if 
a safe anchorage for the largest men of war. The m . 
port of Misenum, although not used now, is still cap. 
receiving large merchant vessels. South of Naples • 
as the Straits of Messina, there is no harbour. Tb< 
ficial port of Salerno is filled up with sand, which ha 
the fete of most harbours on the coast of the ki-L- 
wherever a mole has been constructed. To prevt: 
evil, it has been proposed to raise, instead of coo'. 
moles, piers made of arches, as the antients did at P. 
which, by leaving free ingress and egress to the «:. 
would prevent the constant accumulation of the sand 
Fasio, Amop* Ostemtxiom aonra t Pregj ArcAiUUi* 
Furti degti Jntfcki* 1832.) On the eastern coast i- 
ports of Taranto and Brindisi ; Gallipoli has mereh i - 
stead; the ports of Trani and Barletta are filled s: 
Manfredonia has a very good road. A new harbo- 
been begun at Bari. On all the coast of Abruxxo ri-: 
no harbour ; the mouth of the Pescara and the mc* . 
tona afford shelter only for small craft A new bar> - 
in course of construction at Ortona. The coast 
Abruno is generally shallow, except at the point ,: 
moii, where there is deep water, and the position is fv 
ble to the construction of a harbour which has be?. 
jected. (Afan di Rivera, Cotuiderazioni su i n. 
rettitwre U valare proprio ai dotri eke la not urn ki 
menie conceduto at Regno deUe due Sicilie. 2 voL. 

The productions of the soil throughout the king i . 
various. The staple products are corn, wine, oil, *v 
silk. The plains of Apulia produce vast quantities . 
for exportation. A quantity of wool is exported f; 
same province, where about two millions anda halt A -- 
are fed. [Capitanata.] Oil is likewise exported fr. - 
eastern provinces and from Calabria, to the amount c: 
nineteen millions of Italian livres, or about 7. 
sterling. Gallipoli is the great oil mart. Silk is c* 
Calabria, in Abruzzo Citra, Terra di Lavoro, and P 
pato. Cotton is produced in the provinces of Bari, F 
pato, near Castellamare, and other places. Wine *  
all over the kingdom, and in great abundance and m 
but most of it is consumed in the country and wit " 
year ; and although some of the wine, especially Uu* 
labria, is as full bodied and generous as any Pbrtugtes . 
Spanish wine, yet little of it is kept or sent to the n - 
parts of Europe. Naples however export* wine o 
Genoa, and other parts of Italy. Some brandy is mi % 
exported to America. Some of the wines made- 

neighbourhood of Naples, at Piediroonle, Procida, Capri,, and at Ihc loot of Mount Vesuviu- (ihe latter is 
tinuwii by the name of ' Lachrvma Christi'), are very fine 
ruifl villi flavoured. The country products most kinds of 
1 1 nk, such as flgs, chesnuts, almonds, oranges, lemons, pome- 
K'anales, melon*, peaches, and apricots'. The Indian fig 
nnies tu maturity in Sicily, but not in llie eotilinenial part 
1' I lie kingdom. Tobacco is cultivated chiefly near Lecee, 
-.ilTri.n in Abnuzo, and ihc sugar-cane in Calabria. Flux, 
!'i nip. and rice are also raised in considerable quantity in 
ilia low grounds. Indian corn is also much cultivated. 
Hi cess is made chiefly in Abruzzo and Apulia. In some 
l.ivourod spots, such as in the neighbourhood of Naples, at 
iiic foot of Mount Vesuvius, near Monleleone and Reggio 
in C.ilabria, the fertility of the soil seems inexhaustible. 

There is a rich iron-mine near Slilo in the farthest Cala- 
1" in. which is worked for the government. Coal is found 
nUo in Calabria near Biiatico (Vivenzio. Reluxione dei Ter- 
r'-miti di Calabria. Naples, 1788; Savaresi, Viuggioin 
Calabria, 1801-2; Tenure, Etiai rir la G&ngraphie phy- 
"1)11" el botanique da limjaume de Naples, 1837.) 

The forests with which the Apennines were nnce clothed 
have in great part disappeared through the waste, improvi- 
lunce, and neglect of the people and the various govern- 
nunts which have succeeded each other in the country. 
This is a very serious evil, for not only fuel and timber have 
iL-eouje scarce, but the destruction of the forests has caused 
iii- springs to be dried up and occasioned summer droughts 
ii the subjacent lands, whilst the winter rains have washed 
iway the vegetable earth from the mountain sides and ex- 
rosed the hare rock, and the torrents carrying down alluvial 
natter into the valleys and plains have damaged whole 
i jets of country, choked up the beds of rivers, and occa- 
loiiutl the formation of pestilential marshes. Afan di 
{ivera, already quoted, has shown at great length the ca- 
.iruitous effects of the destruction of the Apennine forests. 
fy a law concerning the forests, promulgated on the 21st 
\ugust. 1826, an attempt has been made to arrest the pro- 
cess of the evil. 

The strip of maritime tow hind which skirts the sea-coast 
s in many places marshy and covered with underwood. 
lords of black cattle, buffaloes, and pigs live in that un- 
holesome region. Something has been done of late years 
>«nrds draining the marshes, especially between the mouth 
f tho Vulturno and Cuma, and on the opposite coast of 
Ipuliu. [Brindisi; Capitanata.] 

At the beginning of the present century there was no 
arriago-road through the kingdom, with the exception of 
>o high road from Rome to Naples. Since that time roads 
live been made from Naples to Reggio at the extremity of 
'nlabria, to Bari, Manfredonia, and Taranto in Apulia, to 
[nun, Teramo, and Aquila in Abruzzo, to Potenza in Ba- 
litcala, to Campobasso in the province of Sannio, and 
tiier roads are in course of being constructed. A hand- 
inc suspension-bridge has been thrown across the Gang- 
i no. which, although on the high road from Rome (o 
upli-s, had been crossed for centuries before only by a 
n-crable ferry. 

The kingdom it divided for administrative purposes into 
{ provinces. "We subjoin the population of each, as it was 
v the last authentic returns which we have seen, of 1837, 
liicli. compared with those of Petroni for lb25, show that 
hi population has been gradually increasing at the 
, vra^e rate of about I per cent, annually: Provincia di 
ipuli, "20,796 inhabitants; Terra di Lavoro, head town 
..-..I la, fif>4. 138 inhabitants; Principato Citra, head town 
ikTiin, 519,227; Principato Ultra, head town Avellino, 
* ','lu'J ; Sannio, formerly called Contarlo di Molise, 
.■.id town Campobasso, 339.662 ; Abruzzo Citra, head 
■in Chieti, 284,482; Abruzzo Ultra Primo, head town 
■iiiiiio, 204,092; Abruzzo Ultra Secondo, head town 
ipiila. 299,543; Capitanata, head town I-'oggia, 273,489 ; 
■na di Bari, head town Bari, 4-11,964; Terra dYJtranto, 
-id luivii Licce, 384,510; BasiHcata, head town Potenzn, 
;7.Jli\ Calabria Citra. head town Cosenza, 434,622; 
i lut.riii Ultra Prima, head town Reggio, 281,886; Calabria 
i:ru Seconda, head town Catanzaro, 325,122. In " 
.i>iinrio, these divisions are often called bv the 
..- liund town, such as ' Provincia di Salerno,' 'I 
, LecciV 'Provincia di Teramo,' See. The provi 
. i kd into districts, and the dislricls into coi 
nil province is administered by an 'intendente.'or king's 
. i; tenant, appointed by the kinfi, and changed every three 
P. C, No. 987. 

years. In every province there is a 'Cotuiglio provincials, 
or a council of notables, proposed by the communal coun- 
cils, and appointed by the king, which assembles once a year, 
and examines the provincial accounts and proposes local im- 
provements. Keppe) Craven, the latest authority on the sub- 
ject, who has visited at leisure every provinceof the kingdom 
speaks favourably of the character, qualifications, and genera. 
behaviour of the inlendenli. The same praise however ought 
not perhaps to be extended to the subaltern or district and 
police authorities. Every commune has a sindaco, who 
corresponds to the moire of the French communes. A 
communal council, called ' Dccurionato.* chosen by ballot 
from among the notables or proprietors, fixes the local rates, 
administers the revenue, and appoints the municipal offi- 
cers, subject however to the sanction of the inlendente. 
One of these officers is called ' concilia tore,' and acts as 
umpire between parlies at variance, for the purpose of pre- 
venting them from going to law upon trifling grounds. 
(Serristori; Collet ta. Storia del Seams di Napoti; Orloff, 
Mcmoires tur le Rtiyaume de Naples.) 

The judicial department ronsista of four 'Gran Corti 
Civil i,* which sit at Naples, Aquila, Trani, and Catanzaro; a 
criminal court, and a civil court in every head town of a 
province ; and a judge of instruction in every district, and 
a justice of peace, 'giudice di circoudario,' in every 'giudi- 
catura inferiore,' of whieh there are 52S in the whole 
kingdom. A supreme court of cassation, 'Curie Suprema 
di Giustizia,' sits at Naples. Trials are public in the king- 
dom of Naples, as in France. The French civil code, with 
some modifications, has been retained, as well as the French 

For the purposes of public instruction, there is an ele- 
mentary school in every commune; grammar schools, 
'acuole secondarie,' in most towns; a royal college in every 
head town of a province; five lycea at Naples, Salerno, 
Aquila, Bari, Catanzaro; and, lastly, the university of 
Naples. There is a very good institution at Naples for the 
education of young ladies, founded by Caroline, Murat's 
wife, and since patronised and increased by Queen Isabella, 
the wife of Francis I.; but the education of females in 
general is much neglected. 

The ecclesiastical establishment consists of 20 archbishop* 
and 65 bishops. 72 clerical seminaries, and 3767 rectors of 
parishes. The number of priests, monks, and nuns has 
been stated above. Serristori, in 1833, reckons the monks 
at 11,000, and the nuns at 9000; but Petroni, in 1826, 
reckoned the former only at 8455, and the nuna at 8185. 
It is possible that the monks may have increased since tha 
former date. The ecclesiastical jurisdiction and discipline 
were defined by a concordat agreed upon between Cardinal 
Consalvi on the part of the pope Pius VII. and the Cava- 
de' Medici for king Ferdinand I., in March, 1818. The 
an Catholic is the exclusive religion of the country; a 
eslant chapel has been of late years tolerated in the 
capital, for the accommodation of foreigners. Several com- 
munes in Calabria, Apulia, and Abruzzi follow the Greek 
ritual, but they belong to the Latin communion, and acknow- 
ledge the pope as their spiritual head. 

The history of the kingdom and the present constitution 
of the monarchy are given under Sicilies, Two, Kingdom 


The inhabitants of the countries composing the kingdom 
if Naples are derived from various and mixed race*. The 
descendants of the antient Samnites, Peligni, Marti, Fren- 
tani. Lucanians, and other people of old Italian origin ; 
the Etruscan Campanians, the wild Brultii, the Greek po- 
pulation of the coasts — of Magna Groscia, of Cuma and 
Neapolis — after having been fearfully thinned during their 
contest with Rome, the war of Pyrrhus, the second Punic 
war, the social war, and the civil war of Marius and Sulla, 
became mixed with numerous Roman and Latin colonies. 
The antient Oscan and Saranite languages were gradually 
lost, but the Greek still remained a spoken language over 
i great part of the maritime districts. At the fall of the 
:mpire, the country was overrun rather than occupied by 
:he northern tribes, but afterwards returned to the alle- 
giance of the Byzantine emperors, when it received a fresh 
admixture of Greek blood and Greek language and Greek 
usages. In the sixth century the Longobards took posset- 
inn of Bencvcnturo, and founded there a powerful duchy, 
'hich survived the fall of their power in North Italy. In 
the eleventh century the Normans came, who conquered 
both the Longobards and the Greeks, and founded the 
Voi. XVL— M 



X A P 

m<n*T*hj of «r * W; %.» #% vyn* the was* of fends" 
t ■,',',• • 7 }**?* #-*♦'> :t»^X3tr*tr/v :heSuat,iat* •♦*err*i*'L 
or Prvrfjals, the Ar**vfte*e, and *i* fcpatiiarda. XI. 
|r.*»* r.t» o',% taie left t*«*» of their m^euae. A 4»s. 
ofO'«»s rh*i*r*r »«:... o*»*rrabie » the 

f/,r/i». snd 4.z>s* of wsrJL parts of the ©vestry. Sj» 
fo'i, : -* Krvx ' x *v tr**rJL tr/m the Normans and the 

Ar.£«-> m o* Prvi *•",**>. Laal*. Spauah Ski.:t siaet 
♦J «• S !.*», •«. svi *p*-«%h *^ri» of'en oersr. w*eca~* 
in  ;,* *-« :• . *4l. f y. - ► Mr* j* stade* vf variety are f ^«n w*: 
*r/*/ .^ in* r.Uv **V.» of d SereM paru '.< tie k z^ryz. 
{At&t'zzs,: CkLkUktkl: wl'M t&e #ap tai, frv= the rv:.- 
a*«v. ,'.fl,tof ^rv*.:^*X^v*^-t fpenaieM tf taea a.- 
15**. r'/n.'^i'.',,^ try^iar-e'^s-U*: l.'-g hav.ts rf s^ii- 
f *'.'.««./•! pr/J .'j*! Vy * 'er/r*! Ks.- »trt:j',= ar.d a la.-ge 
eap.'a; d--r rig e.jfht ort/-.-r*e* hire *r*a 4 .ed a ia*:ng fee~nz 
of :'Autn*,n t\'.,r a'u'y, wn '--a is per:.*?* str.-rrer m _tr*fe 
ki* gd-.iii of N *;,,*% lr.*ri .o a--y cr-w Ita^-an *"-a' e. Nea- 
p, ,''*r», o/>t It* .an. is the n4V,*.a: a;;*.*a*i^i- Geaer^rr 
ap* *«»;f,g. the Nea^i Un it qu. *."£. sh'twd, L-sairous, fisi 
of ;:. ,• ' ar^ di.vr. .*. ra'her v.* .'*A to bombast aiid kyper- 
h-,>, f.'.'y bii '.La'gea/-'.*, ir.'-..*-*4 to pleasure arid ease, 
I*'/ ' u\'- f %x*'*:y */.e of g*Sj*T'j a .u fetl.ngs, and also :rf a 

.'»•/«;• :, • ' %:. 1 . f. ^ the rori m ->n p^*rj u-Lce t'j the eor.t my, 
f \>n N*a|*',..'arj »% ^y fJ > ri.ear,% d#ric*^Lt la personal c^-r*ce. 
J>ur,fijf ih«? U*t «ar%, Neapo^.tan troop* f^-gba ^e.! a% a-i- 
U ar .«-• j« t}>e rank% of the French, Austrian, aid E^z'..*h 
■rfo...-«; thfc pevfle alvj fouzht desperately in d-fevae of 
th'-.r 'a;. Ul in i7'i'i; and lLe looa; and o^»::nate var it 
Calibria, from J^0« to 1%10, was only put do*n by exler- 
toiLatj n. If the reg/ar trjopa bare nvt »!-own ti* ume 
apnt in defence of U«e k^r^dorn, thu ha» f roc^eded fr-joi 
var^»j« pecuJiar Circuro* lancet wh:ch are fa^U explained 
by O^IIetla in bit * Htttory v already quoted, and Ltevise 
by the author of a work lately pubJ-abed at Florence, 

• Fa^ie Vkende dei Popoli Italians dal 1801 al 1?15.' 
Ike kWt the Ant'A'tfia Military of which the sixth volume 
ba* t#c«n lately p«/*/..*h«-d at Naplea. 

NAPLKH. PROVINCE OF rProrlnna di Napoli), is 
the name of the metropolitan province of the kingdom of 
th*» two 8:alie», nhi'.h include* the capital [Naples. Citt 
t,v t >r.d tl»e tirrriU>ry round the bay from Cape Misenum 
%iA Cu:n* on the we%t i» Caatellamare and Sorrento on the 
•', A\ t *t-..%\. The Uland* of lochia and Prorida belong also 
V* tttiz pr^v.n^e of Naples. The province is divided into 
f, if 'J.'t J'-t*: 1, Naples ; 2, PomuoH, which includes the 
wi. '*-. +*-^nu diVit/^n and the inlands; 3, Ca&tellamare, 
»r„' h 9-jaiw fiM-» the territory at the base of Mount Ve*u- 
%i *t,i'id ihec>a»t ofpr/»«fe Naples as far as Sorrento; 4, 
C^-'/'M, »h»' h ix#rnpreheridsa tract of the Cam Daman plain 
a*"-!/.'!./;? north of tlie range of bills behind the city of 
S"pie«< Tih\% \nr\ extend* as far as a line which, beginning 
on tic- »ea <oa»t half way between the lakes of Licola and 
P«i!r,a, runt in an eastern direction toCaivano, not including 
tl.#. «o*fi <,t A^crsa, which belongs to the province of Terra 
d L- -. '/: i*. tM-n r. n« »outh-ea%t skirting the north base 
of M /,..'. V«*"«%.u<i ( an'l not including the towns of Acerra, 
>. ,, », m A N /'•^ra: it n«?xt follows the ridj^e of hills which 
t** ri /,t)>* p«'nin»ula of Sorrento at the bark of Cas- 
f< ...Hit^Mr, ir»' 1 Wing the towns of Castellamare, Vico, and 
H .ifu'>. 1 in: tornrmt of the ridge divides the province of 
N •;,.«-♦ tt-tn that of Principato Citra, or province of 
Hi.<ri>> 'J he whole of Urn territory formed until lately 
J*/! of th«- larger divuion of Terra di Lavoro, from which 
it i* i. «t frcographi'-'iily separated; but owing to the great 
fK V ij!.jV/n of the capital and surrounding territory, it has 
L'< n found ronvcri.i;;it f'»r administrative purposes to con* 
•tiiou it into « d.fttjr.'-t province. The province of Naples, 

• /,<-,. m»v»- ,,( \\,ts /;ip.'.>], cyntajicd, according to the returns 
Of /*>J7, \l'\.i'i\ iiih.mifant«. 

'J'lie principal town* of the province of Naples, exclusive 
of ih* t*\>i\*\, iff: J, Poxxuoli, the ant lent Puieoli, situated 
on tti<* <a%t s»'hj of I lie gulf of the same name, and opposite 
to I Una*, or finally a colony of Cu ma, called Dicaiarchia, 
founded in tj.c sixth century b.c, and now a bidhop's see 
and a jx/* looking town, with 10,000 inhabitants. [Poz- 
f • i»u J Toi* whole aur rounding country is of a volcanic cha- 
rt*' u r. Tlie hill callod 8olfatara, which is the crater of a 
v-/j' •>«.'» not )t)\ tiaiinct, rises to the east above the town. 2, 
Ati*y, i, a Urgn villagf! or town of J 3.000 inhabitants, north- 
Mut of N up)*-* in the Campauian plain, has some hat manu- 
U'Vjii*:: J, Fratla Muggiore, near the antic nt Atella, is 

fir rs r^r 

'£ 5nuet 4. ^niiaa. a* 4 
rzus. ua* 7i»m n.iatM'-jnrta- S. 

'it liari:*» ▼n* kripwx wy ibt 
I. Pert ii vaiT 

* weas fcigp*- •** Vesrr'L*, tn. use 

supply the tsv 

of Mou- : A 

near S 


le of * Lachry ma C' 
towns built on the •■ .( 
of Herrwiaceum, - <* 
a. Voiton who * ^ 

ninstpni :if aztci. ues 
a,T d Pjoct*?-: ha* bees 
uo^L-r-.- a* Ni^-tfs. Ease =^ 
&-i5c La Fsr-.T.ta. n a Isn-elr 

er*-- »a 

:y r j J 

Portici ha» i .<■; 
obtained from H er*- - 
«Bovwi to the M 

ii another prett; 

oea\r the «e~- \ 
SDQth-emst of P>r -J 
lie fyx -jC Vescnj^ m tTWi of 1 XtM infaabttants, b « - 
rv?«aaed.T oes^-Ly^i Vy the laTm aod earthquakes, b r 
b—it c^er ana nrr aram. The inhabitants are r. 
adlirted to a aeafrr-r L&. ft. Torre deil* An-. : 
ab.«ut fosr s.Ie* ao-ia-eas* of Torre del Greco, t- 
tne sne of PD^spe^. has 9M»'.» nhabftaats, a oar.' 
-A mu»k.-ts f?r tbe nnal arrrice, and a lar^e g^- 
e. I: s also known fbr rts great macuii. 
~\ whjrh t« the best in Narles, and kno*' 
' na=>e -A * Magrar.en delia Costa.* NjT»h of Torre de ." 
1 L.^z^a is ;ac .arre v^Iire of Bosco tr4 Case, and f. 
n: nx o~ *ne *^«« *> . -r* A Vesunns. » the tosm of O 
w/h !:.<• •. :rha* rants 9, Castel'^aoare. mt the s. , . 
1 ext:esi.:y of :he Bas of Naples, near the sate of S?ab:* - 
dr.-z-'-fi*. s.:^at ^= ?n the sea-coast, at the foot of : 
m. J\:a ■= St. A^re.?, tr* Moo» Ladarins of the ^-  

nearlv i 

. . fee: h gh : it has d.cks fjr the roy al mr\ , 
of sine al waier is the oe^hbonrbocxL a r • 


' V 


eaLe-i *Qwxs^asa* and park, and about lO.ltOini.j 
Caste'.! amare is much freqoenred by the Neap^Iitar.o d 
the sMnraer beau. In the neighbouring district of Gn l 
a wine is made wh:ch is among the best in the r.e - 
hood of Naples, lit. V ko i Vicas -£quanu3», a srr j. 
perrbed up^n the cliffs abcre the coast, about 4 m.. -  
we>t of Cas'ellamare, was the birth-place of the rn." 
cian and hist:< Gsanhattista di Vico. 11. Sorrc / 
delig hiful valley surrounded by hills, which is a c 
grove of orange and mulberry trees, and contains sevi 
la^es and numerous eountry-b uses. The town of S 
has 5u0 .nhjr>.-a:»:5, is a ui»ljjp\ see, and the birili : 
Tasso. The plain of Sorrento is murh frequence : * 
wealthy Nea[ oh tans during summer. There are boa's • 
cross daily from Naples to Sorrento, and return loa^t: 
oranges and other fru.L Sdk is also produced he'e 

The country round Naples is the most populous r 
bourn --o.i beLn^.:;;g to a.<y capital in Europe, ew 
perhaps ti:at of Pans. Fur particular description* 
Agx\no; Averno: Bjua; Cm a; Hercttla:vl 
cm a : Pompeii ; Pozzuoli ; Vksutius 

NAPLES {Xafili 9 in Italian), the capital of the k -. 
of the Two Sicilies, and the fourth in population am 
European cities, is situated in 40° 5f/N. lat, and 1 i* 
long^on the northern coast of the fine hay of the 
name, and partly at the foot and partly on the sKp 
range of hills which runs obliquely to the shore. 
south-east is Mount Vesuvius, from which it is div. 
a fertile plain watered by the small river Sehe^to, an 4 
site to it, across the bay, are the mountains of Caste 11. - 
Vico, and Sorrento, with the island of Capri due s.*.: 
the entrance of the bay, on the side of Sicily. 

Seen from the sea Naples appears in the form 
crescents, of very unequal depth, one on the east, at ' 
other on the west, divided by the point of Cast el deV.' ' 
and the hill of PUzofalcone, which is behind it 
eastern crescent, which includes the great bulk of tK 
faces the south-east, and is bounded by the hill of I ' 
monte to the north, and Sant* Elmo or Errno to thi 
crowned by the caslle of that name, which comma r < 
town. Between these two hills is a considerable do; r. 
on which the suburbs of La Sanita and L' Infra* re- 
built. The slope of the hill of Capodimonte is l.k 
covered with houses, forming the suburbs called M : 
and Le Vergini. To the eastward the town is open : 
plain of Campania. From the barrier of Capo di Ch - 
the entrance from Rome, a succession of nine street 
through the body of the town to the sea, the p;r 
of which, called Toledo, about a mile in length, ru; * 
south, and divides the old city, which is east or it, h^\ 
new districts. The street of Toledo terminates in th? . 







La fruaaa vcrtir h 

Lo frsao dare e i initio * 

V*ra#. HTbr. a-TT-s^St. a chitfe gmaje. 
Gaecfee m&I1«> mjo ha cagwato ata»un 

a oaaH iw. rod vaiavd il vidi thr «w 
Ibvwfce tb sack of it ihr frara 
la.tri - Oh, vbrre i« itt 

to m* at* 

baunes, of which every now ami 
The wall* of Una chapel we painted with j new ones are produced by obscure poets and sun*; about • 
'■neb im paved and defaced, which hare refer- tfreets, sepefallj mo upon lore matters, which farm* * 
to Use history of Joanna and C*raecioU>. Tbe convent : principal incidents in the existence of the people of * 
of San Gwranni bad ooce a library rich in MSS., founded | country. Some of these songs are foil of paiLoe*. Tt» .' 
by Parrhasias and Cardinal Seripandi ; bat about a century lowing are specimens • — 
since, the em pen* Charles VL having sent some learned 
Germans to examine the MSS. and make extracts from 
them, the monks felt so wearied by their obligatory atten- 
dance on the forelaTn scholars, that they preferred making 
an offer of the MSS. in question to the emperor, in otder 
to avoid being exposed to any further trouble about them. 
(Valery.) The church Del Carmine, with its lofty steeple, 
is chiefly noticed for its neighbourhood to the great m a rke t, 
the scene of Masaniello's insurrection, and also of the 
desperate defence of the populace against the French in 
1 799 ; and likewise for the modest tomb of tbe unfortunate 
Corradino and his cousin Frederic of Austria, who were 
beheaded near this spot by order of Charles of Anjou. The 
church of L'Annunziata, by the architect Vanvitelli, is 
one of the best churches of Naples: adjoining to it is a 
foundling hospital and a Magdalen. The church of San 
Martino, near the castle of 8ant' Elmo, from which there 
is a most magnificent view of Naples and the bay, is richly 
painted by Lanfranco, 8pagnoletio, and LYArpino : the ad- 
joining convent is now occupied by invalids from the army, 
of whom many are blind. The church of Santa Maria del 
Parto, founded by Sannazaro, in a delightful spot, near the 
shore of Mergellina, has a fine mausoleum of the poet. San 
Gennaro dei Poveri is remarkable for its vast catacombs, 
which extend under the hill of Capodimonte. 

4. The royal palace of Capodimonte is a heavy structure, 
but is remarkable for its fine situation, the excellent road 
leading to it, constructed by the French, its extensive 
park and hunting grounds, and the adjoining observatory. 
On the slope of the hill is the Chinese College, for the 
education of young Chinese, who, after taking holy orders, 
return to their country as missionaries. Tbe number of 

We extract the next, which is conceii 
spirit, from Valery, who heard it about the streets of 
pies in 1826-27:— 

For a further account of the Neapolitan dialect - 
It ALT— Italian Language and Literature* and Che re*. 
ences in that article. 

The population of Naples, which in 1835 amounted . 
about 350,000, was reduced by the cholera in the tw : 
lowing years to 336,300, according to the returns of tbe « . 
of 1637. exclusive of the garrison and non-resident fortr- 
ess. (BoUetttno Statisiicodi Milano, January, 1839.) • 
this population, about 1700 are priests, 700 monks, and * 
nuns; 9400 are employed under the government, i. 
18,000 are pensioners, 3000 law) era, 26,000 mre men* 
vants, 3400 coachmen, 8000 sailors, boatmen, and fi» 
men, 3500 porters, 5200 shop-boys, 3700 gardeners i 

Chinese students seldom exceeds six. An account of this j greengrocers, 25uo tailors, 2400 shoemakers, 800 cvl£ 

remarkable institution is given in ' Italy and the Italians 
in the Nineteenth Century,' by A. Vieusseux, which work 
contains also many particulars concerning the peculiar 
sights of Naples and the manners and habits of tbe people. 
On another part of the hill of Capodimonte is the bota- 
nical garden, formed in 1«1«, and placed under the direc 

1450 barbers and hairdressers, 1500 cooks, 500 printer 
booksellers, 58 bookbinders, 146 physicians, 105 sur^ 
and 186 apothecaries, 900 sellers of wine, 303 coffee:.. - 
keepers, 350 tavern and eating-house keepers, 310 - 
keepers 800 fruiterers, 800 goldsmiths, 1000 smith* •- 
carpenters, 1600 builders and masons, &c Kapte- -• 

tion of the Neapolitan professor of botany, M. Tenore. Not ' manufactures of hats, straw- hats, gloves, leather, ear. 
far from thence, in a secluded valley at the foot of the hill, I ware, coral, and jewellery. There are about 700 hati-- 

are the remains of an aqueduct constructed by Augustus, 
which is called Ponti Rossi, ' red bridges or arches,' from 
the colour of the stone. 

Naples has many charitable institutions, such as the great 
hospital De^li Incurubili, the foundling hospital already 
mentioned, the school of the deaf and dumb, the asylum for 
the blind, under the direction of the distinguished oculist 
Quadri ; the Reclusorio, or general workhouse for able-bodied 
poor, with a school annexed to it, and which contains about 
3000 poor ; San Gennaro dei Poveri, for the poor who are un- 
able to work, San Francesco di Sales, and several other 
minor hospitals and houses of refuge. Valery seems to 
think that the administration of the workhouse might be 
susceptible of much improvement, especially with regard 
to moral discipline. Mendicity is forbidden by law ; but 
the law is often evaded. There are no poors'-rates at 

The university is we a I provided with professors. It has a 
good library and a cabinet of natural history annexed to it. 
Some account of the state of education in the Neapolitan 
kingdom is given in No*. 5 and 16 of tbe 'Quarterly Jour- 
nal of Education.' Among the special schools are a medi- 
cal college, a veterinary college, two military schools, a 
college of pilots, and the ' Conservatories' or school of 
music, which has produced many illustrious composers, has 
good professors, and a rich musical library, containing 
_ others the autographs of Paisiello's works. Besides 
Han Carlo. Naples has half a dozen minor theatres, II 
Foudo, i Fiorentini, Teatro Nuovo, La Fen ice, San Carlino, 
ice In the last two, plays, or rather farces, are performed 
in the Neapolitan dialect, which is full of humour and 
naive expression. 

The Neapolitan or Apulian dialect is very old; it 
was spoken at the court of Frederic II. and his son 
Manfred, and their contemporary, the chronicler Matteo 
tpiaello, wrote in it the annals of those two princes. The 

coaches, 600 cabriolets, 1600 boats, and about 500 w» 
belonging to the town of Naples. There are 809 ion* & 
lodging-bouses. Tbe town is divided into twelve * quarr. 
or districts, of which five and the most populous are is. • 
old or eastern part of the town, namely, Me rem to, Pec. 
Porto, S. Lorenzo, and Vicaria ; one in the middle, S. F* 
dinando, in the neighbourhood of the royal palace ; tv 
the west end, Chiaja and S. Giuseppe ; one, S. Can > - 
Arena, at the north end towards the road to Rome; . 
three, Stella, Avvocala, and Monte Calvario, include - 
upper part of the town, which is built on the hills of L 
diinonte and S. Elmo. Every district has a oommis>a n 
police, whose office is open at all hours of the day. 1 • 
are sixty-six military posts in the whole town, four c*> - 
S. Elmo, Castel Nuovo, Castel dell* Uovo, and Caste!;: 
Carmine, besides extensive barracks both for infantrr :* 
cavalry. The town has six prisons, one of which *> 
debtors. The vast and massive structure called * La ; 
caria,' at tbe east end of Naples near Porta Capuana, «1 
was once a castle and the residence of the Noruian kc-* 
now contains various courts of justice, and also the arcl 
of the kingdom, an immetise collection of document* 
vided into four sections, historical, financial, judicial* 
communal. The acts, edicts, &c. of the sovereigns of ' 
Anjou dynasty alone fill 300 thick folio volumes. I- 
*Constitoliones' of Frederic II., the oldest code of tbe i ; 
dom, written by his chaucellor Pietro delle Vigne, are i-< 

The Laxzaroni, so often mentioned by travellers, act! » 
confusedly described, included the lowest orders of the - 
habitants or populace, tbe porters, the hawkers of 1^ 
vegetables, and other eatables, the boatmen, journeys. 
out of place, and numerous vagrants, and other low r- 
loose characters. Many of these classes in former tia* 
had no regular domicile, and lived chiefly in the open &*'- 
or were huddled together at night under some porch » 


; iliulo, in narrow alleys, in their boats. and wherever they 
1'! find shelter. To these were added indiscriminately 
numerous class of fishermen, an industrious race, whoso 
 its have always been mure domestic and orderly than 
sv of the common laszaroni. All these people we 
ik'Iv leckoncd.with probably some exaggeration, at 40,0 
iviftuals, a muscular, brawny, and erect set of men, b 
ii . v im educated and little civilised, very abstemious ai 
;til in their habits, mostly barefooted, living from day 
nn their casual earnings, their dress consisting merely 
shirt and a pair of loose trowsera ; very guod-temput ' 
jtiifl times, but apt to run riot on the first political i 
i. lent or tumult. The name lazzaro is said to have be 
ieil from the numerous lepers who once abounded 
i: i:ims of the Mediterranean, and who invoked as their 
on ilio Lazarus who is mentioned in the Gospel, 
ri table order, or fraternity, which was instituted in 
"lie ages for their relief, assumed the name of 'Order of 
Lazarus.' The lepers were obliged to wear a pecuh 
>% consisting of white shirt and trowsors and hood. After 
. r]:iM,i became extinct, the same garb continued to be worn 
he lower orders for the sake of cheapness and 
ico in the warm climate of Naples, and the name lazzari 
;■( iiiiiind and applied to that class. This is the etymology 
n by Galiani and others, in the' Vocabolariodel Dialetto 
Militano,' published at Naples in 1789. But the author 
. that already in bis lime the number of the lazzari 
much decreased, owing' to the progress of civilization, 
that 'many among the people who had the appearance 
i/./nri during the week-days, looked very different when 
-oil in their Sunday clothes.' As a peculiar class, the 
ari may be said to be now extinct: the lower orders 
like those of other cities; they are all duly registered 
it-si' reflective parishes, they have all a domicile of some 
, and the police regulations, enforced for the last thirty 
s. have produced a material alteration in their habits, 
iuh the every-day clothing of many of them continues 
■j the same as before. 

he nubi! ity at Naples are very numerous, but, excepting 
i' titles. lliey enjoy no privilege or influence above the rest 
loir countrymen. The alterations made in the law of in- 
t a nee, by which all I he children succeed in equal or nearly 
il portions, as in France, have broken down die fortunes 
lost families, which were already encumbered by debts, the 
.eqiience of want of order, of indolence, and expensive 
Is of living. The most important and interesting class 
tuples at present consists of the higher ranks of the 
.lie orders, including lawyers, physicians, professors, 
men of other liberal professions, some native merchants, 
higher officers under government, and the better sort 
hu clergy. Among these are found considerable in- 
i ni ion. ii;uch civility united to frau kness, great sociability, 
respect for decency and morality. Those who wish to 
iv more particularly the present stale of Neapolitan 
■ly ami the changes which it has undergone during the 
half century, may consult Colletla, Sloriu del Retime di 
■iiti, a work of great moral penetration, extensive obser- 
m. and written with remarkable impartiality. 

of the nobility are spacious and massive, but 

The r 

» pa 
., ■.ilium, that of Sansevero, remarkable for its chi. 

 ■rued with some good statues, that of Delia Rocca, those 
Fnim-ii villa, Stigliano, Berio, ice. The building which 

- been raised between the streets Toledo and S. Giacorao, 
' the ollices of the financial department and for the 
i k of the Two Sicilies, is one of tbc finest structures in 

.'i-iples is not so well supplied with water as Rome, and 

- not such handsome fountains; those of Fontana Me- 

 i.i and Monte Olivet o are the best. Several aqueducts 
'ii the neighbouring mountains supply the water, besides 
ich most houses have cisterns. There is a sulphureous 

i mg of water on the shore of Santa Lucia, which is much 

mk by the inhabilanls in the spring. 

I lie neighbourhood of Naples abounds in delightful 
»». The public gardens, or " Villa Reale,' extending 

ii 2 the shore of Chiaja for nearly a mile, enjoy the ad- 
'a^esnfthe sea-breeze, and of a view unrivalled in the 
'■1. The new road over the hill of Posilipo is a beau- 
1 ilnve. The hills of Capodimonte and Seuiillo, and the 
"i'bs of Infiascata and Arenella. at the bai-k of Sanl' 
. .u, abound with pleasant walks and a variety of scenery, 

These, as well as the other neighbouring hills of Voraoro, 
Posilipo, &0-, are covered with country-houses and garden* 
of all sizes. But the hills are mostly destitute of trees, and 
appear barren and parched, especially in summer. 

Naples is an archbishop's see, and is divided into fifty 
parishes, including the neighbouring villages. 

The town is abundantly supplied with provisions of every 
kind ; fish and shell-fish are plentiful, as well as vegetables 
and fruits. Snow, of which a great quantity is used, espe- 
cially in summer, for cooling the drink and for ices, is 
brought from tile mountain of Castellamaro, where it is 
kept in large reservoirs. 

The great street of Toledo is thronged with people and 
carriages at all times of the day, and until very late at night, 
or rather until two or three o'clock in the morning, when 
fashionable people retire to rest. It is decidedly the noisiest 
street in Europe, as the people are in the habit of vocife- 
rating at the tup of their voice; and others must do the 
same in order to be heard. The motley groups which are 
seen mixing pell-mell in the street, the crowded balconies 
above, the numerous venders of provisions, the arquaiuoli, 
or sellers of ice-water, at the corners of the bye-streets, the 
life out of doors, which is a general habit in this country, all 
render the streets of Naples, and especially that of Toledo, 
most curious to a foreigner. 

Naples, or Neapolis, that is, ' New City,' was a Greek 
colony from Cuimo; the date of its origin is not known. 
The story of its first foundation, under tlie name of Partite- 
nope, is a mythic tradition. Livy (b. vjii. 22) says that there 
were once two towns near each oilier, Palsgopulil and Nea- 
pulis, the inhabitants of'both being from Cumre, but Palreo- 
polis had, long before Livy's lime, merged into the new town, 
or Neapolis. 

Neapolis, after its first foundation by the Cumreans, re- 
ceived colonists from Chaleis, Pilbecusa, and Athens; and 
subsequently admitted some Campanians also among the 
body of citizens. (Strabo, p. 246. Casaub.) It became 
allied to the Samnites, hut after their subjugation by Rome 
it maintained its independence as a republic, and during the 
second Punic war sen t ambassadors to Rome to propose an alli- 
against Hannibal, and with it a rich present in golden 
i, which the people took from their temples to defray 
the expenses of the war. (Livy, xxii. 32.) Itcontinued after- 
wards an ally to Rome and became a monieipium. After the 
fall of the empire Neapolis was taken by the Goths, re- 
taken by Belisarius, and lastly destroyed by Totila, ad. 5-13, 
It was afterwards rebuilt, and annexed to the Longobard 
duchy of Beneventum. hut after the decline of the Longo- 
bard power, when the Byzantine emperors asserted a kind 
of supremacy over southern Italy, Naples bad its dukes, who 
were chosen by the inhabilanls. In the ninth century the 
dukes of Beneventum obliged it to pay tribute. When the 
duchy of Beneventum was split into three pri n ci pal i lies, 
" nevento, Capua, and Salerno, Landulf, count of Capua, 
order to maintain its independence of the other two, 
called in the Saracens, who devastated Ihe shores of Cam- 
pania. The Norman adventurers lent their assistance to 
the prince of Salerno against these piratical hordes, and 
afterwards by degrees established their own power in Apulia 
and Sicily. Naples was one of the last towns which sub- 
itted to the Normans ; it acknowledged king Roger I., of 
icily, as its sovereign, about a.d. 1137. The subsequent his- 
tory of Naples, both political and literary, is given under 
the head of Sicilies, Two. Kingdom of the. 
The following are the principal works concerning tbe 
wn of Naples, besides those which have been mentioned 
this article:— Celauo, Notisie del belta, deli' anlico, e del 
-.rioso delta Ciltd di Napoli, 4 vols. 8vo., 1792; Ruma- 
dli, Napo/i anlico. e moatrna, 3 vols. 8vo., 1814; Vargas, 
agguagli florid dell' Origin* di Napoli, 4to., 1754; and 
also Duxertazioni istnricti-lepttlUuW Antichitd, Sito, edAm- 
piezza delta Liburia Durale, o siaii dell Agro s Territorio 
di Napoli, 4to., 1 756, by Ihe same ; GiraHi, Le Rivoluztom 
di Napoli, Bvo., 1647; Chioccarelli, Amis tilum Neapolitanm 
Ecdesite Catalogue ab Aposlotorum temportbus ad annum 
1643, fol. ; Stefano (Pietro di), Deicrizione dei Luoghi Sacn 
di Napoli, 4to, 156U ; Caraceiolo (Eugenio), Napoli Sucra, 
Jto., 1623; Laseina (Pietro), DelC anlico Ginnasio Napo- 
litano.ilo., 1641, 1688; Origlia, Istnria delta Studio dt JVu- 
poli, 1 vols. 4 to. 1/54; Signorelli, Stin-ia delta Reale Acta- 
' a delle Scienze e Belle Lettere a Napoli, 1 7B7 ; Atlu 
... u ..elli, Delte Acque Mmerali di Napoli, 8vo., 1808; Ricci. 
Analiri chimica dell' Aequo, Ferrata e Suffurea di Napoli 



I MT. *i-.-*Cf S../1K.-H*. ^i, •" i. .' 

*W W 

a-i.,i K 



NAPOLEON. CODE- '<. zm. Ln C:wa \ 


r* *_.i -..- *•• -t-i%d v- *«: ea< eat*: 'A LarL-JL. avs 
ler.<rn. Iu * -.I'-,'. £**« r-*e t> »u tc^jfc M.--?=l:ak* 
ah,.'*? u.e ' ^; cf tie ea.--.*.v1 are t»>=-e r-^i w~. :. 

in tbe depar 



*:■-.:-, *►.**» 

Bija from IV 

Cabors. UdAU. 

a »a* a 

ie r-,i> '-^r« to Vft l£»'s»e of Ej/ia'-r-* 
Mweri*V*..a i* t;-* M.:- % -f Pa-*ar. a*. V- 
pi*'e iL h.- 'x.*- A« E;.i%-j.-*t fc.i der*y, tL* ♦:-*:; 
on the j*. :,1 gre-s .;.", rj. y.n&Lce, ar-d \\ :Le- jr:li-.» 
aMurned the nar.'^e of Neapo..i» or new L»n, *r» ».*~;#-a ^ 
that of Monefcwa»*a. It was a p'.^re of ionje **, :-**■' -e:;«r 
under tbe B>zahtine emperors, ar.d Andrew?.** C->~r.c:.^s 
in tbe twelfth center) funded here a m>na*:erT, wL.-l. »i~j 
exists, and the church of which is or*e of the largest iu 
Greece. The Frank* when tbejr conquered a great part of 
the empire in the thirteenth century corrupted the name A 
Monerabasia into that of Malvasia. The country in tr* 
neighbouring district formerly produced a luscious wine, to 
which the Venetians gave tbe name of Malvasia from the 
town at which it was shipped, and tbe name has been since 
applied as a generic appellation to wine of the same quaiuy 
madc in other parts of the Mediterranean, as at Li [.an, in 
Sardinia, Spain, &c. This is the kind of wine cai.ed in 
English malmsey. 

The island of Monembasia is billy, about half a mile 
in length, and one third of a mile in breadth. The castle is 
on the summit of the hill, and the town, which is built below 
it, extends to the sea on the south side of tbe island. The 
streets are narrow and steep ; tbe place contains about 3c0 
houses, besides 50 more in the castle. Tbe ram parts and 
several other buildings were constructed by the Venetians, 
who took possession of the place in the thirteenth century 
and kept it till 1540, when it was given up to the Turks by 
a treaty. On this occasion most of the inhabitants left it 
along with the Venetian garrison and found an asylum in 
the other Venetian possessions. It now forms part of the 
new kingdom of Greece. 

The bishop of Monembasia, a metropolitan of high rank 
in the Greek church, has seven suffragan bishops under 
him, including those of the neighbouring district of Maina. 
(Coronelli; Leake.) 

a town of tbe Morea, built on a rocky promontory at the 
north-east extremity of the Argplic Gulf. The harbour be- 
tween this promontory and the north coast is large and 
tolerably safe, but has become too shallow to admit large 
ships. A small fortified island lies at the entrance of the 
harbour. The town stands on the north-east slope of the 
hill facing the mainland, and is fortified; the bill has a 
tabular summit, which is unoccupied with houses, and from 
which abrupt cliffs descend to the open sea at the back of 
the promontory. A steep and rocky mountain rises above 
it to the south-east called Palamedi, a very antient appella- 
tion derived from Palamedes, the son of Nauplias, the 
reputed son of Neptune and founder of the town. On this 
cliff U the castle, which it very strong owing to its almost 
inaccessible situation. 

Nauplia was once the port and arsenal of Argos, but in 
the time of Pausanias it was deserted. It revived under the 
Byzantine emperors, was occupied by tbe Venetians in the 
thirteenth century, and became their chief settlement in 
the Morea, until it was taken from them by Sultan Soly- 
man in 1537. The fortifications are of Venetian construc- 
tion, but the ramparts towards the east are partly composed 
of the anhent vails of the town, which are of a similar con- 
struction with and probably of the same date as those of the 
Acropolis of Argos. Other and later remains of Hellenic 

• - 




a i^T t £__r 
ry.iT r^ir* ziesi* J.n'ZJ *-:: i 

a-Jiei ' lit rlcr..-..> ' u> 
Nit . - 

NARBONNE,a c/.r ^ Fi 
A-se. i*tax u* ro**i of lut 
X. -at azi ^ *' E. 
OrPiii, t~ 
I ---::>-**. 

N- t>._3^ 'lie IL-^afi Narl»x T Narbo Martin 
yf \Le .1 : jc*l cue* *i France. A Roswaa oulooy va» 
z^.rt \jj --: b.c. I.e. ar.i x had bees one of the cL... 
A \ut V.'.rae Arecoc.r^ a Ccuc peopU, loo|C be: : 
u^Lfe. C^sxr sect adLL,:ml colonists to Naxbv 
ie^rar^ of \ht Vtz.Uk tfrg.jTk. Cicero iPro F r mU* 
•^■eaiLs A Nari>3 a* ' a wa:r Slower and bull 
Mai * ^ ; > »peaks of Narbo as beiny in bia tinae i. 
u»a of UmZ\ pr^uice of Gaul, in whjcb it was aituait . 
\j wh ch u gave tbe biie of GalUa Xaxbopenau. b 
'p. I-.]. OuiuLX descr^bea it as tbe emporium v. 
Giul: ai.d, at a later per.:*!, Sidoaius ApoIhnar» 
Ausuiuus have borne testimony to tbe number -.. 
str^c.ures or the extent of iu wealth. Tbe cs>ur 
tLe Atax, or Aude, through the adjacent laVe o. 
bres^s, or Rubrensu (e^ng de Sigean), vas fa: 
by an aruf '"ial channel loO leet wide end 30 ttvi 
ar.d trie navigation of tbe river v though of tmail *. 
promoted tbe commerce of the town. Tbe hitior) • 
bonne under tbe Romans has been minutely £.u 
Expilly, in his ' D.c; ;onoaire de* Gaulea,* |tc 

In A~nw 413, Ataulphus, king of tbe Vttigolfca, sa 
Nar bonne, where he shortly after celebrated hu u.v 
with Placid ia, sister of Honor iu&> He was bowe< • . 
obliged to abandon the city ; but in AJX 462 tbe V.- . 
obtained possession again by treachery, and retailed i . 
the taking cf Toulouse bv Clovis and tbe Franka, N -• 
became the Visigotbic capiul: it waa repeated 1 5 U* 
Franks and Buigundians,and early in the eighth ce?.. 
into the bands of the Saracens [Moors, p. 385], fru- 
it was taken (a.d. 759) by Pepin le Bref # and an k- 
the Prankish monarchy. NarbonnewasaubsequenU) - 
by tbe Northmen. In the ninth and tenth ce >>. 
was the capital of the marquisate of Gotbia, or Scf>; - 
which was afterwards merged in tbe county of T . 
Under themarqnises of Septimania, Narbonne vas g 
by vidames, or viscounts, who were at first iemo«a^ 
afterwards became hereditary, and were feudator*.* 
counts of Toulouse and (for a portion of tbe luwi 
arc hbi* hops of Narbonne. Aymeri Ill^vispount of N &: 
was engaged in the crusade against tbe Albigeuw.* 
Inquisition was established at Narbonne in hu 1 1. 
not without occasioning considerable diaUirbancv^. 
inhabitants were at this time extensively engaged 1 , 
merce, and had alliances and treaties with Marbeif.r 
Genoa, Pisa, and other trading towns on tbelfediterr. 
In 1348 the plague carried off 30,000 of the inhab.- 
Narbonne, a loss which attests the greatness of the \ 
tion. In 1355 Aymeri IX., viscount of Narbonne, dv 
the place successfully against the attaoks of tlu I 
Prince, but was taken prisoner next year at the ^& 
Maupertuis, or Poitiers. In 1407 Guillaunae, or W 
II., viscount of Narbonne, contested tbe po&x*^ 
Sardinia (whither he had been invited by tbe natiw- 
the kings of Sicily; he was ultimately however cU .• 
yield. He was one of the supporters of the Dauph:.: 
wards Charles VII. ; and took part in tbe murder * : 
duke of Hourgogne, at Montereau (xjx 1419). H-. 
(ad. 1424) in the battle of Vemeuil against the 1 . 
The viscounty afterwards passed by sale to the <\>t- 
Foix. The last viscount was Gaston de Foix, n*i- 
Louis XIX, king of France, who fell in tbe battle «. 

N A R 


N A R 

NARCISSUS is a genus of Endogens belonging to the 
natural order Amarylfidacese, among which it is known by 
its flowers growing upon a scape, and baring a cup at their 
mouth ; the stamens which are opposite the sepals being 
longer than the others. It consist* of bulbous plants prin- 
cipally inhabiting tbe warmer parts of Europe, only one spe- 
cies, N. pteudo-narcissu*, or the Common Daffodil, being 
found plentifully so far north as Great Britain, with two 
others, N. bi/hrus and poeticus, in an apparently wild state, 
and a very few advancing into Africa. 

The species are numerous, and from their hardiness or 
gay colours, or sweet smell, have long been favourite objects 
of cultivation, especially the Daffodils, Jonquils, and Taz- 
zettas. A very full account of them will be found in the 
• Amaryllidacese ' of the Honourable and Reverend Wil- 
liam Herbert, p. 292 (8vo., London, 1837), who however 
divides the genus into six others, after the example of 
Salisbury and Haworth ; but as those genera are not likely 
to be adopted by botanists, with the exception perhaps of 
the genus Corbularia, no account need be given of them. 
With regard to Corbularia, to which the name of Hoop- 
petticoat Narcissus is given, and of which five supposed spe- 
cies are enumerated, the peculiar form of the flower and 
the delicate stamens of that plant may perhaps entitle it 
to be regarded as a peculiar genus: the species are pretty, all 
yellow flowered, with the single exception of C. cantabrica, 
a little plant with white flowers found on the mountains of 
Biscay and the Pyrenees, but now lost in our gardens. 

NARCOTICS (from the Greek adjective vapc»n*5c, 
which is from vaptri, a stiffening, stupor, or insensibility), a 
class of medicines which may be defined — agents which, in 
moderate doses, cause a temporary increase of the action of 
the nervous and also of the vascular system, followed more 
or less speedily by a marked diminution of this action, 
terminating generally in sleep. When the dose is large, 
the excitement is scarcely perceptible ; while the diminished 
power of the nervous system is so manifest, that an appear- 
ance of coma or apoplexy is induced. All the agents 
included in this class are capable of producing a state termed 
narcosis or narcotism, which, if not quickly removed by a 
natural subsiding of their influence, or by artificial means, 
may terminate in death. Many of them are therefore as 
familiarly known as poisons as therapeutic agents. It is the 
<<rtj§>deration of them however in this latter quality which 
*» to be entered on in this place. Their power of inducing 
b**^ Lu procured for them the name of hypnotics, or so- 
y,r.ts* : and the property which many of them possess of 
*.!>'*%.';;*£ pain, by blunting the sensibility, has obtained 
ljr ti^.'i* \u+ m p*?,.ati'sn of anodynes [Anodynes], or, from 
oi>«- of tM: t*-»' k'w«n among them, simply of opiates. 

Tut uvAt .»i/yrUfjt co utAt: ration respecting them is the 
•.afc*ijjikifc'rii»« vf *t*r.r dpprencmjg action being always pre- 
mk*hC i/\ a *' *v ..«*.t 'J ms peculiarity renders their em- 
pt'tUitt.: c -.• - t »i» *Ai»i t"4*i* and improper in others. 
' Xtfo'K* ll.v t* 4.*uttirm*Ut:d from stimulants on the 
ou* tmi.d. a«.c f'ow tHviteson the other; and the dis- 
•.ii.«-v>i *c 'I* ioor* i^fj^ary, because in nature the nar- 
<«>•««- |>fn»* iv»»* * jt«— **»*.». r combined with one or other of 
ii*»« u»;u<a ti»* «.o! «iu«3««*tory and unsatisfactory reports 
o* ti»« \«iu« of o-tV*«Mit n»r«Mi': remedies, and the difficulty 
«*\pe*'«*»t««At hi tiii-u *o(/<*<-atiori by those who do not know 
tu* itrrt^ti * ny opium *uif» one rase, byoscyamus another.' 
<Bjljii»jr'a Ptrrt Principle? of Medicine \ 3rd edit.j The 
jx.i^tf* of rhemiatry, by isolating the various active prin- 
ciple* exiting in the same natural compound, has lessened 
tin dtftVulty attendant on their administration ; still, as no 
one oho be said to act in a manner precisely similar to 
another, a correct knowledge of each is desirable in order to 
ensure tbe selection of that which is best suited to the case. 
Diversified as they are in their nature and modes of action, 
there is this common property, that they all make a direct 
impression on the extremities of the nerves (to whatever 

Krt of the bodv, with few exceptions, they are applied); 
t their full and ultimate effects do not take place till they 
art* abftortad, and mingled with the circulating fluid. 

A a! ght irlan<*e at their action on the different systems of 
tl^r hod) «ul furmih a useful guide in their administration. 
A ''►•** of a narcotic in t rehired into the stomach will, 
if that <tr/u: **- *'fi(tv. d«**froj the dewir* for food, while, if 
it ♦•• !••/!, » l •• \ ,'*-»{ \\*> ptt*-4'%+ m KiKpcndcd or ren- 
d«*r« d •'«/»♦" 1 * t f*»-, ,«-#if r font in *i#"l u»<« \n therefore 
vei> sfijuii^/ot \f> •».«♦ f .v.'rf,',, <rtt nUli all I 1m* others do- 
—••id, %ix. i.otM'.ot. , a* ■• 'J *v*J"d m th* j*-r4"n» of opium- 

eaters of the East. Further, sboald any eonaiaierable - 
tion or subacute inflammatory condition of the nw.j. 
of the stomach exist, they cause an aggravation ' 
febrile symptoms, and either in common orcanceruu» . 
tion of that organ they cause great undoings* Th^u; i 
primary effect on the vascular system be stimulate 
many of them send thereby a large quantity of bl»>M 
brain (probably the source of their soporific property 
secondary effect is depressing; and in this tbe re- 
organs participate. This is at once a source of ui.t 
of danger, for by moderating tbe action of tbe h***/ 
lungs, the respiration is rendered slower, an ad**nu 
most inflammatory complaints ; but when pushed : 
the blood is not sufficiently aerated, and partaking t • • 
of the nature of venous blood, it does not prove a fu- 
st imul us to tbe brain and other organs. 

Their action upon the secreting system is not \i-> 
form, nor are all writers agreed as to its nature. I 
generally checks most of the secretions, except thv 
skin, and causes heat, thirst, and constipation. II-  
mus rarely causes any of these states, but on tbe r*»" 
rather laxative, and aconite greatly increases the ^ 
of the bile and also of the skin. Many natural coir 
have an acrid principle combined with tbe narc •■• 
hence are termed narcotico-acricb, such as aconur - 
colchicum, hellebore, &c; these generally augment i. 
cous and other secretions, though they produce nar 
in excessive doses. 

Lastly, some of them possess greater influence - 
set of nerves than the other, and expend tbeir enenr* - 
nerves of motion, or of sensation, according to tbeir : 

No set of medicines have their action more m< «1 
a variety of circumstances— such as the quantity ?i • 
the frequency of repetition, also the force of habit, c. 
or season, but above all by idiosyncrasy. Age also I* 
important share in determining the amount of * 
Children do not in general bear them well, and tht- 
t hough they are very subject to convulsive and sps*"- 
diseases, other means should be employed, esper** 
removal of tbe source of irritation, when practicable. 
various nostrums recommended for children genera/- 
tain some narcotic, and prove a fertile cause of the o 
of early life. [Antispasmodics] The administrai. 
narcotics requires more knowledge and judgment ihi- 
of any other class of remedies, and should only be hi 
course to under competent advice. 

In case of over-dose or accidental poisoning, the * 
ing observations may be useful. The stomach be t . 
dered insensible to the irritation of emetics, these ar? - 
rally useless, and much valuable time is lost by adrr. 
ing them. Where better means cannot be bad. sut; 
zinc (white vitriol) dissolved in water, or a table-*;* 
of flour of mustard diffused through a pint of wain- 
may be given, accompanied with pressure on tbe (.:: 
stomach, and at the same time tickling the throat 
feather. Neither ipecacuan nor tartar emetic *b . 
used ; the latter is particularly unfit. [Bell ajk>x> k. 
stomach-pump is the surest means of emptying the >: 
and should be used as soon as possible. If the brain j 
much oppressed, the countenance flushed, and the 
full, moderate blood-letting will be serviceable, espe" 
artificial respiration be subsequently employed. \\ : 
water brought up by the stomarh-pump is clear an i 
of any smell of the poison, which will prove that l 
hurtful material has been evacuated, then, and not i\. 
vinegar may be given to the patient, who should a 
kept moving about, and not suffered, if possible, to >i'^ 
a state of slumber. Coffee is a very useful beverage, ar. 
more a drink made by boiling twelve ounces of * 
and pouring it immediately on three ounces of roaM 
ground coffee, or by boiling the coffee in the vinegar. - 
ing it, then adding half an ounce of sugar, and ginr: 
small quantities to the patient every quarter or ha. 
This can be prepared while the stomach-pump is bc.;.j 
and is one of the most efficacious means of counter v 
narcotic principle. Vinegar given while any of the p.- - 
substance is in the stomach only inrreouses its dei«. 
property. [Antidotes.] See Pereira's Malcrtj ' 
for the mode of action of the different narcotic Wi« 
i.« p. 60. and Christ ison On Poisons. 

N ARCOTl'NA, one of the peculiar and »lko_V,- 
pies of opium which was discovered by Demsnv at 
its true nature and alkaliue properties were Lo»t>> 

N A R 


N A S 

fa embark bis troops, he marched along the shores of the 
Adriatic, through Dalmatia, Istria, and Venetia, and thus 
arrived at Ravenna, from whence, after some days' rest, he 
moved on across the Apennines, and met Totila, who was 
advancing from Rome, at a place called Tagina, or Tadina?, 
where a desperate battle took place, in which the Goths 
were completely defeated and Totila was killed. Narses 
advanced to Rome, which he took, whilst the Goths, having 
retired to Pavia, elected for their king Teias, who moved 
with a fresh army to encounter Narses. The two armies 
met on the banks of the river Sarno, near Nocera in Cam* 
pania: Teias was killed in the fight, and the remaining 
Uoths entered into a convention with Narses, by which 
they laid down their arms and withdrew to North Italy, 
where they dispersed in various parts of the country. Not 
long after however part of them joined a host of Franks 
and Alemanni who Lad crossed the Alps, under two bro- 
thers, called Lather and Bucelin, and the whole made an 
irruption into South Italy whiUt Narses was besieging 
Lucca. The barbarian host advanced as far as Calabria, 
plundering and committing all sorts of excesses ; but on 
returning northwards loaded with booty, they were met bv 
Narses on the banks of the Volturno, and totally destroyed. 
The Gothic kingdom in Italy was now at an end, and the 
whole country acknowledged the authority of Justinian, 
who appointed Narses exarch of Italy, a.d. 553. Narses 
fixed his residence at Ravenna, as the most convenient 

£lace for a prompt communication with Constantinople. 
taring his fifteen years' administration, he did much to re- 
establish order throughout Italy ; he checked the licentious- 
ness of his troops, dismissed the most turbulent of his bar- 
barian auxiliaries, appointed governors, with the title of 
dukes, to the different provinces, and repressed faction and 
religious schism. He has been accused of only one vice, 
avarice : he is charged with accumulating a large treasure 
during bis residence in Italy. After the death of Justinian, 
▲J>. 565, the enemies of Narses obtained his recal from the 
emperor Justinus II., wbo sent Longinus to supersede him 
aa exarch of Ravenna. It is said that Sophia, the wife of 
Justinus, added to the letters of recall an insulting message 
to the purport that he ought to leave to men the command 
over other men, and return to the use of the distaff among 
the women of the palace ; to which Narses is said to have 
retorted, that he would spin her a thread that she should 
not be able to unravel. lie is accused of having entered 
into a correspondence with Alboin, king of the Longobards, 
inviting him to invade Italy. This however rests upon du- 
bious report. Narses, after giving up his command, with- 
drew to Naples, but soon after, upon the urgent application 
of the Roman people, forwarded through their bishop, he 
removed to Rome, where he died at a very advanced age, 
a.d. 568. About the same time Alboin was crossing the 
Norio Alps to invade Italy. (Agathias ; Paul us Diaconus ; 

minous Polish writer, was born October 20th, 1733, and at 
the age of fifteen entered a seminary of the Jesuits, where 
his abilities and application so greatly recommended him to 
his instructors, that he was sent to the college of Jesuits at 
Lyon, and on quitting it was enabled, by the liberality of 
hie patron, prince Ciartorysky, to travel through Italy, 
France, and Germany. Having employed the opportunity 
thus afforded him in acquiring information and perfecting 
himself in various branches of study, on his return to his 
native country he was appointed professor of poetry at the 
university of Wilna. Within a short time afterwards he was 
promoted to a similar professorship in the College of Nobles 
at Warsaw. The reputation bis talents now procured 
for him also the notice of the king Stanislaus Augustus, 
who, besides other repeated marks of his favour, conferred 
upon him the bishopric of Smolensk after the suppression 
of the order of the Jesuits, and in 1 790 that of Lukow. He 
died July 6th, 1796, in his 63rd year. 

Besides his poems, which consist of fables, satires, pas- 
torals, and several books of odes and other lyrical pieces, 
inol tiding several imitated from Anacreon and Horace, he 
wrote a * History of Poland/ in six volumes, a translation 
of Tacitus, a description of Taurida or history of the Crira 
Tartars, a translation of all the odes of Horace, and 
Stanislaus Augustus* Journey to Kaniow in 17»6, which 
contains an account of the origin of the Kosacks. 

NARVA, the capital town of the circle of the same name 
in the government of 8t. Petersburg, is situated in 59° 24' 

N. lat. and 28° 10' E. long., on the west bank of the m- 
Narowa, which comes from Lake Peipus and falls into i 
Gulf of Finland about ten miles below the town. I' > 
surrounded with a rampart, and in the suburb of h«. 
gorod, on the other side of the river, there are the retc.  
of a large fortress built bv the czar Ivan Wassilie«'i:- 
Narva is divided into the old and new town, which are k.. 
rated by a rampart. The houses are well built of brick, : 
stuccoed white. There are 7 stone and 2 wooden G: 
churches, and 2 stone Lutheran churches, an Exchange, l. 
a good German school. The inhabitants, about 4iu« 
number, are for the most part of German descent, *• 
Narva looks more like a German than a Russian town. . 
was a member of the Hanseatic League, and has «... 
very considerable export trade in balks, planks, flax, L*- 
corn, and furs. The fishery in the Baltic is very piv. 
tive, and the lampreys and smoked salmon of Nam  
celebrated. About 100 merchantmen, chiefly in ballast 
imports being much less than the exports), arrive even y. 
and can come up to the town ; but the barks which o • 
down the Narowa from Lake Peipus are unloaded sb 
a mile from the town, at the island of Kragholm, vL-. 
there is a fall in the river about twelve feet perpendiruu- 

Narva was built in the year 1213 by King Waller 
taken in 1553 by the grand-duke Ivan Wasaihevriucb, -. 
re-taken by the Swedes in 1581. In 1590 and I65S a r  
besieged by the Russians. On the 30th November, i ; 
King Charles XII., with 8200 Swedes, totally deieir- 
80,000 Russians under Peter the Great and the dukr . 
Croy, and stormed their intrenched camp near the *j.* 
In 1 704 however Peter the Great took it by storm, and it i* 
ever since remained in the possession of Kussia. 

NARWHAL. [Whales] 

NAS A'LIS, M. Geoffroy a name for a remarkable ge-  
of Monkeys established on the * Guenon a lone nea ' 
Button, the Proboscis Monkey ef Shaw, Simia Nana 
Schreber, Nasalis larvatus of Geoffroy, The Kakau, 

Organization and History. 
The enormous development of the nose in the JToA* i 
not dependent on bone. The nasal bones are no n - 
elevated than they are in the rest of the SimiaeUe, as xr" - 
perceived from the following cut of the skull of a* FM-u- 
Monkey in the museum of the Zoological Society of low*. - 

Skull of Kahaw 

The figure given nelow was reduced from the drawirj 
a female, when newly taken from the cask of s^r 
which the body was preserved: the specimen can* 
Borneo, and is now to be seen, but with the nose * 
norated by drying, m the museum of that Society. ; 


 id that the animal lias the power of dilating tbia organ to 
11 ciionuuua site by inflation. 

Audcbert gives the following view of the none, u seen 
lorn beneath. 

Nom of Xihu, Htn tro=i tent jft. 
Tti July, 1837, Mr. Martin laid before tbe Zoological 

Society the following observations on this Monkey : — 

1 The genua Nasalis, of which the " Guenon d long nex" 
.f Button (Suppl., vii.) or Proboscis Monkey of Shaw, ia the 
ype, was founded by Geoffrey St. Hilaire in his 'Tableau 
:■■* y u ad ru manes,' published in the ' Annates du Museum 
liisioiro Nalurelle' for 1812. In this outline of the 
•mtiadee the genera Semnapitkecus and Cercopithecus are 
kiuk'rt together under the latter title; but from this group 
'-!• excluded two Monkeys, the Douc, constituting the type 
f the genus Pygathrix {Lasiopyga. 111.) and the " Guenon 
I long net.'' With respect to the genua Pygathrix or 
.imiitfii/ga, founded upon the alleged want of callosities, must 
ntnraiists, I believe (aware of the error committed both by 
iooll'roy and Illiger, in describing from an imperfect skin), 
live regarded it as merging into the genus Semnopithecut, 
i least provisionally, until the internal anatomy of its 
.sinned representative be known. 

' The characters of the genus Natalis, formed for the 
'•reption of the "Guenon d lone nex" {Simia Nasica, 
ii-hrcb. ; Cercopithecus larvatus, Wurmb), are laid down 

8 follows!— 

' " Muzzle short, forehead projecting, but little elevated ; 
trial angle 50°; note prominent, and extremely elongated ; 
■•rs small and round; body stout ; cheek-pouchet ; anterior 

tnUs, with four long Buyers and a shurt thumb, ending 
. here the index-finger begins ; posterior hands very large, 

ith fingers stout, especially the thumb; callosities large; 
nl longer than the body." 
' At a subsequent period, however, in his 'Cours de 1'His- 

■ire N ill u telle ,' published ill 1S2M, Genllroy, adopting the 
i-ima Senmopithecus, established by Fred. Cuvier, places 
i.u " Guenon d long nez'' within its limits, doubtfully, it 

 true, and with the acknowledgment that his genus 
'.':""//; has not been generally adopted, but at the same 

mv with a bias in its favour ; tor, observing that the man- 
■[> of these Monkeys are those of the Semnnpitheci, he 
Ids, "Ce pendant, il ne nous parail eneore demon Ire 1 que le 

■1140 nasique soil une veritable semnopiihequo, et il est 
-it possible quo lorsigue l'espece sera mums imparfaite- 

iii-ut cunnue, on soil oblige de relablir le genre Nasalis, 
uii lorjuol on l'isolait autrefois, mais qui n'est pas ete 
Iml* par la plupart dea auteurs modernea." 
' Setting aside the singular conformation of the nose, so 
•markiible in the Swim Nasalis, its external characters 
,c nut different from those of the Smnnopitheci in general; 
nil it is lo be observed that in a second species, lately added 

iv Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfield, under the title of Naialis 

 u'tu.t, the proportions of this port of the face are much 
iiimiislied, and its form also modified. This species (which, 

 .'nigh doubted by some as being distinct, is, we believe, 

ily -i>) lakes an intermediate station between tbe Simia 
vi.i/n and the ordinary Senmopitheci with flat noses, 
.irreby showing that the transition in this particular cha- 

n'ter is not abrupt ; even were it so, an isolated point of 
lis nature does not form a philosophical basis upon which 
:• ground a generic distinction. 

' So far 1 have alluded to external characters only ; it 
.'mains for me to give some account of the anatomical cha- 

1'ters of this singular Monkey, of which, as far as I can 
iv u. modern naturalists do not appear to be aware. 
' It would seem that M. Otto,* who described the saccu- 

i!-*'l form of the stomach in one of the Monkeys of the 
.;. mis Semnopithecvs, is not the first observer of this pecu- 

liarity, for I find that Wurmb, in the 'Memoirs ef to* 
Society of Batavia,' notices this point in the anatomy of an 

individual of tbe Simia Nasalis. After giving soma inte- 
resting details respecting the habits and manners of tba 
species, he proceeds as followa:— "The brain resembles 
that of man; the lungs are of a snow-white colour; tbe 
heart is covered with fat, and this is the only part in whieh 
fat is found. Tbe stomach is extraordinarily large, and of 
an irregular form ; and there is beneath the skin a tac 
which extends from the lower AW to the clavicles." Aude- 
bert (with whose work, 'Histoire des Singes,' Geoffrey St. 
Hilaire was well acquainted) refers to this account of 
Wurmb ; yet Geoffroy does not, as far as I can find, advert 
to these points, unless indeed his statement of the presence 
of cheek-pouches be founded on tbe observation of a aac 
extending from the lower jaw to the clavicles; and if so, be 
has made a singular mistake, for the sac in question is 
laryngeal, and the words as they stand cannot be supposed 
to mean anything else. I know of no Monkey whose cheek- 
pouches extend beneath the skin to the clavicles; but the 
laryngeal sacs in the Orang and Gibbons, and also in the 
Semnopitkeci themselves, are remarkable for development. 
It is evident however, from tbe silence of M. Geoffroy Bt. 
Hilaire respecting the laryngeal saccului in tbe Proboscis 
Monkey, that he was not aware of the real character of the 
structure to which Wurmb had alluded. With respect to 
the structure of the stomach, neither Wurmb nor M. Otto 
drew any general inferences from it ; they described it as it 
presented itself in single species, and regarded it in art 
isolated point of view ; it is, if I mistake not, to Mr. Owen 
that we owe its reception as an anatomical character extant 
throughout the Srmnt/pitheci. (See his paper on the sub- 
ject, in the Proceedings for 1833, and in the Transactions 
of the Zoological Society) 

•This is perhaps scarcely tbe place in which to introduce 
any speculations, but I cannot help observing that tbe same 
structure may be expected in the genus Colobus, which in 
form is a mere repetition of the genus Semnopithecus, ex- 
cept that the thumb of the fore hands, which tn tbe latter 
begins to assume a rudimentary character, is in the former 
reduced to its lowest stage of development. In both genera 
the teeth precisely agree, and present eatly that worn sur- 
face which is the consequence of a continued grinding 
rodent-like action upon the leaves and herbaceous matter 
whieh constitute the chief diet of the animals. 

'The statement of Wurmb respecting the stomach and 
laryngeal apparatus of the Proboscis Monkey I have lately 
been enabled to confirm. 

* Among the specimens in store brought within the laat 
few months from the Gardens to the Museum occurred an 
example of the Proboscis Monkey, in brine, but in a state 
of decomposition which induced me lo lose no time in mak- 
ing such an examination as its condition would admit, being 
indeed extremely anxious to ascertain the relationship of 
this curious Monkey to the other groups of Indian 
Simiada?, groups to which 1 have been lately directing my 

' The specimen in question was a female, measuring, from 
tbe vertex lo ihe ischiatic callosities, one foot nine inchea. 

' The body was meagre and slender, and the limbs long 
and slim ; the contour of the animal being very unlike that 
displayed in tbe mounted specimen in the Museum of the 
Society, which gives Ihe idea of great robustness. 

' The abdominal cavity had at Borne former period been 
opened and the liver removed, in doing which the stomach 
had been cut, but not so much as to spoil it entirely. In 
every essential point this viscus is the same as in all the 
Semnopitheci hitherto examined: it consists of a large 
cardiac pouch, with a strong muscular band running as it 
were around it so as to divide it into two compartments, an 
upper and lower, slightly corrugated into sacculi; the car- 
diac apex of the upper pouch projects as a distinct sacculus 
of an oval form, and is not bifid. From this upper pouch 
runs a long and gradually narrowing pyloric portion, cor- 
rugated into sacculi by means of three muscular bands, of 
which one ia continued from the band dividing the cardiac 
pouch into two compartments. The elongated pyloric por- 
tion sweeps around the lower cardiac pouch. 

' The oesophagus enters the first compartment about four 
inches from its terminal apex, giving off a radiation of lon- 
gitudinal muscular fibres over the central portion of tbe 
first compartment. The second or lower compartment ia 
tbe largest and deepest, and ia embraced by longitudinai 

MAS 9 

• from the oesophagus to the division -band, 

e compartment id the stomach of Ihe 

riltu, it is very slightly sacculated ; in- 

n searcelv be said to bo so at all. The adraeasuro- 

'II iiiiiiI I. i il tin li mt in r iir i .16 

Sad coaaparUaent, measured in the same 

Fran* tbe entrance of tbe (esophagus, round 

the fad compartment, to Ihe division -band 1 1 
The same measurement, round the 1st com- 

f rt—m t  8} 

Leoeih of pyloric portion . . .21 

CutanfereiKe at base . .0 9) 

Grraafereoce just above pyloric orifice . 51 

Lcasth of small intestine* . . . IS 

Leci'Ji of lar^e intestines . . 6 2 

' Tbe average diameter of the small intestines, lying Hat, 

wm| of an inch; Ihe ileum however was rather more, but 

bw> q uite an inch. 

 Tbe cactim is of a pyramidal figure, 5 iuches in length, 
■aj atei, and somewhat sacculaied by three slight muscular 
bawds Circumference at Ihe base, ji inches. 

 Tbe lance intestines are puckered into xacculi by two 
longitudinal bands; 1 hey commence large, becoming gra- 
dually smaller, the hands in the mean time gradually dis- 
appearing. Advancing towards Ihe Tectum the intestine 
again enlarges; and here, lo the extent of iij feet from the 
anus, all trace of bands is lost. 

'Tbe circumference of the large intestines, at their com- 
mencement, is 34 inches. 

 The lungs consisted of two lobes on each side, the fis- 
sure dividing tbe lobes on the right side being the most 

' The laryngeal sac was of enormous site, and single. It 
extended over the whole of Ihe throat, and advanced below 
the clavicles, communicating by means of a single but large 
opening with the larynx. This opening is on the left side, 
between the larynx and the ns hyaidts, and is capable of 
being closed by mean* of a muscle arising from the ante- 
rior apex of tbe or hyoidet, and running down Ihe central 
aspect of the trachea to tbe sternum. The contraction of 
this muscle draws the ot hyoidet down, so as to press upon 
the edge of the thyroid cartilage. 

' There were no cheek-pouches, nor any traces of them. 

'The teeth were much worn, but the flflh tubercle of the 
last molar tooth of the lower jaw waa very distinct,'— {Zaol. 
Proc-, 1837.) 

The Kalian. (Autebrrt.) 

Detcri pt ion.— Reddish brown, except tbe liiiht coloured 
tail, lower part of ihe hack, and some light-coloured mark- 
ings on the arms. Height about three feet, when nearly 
erect. Female rather km, and destitute of ihe light markings 
on the back. ace. No** and fact, darkish brown. 

UeoKraphnal Uiatrihutinn, Habitt, ^c.— This species is 
a native of Borneo. Their habits are gregarious, anil Ihey 

darting fi 

ivity, sometimes springing a distance of fifteen feet. T: 
ne, Kahau, is supposed to be given to them from 
itinued cries, which are considered to resemble tl.n' 
their expression. Their disposition is said to k 
M. Lesson notices the 'on dit'lhat the species i> 1 
of Cochin China; but he gives no authority f 

Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsileld, in their paper 'O- ' 
Mammalia in the Zoological Museum,' after noti<-:... 
species above described, mention another form, of w h   
specimens, almost equally distinguished by the eitif- 
the note, but having that member turned up in-: 
being recumbent, brought also from Borneo, are 1 
same collection. This is the form alluded to above ' 
Martin, and is thus characterised by Mr. Vigors a- . . 
Horsfleld, under the name of Natalia remrvtu. It i-  
remarked that tbey were alto preserved in spirit, an '. 
sequenlly were not subject to Ihe same contraction  
son parti of the nose as might have occurred, il 

Deicription.— Head, neck, shoulders, and thighs rv 
above; abdomen paler; middle of tbe back reddish . 
inside of arms and thighs, lower part of the back, bl . 
grey ; tail below, white. Size about one-third leas tt.i 

Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfleld observe that the f 
colour and markings of this animal correspond wilh 
of the Kahau. The skin of the face however, Ihey rt: 
is reddish in N. recurvut. where in Ihe other apeci?- 
black. In N. recurvut, they add, tbe beard is very 1*. 
nent ; but in Ihe Kahau the hairs on the chin ace 
assume Ihe appearance of a beard. 

PndleofN. uraro. 

Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfleld slate that it has ber  
gested that this may be tbe young of the Kahau : !■ 1 
state that they cannot allow themselves to come to ' 
elusion that they arc the same, with so great a dispro- 
of tbe facial angles, in the absence of some stronger _- 
than mere conjecture. Its teeth, they remark, sjijj 
signs of being otherwise than adult 

Mr. Swainson appears to agree with Mr. Vigor* a 
Horsfleld and Mr. Martin, in considering N. revi»rr.' 
tinct ; for he gives the number of species of A'j»'im . 
{Natural Hist, and Clattification tf Quadrnpedt. ) 

NASAMCNES {V<t<t*aZ>nc\ a barbaious r* 
Libya, who dwelt on the coasts of the Greater "■ 
According to Straho they wore bounded on the 1 
the Psylli, and extended westward as far as the PL 
Altars, which were at the southern extremity of the 1. 
Syrtis (xvii., p. 83fi, 838, Casaub.). Herodotus pU - 
farther to the west, and states that they occupied tt- 
try of Ihe Psylli (iv. 173). On the east they exles 
yun'l the Syrtis, and were bounded bv the Aus .■ 
small tribe, who dwelt to the west of the Cyreuaica  i. 
ii. 32; iv. 172). Inland they had dominion as far - 
oasis of Augila, in the great desert of Bare*, xrhkh 
miles south-east of Barca, and is at the preset] t d-n 
Ihe resting-places of Ihe caravans which trade V 
Cairo and Feszan. [Auoila.] The Nasamooe-*. v. 
customnd to leave their cattle on the coa»' in ihe »•. 
season, and go to Augila to gather dates (Herod., it. 

Pliny (v. 3) also places the Nasaro ones on the Sir: - 
says that they were antiently called Mestrnmoan 
decks, because they were situated between twu 
sands (/iiooc, i/utaci ; meaning perhaps the tac > 
which however is not tbe case. 

N A S 


N A S 

The Nasamones are described by Herodotus (iv. 172, 

•0) as a numerous nomade people, who had a community 

f wives, were accustomed to swear by the tombs of the 

nivest and justest of their ancestors, and pledged their 

nth by drinking out of the hands of one another, or by 

< king dust out of one another's hands, if they had no 

They are described by Lucan (Phars., ix. 404) and Q. 
urtius (iv. 7) as a barbarous tribe, who lived by the plun- 
er of the vessels shipwrecked on their coast. Bruce, who 
as shipwrecked on this coast, found that the present inha- 
!."mtb followed the same practice. (Rennell's Geography 
r 11* rod., ii. f p. 270.) 

The Nasamones were driven into the interior of the coun- 

> by the Romans in the time of Domitian. (Dionys. Perieg., 
1 Hudson, iv. 208; Eusebii Chron., 01. ccxvi. ; Joseph., 
"7. Jud. t ii. 16, J 4.) Ptolemy places them as far inland 
» A iJgila. 

Herodotus gives (ii. 32) an interesting account of an 
storing expedition, undertaken by five young men of this 
» tin try, who crossed the great Libyan desert, and, after 
;i\ui sing extensive marshes, came to a large river ltowing 
<»m west to east, with crocodiles in it, which many cora- 

< n tutors have supposed to be the Niger. [Niger.) 

N ASCENT STATE, a term proposed by Dr. Priestley 

express the moment at which a gaseous body is liberated 

>m previous combination and before it has assumed the 

ih'ous form. The nascent statu has a powerful effect in 

• asioning chemical combination, which could not occur 
thout it. If, for example, azotic and hydrogen gases be 
i\ud in any proportions whatever, and be subjected either 
» heat or electricity, which are so efficacious in causing many 
her gases to combine, no union takes place between them, 
.•I consequently no ammonia is formed. If however we 
compose nitric acid and water by means of tin, the azote 
one and the hydrogen of the other come into contact in 

loir nascent state, and before they have even assumed the 
urn of gases, and they combine to form ammonia. Other 
wimples of similar action might be adduced, but no one 

>re strikingly exemplifies the meaning of the term and 
ie etlicacy of the action which it is intended to describe. 

NASEBY. [Charles I.] 

X AS II, THOMAS, was born in the year 1558, at Lowes- 
■>iFr, in Suffolk, and closed a calamitous life of authorship 
i his forty-third year. Dr. Beloe has given a list of his 

>rks, and Mr. D'Israeli an account of nis privations and 
usuries. As a wit and a satirist, he seems to have been 
i potior to all his contemporaries; but as a dramatic 
»et, much below most of them. He has left only one 

ainatic performance entirely of his own composition. 
Summer's Last Will and Testament,' which is not to be 

carried so much in the light of a play as of a spectacle. 

"us exhibited before Queen Elizabeth at Nonsuch in 
ie autumn of the year 1592, but not printed till eight 

i.s afterwards. Nash was concerned with Marlow in 
ruing ' Dido, Queen of Carthage,' 1594, which was also 

■ed before the queen by the children of her chapel. 

He had a vigorous understanding, well stored with 

i r. i in g, and was capable of giving powerful descriptions of 
rn-s and striking characters of persons, as will be found 
v his • Supplication of Pierce Penniless to the Devil,' 

• '2: this latter work was followed up, though with less 
■e:-t, by his 4 Christ's Tears over Jerusalem,' 1593. *Sura- 

• «t*s Last Will and Testament' has been reprinted in the 
>t edition of Dodsley's * Old Plays.' It has no pretention 

> diversity of character in the persons, nor to interest in 
>e plot, the only part that approaches to anything like 
■•h\ (duality being that of Will Summers (or Sommers), the 
-Mcr of Henry VIII.: the piece depends upon a sort of 
•m between the name of the jester and the division of the 
■' "ir which corresponds with that name. 

u: ••Uier'a Annals of the Stage.) 

NASH, JOHN, was born in 1752, and is said to have 
'■"ii of Welsh extraction, but few particulars are known of 
i* early life, or when he first began to apply himself to ar- 
i> nocture as a profession, previously to which he followed 

• nrait, or rather miniature painting. Perhaps it w r as in an 
-tl hour for architecture, that he devoted himself to it as 

■Hiitioner; for though he thereby acquired a popular re- 

> i s a; ion fur himself, as the author or promoter of the very 

'•nsi\o improvements in the metropolis, arising out of the 
 aaiion of Regent Street and the Regents Park, the 

• to there displayed most certainly has not contributed to 

raise our national character in regard to architecture, hut 
has rather tended to bring into vogue a sketchy, showy, and 
meretricious style, wherein, though richness is affected, po- 
verty and meanness are the prevailing qualities. Notwith- 
standing all their pretension and finery, the terraces in the 
Regent's Park have more the look of barracks than of 
palaces ; — are mere stretched-out ranges of common -place 
nouses, garnished with columns and pilasters, insipid enough 
in themselves, and rendering the poverty of all the rest ab- 
solutely offensive. It has been said that for the bad taste 
of many of the designs both in Regent Street and the 
Park, be is not answerable, they being the productions uf 
the different architects, or rather buiklers, who erected them ; 
yet besides that such excuse reduces Nash to little more 
than the surveyor employed on that occasion, it is no ex- 
cuse whatever for the paltry taste of his own designs, which, 
so far from being decidedly superior to all the rest, exhibit 
some of the very worst specimens among them. Neither is 
he at all entitled to the originality claimed for him as having 
set a new fashion in street architecture, by combining several 
houses into one facade, since the same thing had been done 
about a century before by Wood of Bath. Whatever allow- 
ance however may be made for works of that class, we may 
fairly take Buckingham Palace as proof of his talent; arid 
that costly structure is a decided and most deplorable archi- 
tectural failure; hardly at all superior in style and quality 
to the average of the designs above referred to. Here and 
there are some bits of piettiness, but nowhere does it mani- 
fest the slightest approach to grandeur or to real architec- 
tural taste; neither is there any redeeming point in the 
general conception. In the Pavilion at Brighton he suc- 
ceeded better, although it is but a poor and sketchy imita- 
tion of the style attempted; he seems never to have 
given any study to detail, but to have contented himself 
with the mere generalities of form. The United Service 
Club-house, the Haymarket Theatre, and the Terraces in 
St. James's Park, and indeed almost all his works, suffi- 
ciently attest this, nor is the variety displayed in them more 
than a very commonplace sort of fertility. The entrance 
to the Queen's Mews, another of bis works, is remarkable 
only for its barbarous ugliness. 

Mr. Nash died at his villa near East Cowcs in the Isle 
of Wight, May 13, 1835, in his 83rd year, and is said to 
have left very little property, notwithstanding the vast sums 
of money he had derived from his profession. 

AL THUSSI, a Persian and an astronomer, who died 
a.d. 1276, aged about 70. Having met with some slight 
from Al Mustassem, the kalif, he left his country and went 
into Tartary. Here he obtained the friendship of Hulaku 
(commonly written Holagu), surnamed Ilkhan, the brother 
of the reigning prince. It is said that Hulaku, being on 
the point of leading an army against Constantinople, was 
deterred by Nasir-ed-din, and induced to prefer an invasion 
of Persia. D'Herbelot treats this as a fiction, so far as the 
astronomer is concerned ; but whether this be so or not, 
Hulaku overran Persia, put Mustassem to death, and fixed 
his seat of government at Maragha, in Azerbijan, where he 
collected men of science, built an observatory, and placed 
Nasir-ed-din at the head of both. The instruments there 
used are described by Delambre, from an Arabic manuscript, 
in the 'Hist, de TAstron. du Moyen Age.' page 199, Sec. 
The tables made at this observatory are called the llchanic 
Tables, from the name of their author's patron. They en- 
joyed great reputation in the East, and are known in Europe 
from the 'Synopsis Tabul. Astron. Persicarum' of George 
Chrysococca, printed by Bouillaud in 1645, and the Com- 
mentary of a Persian, whose Latinised name is Shah 
Cholgius, printed by Greaves, in 1642. The llchanic Tables, 
according to Delambre, differ from those of Ptolemy only in 
the correction of some of the mean motions. 

Nasir-ed-din also wrote a work on geography, which was 
printed by Greaves in 1652, and Which we believe was long 
the authority for many Asiatic longitudes and latitudes; 
also a work on ethics, and several other writings. 
NASSA. [Entomostomata, vol. ix., p. 455.] 
NASSAU or POGGY ISLANDS, THE, form a part 
of a chain of islands which lie off the whole length of the 
west coast of Sumatra, at a distance of 60 or fcO miles. 
There are two islands which bear this name: they lie 
between 2° 30' and 3 J 16' S. lat., and are separated from 
each other by a strait called Si-kakap, which is about two 
miles long and a quarter of a mile across. This strait 

K A £ 



Jbrms an excellent harbour for ships of any size. It is sur- 
rounded by mountains, so that the water is literally as 
smooth as in a pond ; and there are twenty-five fathoms of 
water close in- shore, and forty-five in the mid-channel. 
There are also some high rocks in the strait. 

The surface of the islands is rough and irregular, consist- 
ing of high hills or mountains of sudden and steep ascents. 
The mountains are covered to their summits with trees, 
many of which supply excellent timber. The sago-tree 
grows in abundance, and affords the chief article of food to 
the inhabitants, who cultivate no rice. The cocoa-nut tree 
and the bamboo also abound. The fruits common in the 
islands of the Indian archipelago, such as mangosteens, plan- 
tains, Sec, are numerous. The woods in their natural con- 
dition are impervious to man, and harbour various wild 
animals, as deer, hogs, and several kinds of monkeys. Fowl 
and pigs are raised, and fish are plentiful. 

The inhabitants of these islands are few in number ; they 
are divided into small tribes, each tribe occupying a little 
river, and living in one village. On the Northern Poggy 
there are seven villages, and on the southern five. The 
population amounted in 1792 to about 1400 individuals. In 
colour and stature they resemble the Malays, but they 
speak a language quite different from those used on the 
coast of Sumatra. There is some resemblance between them 
and the inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific in their 
practice of tattooing their body. They are still strangers to the 
use of coin of any kind. A sort of iron hatchet serves as a 
standard for the value of various commodities among them. 
They neither export nor import any article. Some Malays 
have settled among them for the purpose of building 
large boats, timber for which is found close at hand. (Crisp, 
in Asiatic Researches, vol. vi.) 

NASSAU. [Bahamas.] 

NASSAU. THE DUCHY OF, derives its name from 
the mountain castle of Nassau, the original seat of the 
Nassau family, of which only the ruins now remain, near 
the small town of Nassau. The extent of this duchy and its 
territories have undergone numberless changes in conse- 
q uence of partitions, re-unions, cessions, and acquisitions. It 
b a: present composed of 23 different territories, including 
all those which formerly belonged to the several branches 
of i lie fjmilv. It is comprised between 49° 55' and 50° 50' 
N. l=t.a:.d 7° 31' 50" and 8°45'E. long., and is bounded by 
U.e Pr-«.an Rhenish provinces and by the different states 
cf H-»« e The area is variously stated, 2226 square miles 
i»tv. r 'St L.g best and 1743 the lowest estimate. Accord- 
y r : *.L'* •*>! cj:«, it seems to be 1900 square miles. The 
t^vi* :♦ c v.iii .iiio LLree provinces, Wiesbaden, Weilburg, 
ami 1» ^t" ••-•£. a*.d subdivided into 28 bail li wicks. There 
*•» M. *<:*rt ivwls. Wiesbaden having only 9000 and Bi- 
liVTvx l»«-iii .: ^Lt *-lma- Tue country is generally moun- 
turnout ur ii." i . v^i u*«* i* r>-> part that can be called plain. 
1'u* iiri: i .i •'* iv .•.•f :•*? and the Lahn in their 

iixrhj, and form delightful valleys, 

v t. 


y_r~ »!** 

v ...» i «•» is'u * r '1* hj'-** - ! rvr-aaat.e parts of Germany; the 
i «' :.••-:•♦►•.• i» h :ti» R-jergau from Biberich to Lorch- 

i • — . '.-friz-t .*! \j' &t i.z*t »r.e*. Thi* beautiful valley 
a •- .•- .►•« iv .:.t 7 l ulu* Irvin lue north wind, and bounded 
*' .«•-■-. v* :j.» Kf::it There are two pnrjeir-al chains of 
i i. .»i .lit L.T'.fi the wud and wooded Westerwald, 

a .* ut ...» h\ w i.-«-<t the Taunus or the Hohe, the roost ele- 
> i -i iiiTt : '. f wiiirh is the Feldberg, 2605 feet, and the 
A. *• : . .-, t fc?: above the level of the sea. The climate 
i> "i. Hie n -j \? temperate and healthy; it is mildest in the 
V ir s r«ir i..e Main; on the highest summits of the 
3-i.u^ i .1 the Westerwald, it is rather bleak and cold. 
Ol iiie i^t.s Uic chief is the Rhine, which bounds the 
duf hj un tae south and west, and at Lahn^tein receives the 
.Lahn. w.iirh i* navigable 14 leagues from its junction with 
la* Rii.ijc at We. 1 burg. The Main forms the boundary to 
Vtc s-i'j'j.' ca>t. There are several smaller livers and moun- 
ts :. *::c--:~% such a% the Embs, Aar, S.ej, Wiedbaeh, Weil- 
i +- • : r:. L N je^ier. Tnere are no canals ar.d no lakes. On the 
«* t*"" L'h.-ti tLe coT-ntrr ha* nuroerjus Sfas a:id mineral 
*:■- ?'. v ,'L a*e am.' the mo*t ceitl rated in Germany: 
•' .#• l»*ai»r ti my men'L-n Em^, W.esbadcn. Langen- 
»• ; * . •„•- .*:.• S»l, *-.;>. ilr-dm! if.iarea r itiuali\ frequented 
•■ ■** * " ' •. ■•** : sv: vf :*:•*». a: '.erN»e«ier- Sellers, Fa- 

ts. • ■'.»• fuuu i'^ac »r.-ti aoout three millions of 
i •  » •.—.••■:• «-••& ».f * Lj' L.msare Selters 
* •• " *• v*r •-♦ i' *.* a:* %--r**. -s aL J valuable, 
■••-;•* ••*• !**«•— s» «i* **s^i nj^ ATjV-s.tae corn raised is 

in general not sufficient for thecomnaBptaonof ther;-- 
The fertile bailliwick of Hochst is indeed a granary t. ' 
of Frankfort, and considerable quantities of the £r.t 
And rye grown on the banks of the Aar and the L*: : 
exported by means of the latter river ; the wheat i* : 
superior quality that it fetches in Holland 25 or 3< : 
per last more than that of the other countries v, 
Rhine and Main. Peas and beans, linseed, potato^ - 
hemp, and tobacco are cultivated. Fruit is raised i * . 
perfection, and large quantities are exported. Butt: 
of Nassau is its wine, of which that produced aW :< 
heim is well known by the name of hock ; there arc ,. 
the wines of Markebrunn, Asmannshausen, and J ... 
berg ; the last is the property of Prince Metternich. 
the emperor Francis conferred on him in 1816 as i : 
his eminent services to the cause of Germany, the ... 
retaining the feudal rights, and receiving the i. - 
the wine. The prince derives from the estate an 
revenue of about 4000/. sterling. The breeding > i 
(especially horned cattle) is a chief source of weal' b 
are about 200,000 horned cattle, 70,000 swine, .• 
sheep, 10,000 horses, and 10,000 goats. The mine . 
silver, lead, iron, copper, marble, freestone, lr.- • 
basalt, slate, fullers' earth, and potters', pipe, and p 
clay. There are also some salt-springs. The fore^ 
abound in game, supply vast quantities of timber a: . 
wood. The smelting and manufacturing of mc,- 
carried on to a considerable extent ; there are ai.v . 
mills, tanneries, distilleries, tobacco, vinegar, ami ' 
works, and some woollen, leather, and linen manu- 
mit on a small scale. The trade is almost w hoi it > 
to the exportation of the produce of the country. *< 
respect to religion, the inhabitants, who at the beyi.i:.'. 
1838 amounted to 379,272, are pretty equally divmt . 
tweeen the Roman Catholic and the Protestant c:>u. 
In the year 1817 the Lutherans andCalvinUU ^u. 
unite in one body under the denomination of £>ul. 
Christians. There are nearly €000 Jews. There b : . 
nasium, a military school, a seminary for teacher*. . 
and dumb institution, an agricultural school, ami 
trict schools. There is no university, but the >o* . : 
study at Gottins:en, where there is a professor who . 
on the laws of Nassau. 

The duke was formerly an absolute sovereign, bu'> • 
a representative constitution was introduced, iw 
chambers, which have larger powers than tiiose c • 
other German states. The military force amour. 1 * u - 
men. The revenue is 1,810,000 florins: but there j." 
to the amount of twelve millions of florins. The uV. 
been composed of so many different territories, a '- 
exchanges and partitions, have been so numerous, th-> 
gular history of the country is out of the quest a r.. * 
brother of king Conrad I., in the tenth century, is cor* • 
as the founder of the Nassau family, which after the >. 
Henry II. was divided into two branches, of which I * - 
Wabram and Otho, were the heads. The dukes of V 
are descended from the elder, and the house of 
Nassau (king of the Netherlands) from the younge. 1 

Nassau together with Brunswick has the thirty- 
in the diet of the German Confederation ; in fuU < 
Nassau has two votes of its own. Its cootingti.: . 
army of the Confederation is 3028 men. 

NASSAU, HOUSE OF, an antient and illust:. -- 
man family, which, having distinguished itself ti.r 
Europe, during the sixteenth and seventeenth cvu' 
the cause of civil and religious liberty, has in our c-*' 
attained the regal title with the sovereignty of tit > 
lands. The counts of Nassau on the Rhine ha! 
middle ages, acquired sufficient power at one \\ 
dispute the pre-eminence with the House of Au>: 
to give a sovereign (Adolphus of Nassau, elected .- 
a.d. 1292) and five ecclesiastical electors to the < 
empire. Early in the sixteenth century the f> 
Nassau obtained, through marriage and bequest, itv 
principality of Orange in Provence, from whence 1. 1 . 
celebrated title has been derived: but the po»c- 
several large domains and hereditary dignities m i 
therlands had meanwhile numbered the counts of N 
among the vassals whom the House of Austria *n * 
the marriage of Maximilian with Mary of Burgui. • 
William I. of Nassau, prince of Orange, the true : 
of the glories of his race, was the subject of the < 
Charles V. Besides William I., the moat remark j . 

N A S 



in his later career, another worthy opponent, in the equally 
famous Italian, Spinola, who had succeeded to the command 
of the Spanish forces. Under such leaders, the operations 
of the hostile armies in the Netherlands riveted the atten- 
tion of the world ; and the camp of Maurice, as well as that 
of Parma and Spinola, being thronged with volunteers of 
distinction from every quarter of Europe, became the great 
school of military instruction. 

The cessation of hostilities exhibited the qualities of Mau- 
rice in a less favourable light. He had laboured from sel- 
fish views to obstruct the conclusion of the truce with Spain, 
and was successfully opposed in these and other ambitious 
designs upon the liberties of the republic, by the pensionary 
Barnevelat, a man of real patriotism, eminent ability, and 
incorruptible integrity. But the religious disputes, which 
arose in the republic at this juncture between the Calvinists 
and Arminians, enabled Maurice to revenge himself upon 
the pensionary. Barneveldt being attached to the Arme- 
nian opinions, Maurice placed himself at the head of the 
opposite faction, the Calvinists, or Gomarists, as they were 
called after Goraar, the professor of theology at Leyden, 
who had been the antagonist of Arminius. As the Gomar- 
ists composed the great mass of the people, that party at 
length prevailed ; the Arminian preachers were banished ; 
and, in 1619, at the age of seventy-two years, the virtuous 
and venerable Barneveldt, who had for nearly half a century 
served the republic as successfully in the cabinet as Mau- 
rice had done in the field, was, by the machinations, and to 
the eternal dishonour of that prince, brought to the scaffold 
after being convicted on various false charges, of which the 

firincipal was, that he had ' troubled the state and religion.' 

The stadt holder, who by the decease of his elder brother 
had succeeded, in 1618, to the principality of Orange, 
gained little by his persecution of Barneveldt After the 
death of the pensionary, the people awoke to a sense of their 
injustice and ingratitude to that patriot; and his oppressor 
Maurice suddenly became as hateful and suspected in their 
eyes, as he had hitherto been popular. His designs of ac- 
quiring the sovereignty of the states were perceived and 
frustrated ; and whenever he appeared in public, groans and 
execrations pursued him as the murderer of Barneveldt. 

The resumption of hostilities with Spain, at the expiration 
of the truce in 1621, turned the tide of public indignation ; 
and Maurice again appeared in arms to measure himself 
against his old antagonist Spinola. The fortune of the con- 
test however between these two great commanders was now 
so nicely balanced, that it. would be difficult to assign the 
palm of victory to either. In 1622 Maurice compelled the 
wily Genoese to raise the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom, after 
having expended on it the lives of ten thousand of his 
veteran troops : but three years later, Spinola succeeded in 
reducing Breda, notwithstanding all the efforts of Maurice, 
and so much to his mortification, that the circumstance is 
believed to have produced or hastened his death, which oc- 
curred on the 23rd of April, 1625, and in the fifty-eighth 
year of his age. He left no legitimate offspring, and was 
succeeded, both in the principality of Orange and stadt- 
holdership of the United Provinces, by his half-brother, 
Frederic Henry. 

The character of Maurice of Nassau was favourably dis- 
tinguished only by military genius. As a statesman he was 
without the sagacity and prudence of his father ; as a man, 
in his treatment of Barneveldt and his family, he showed 
himself devoid of honour and humanity ; and the violence 
and groynes* of his nature were redeemed by no virtue of 
private life. But, as a general, he must ever be numbered 
amonjr, the greatest masters of his art, and may, in fact, be 
regarded as the founder of the military science of modern 
Europe. He was at least the earliest restorer among the 
moderns of the true principles of warfare, which he had 
deeply studied in the enduring lessons of classical antiquity, 
and as carefully applied to the exigencies of his own times. 
He was the first to methodise the practice of sieges, en- 
campments, and marches ; and he introduced numberless 
reforms in the armament, training, and formation of troops. 
He taught a cavalry of inferior physical weight to engage 
h\ close encounter, and to overthrow the ponderous masses 
of I he old gens-d'armerie ; he first accustomed the infantry 
to a systematic management of their arms; and to his in- 
stitutions must be referred that uniformity of exercise and 
regularity of movement which have become the simplest 
elements of martial discipline. To this may be added, that 

the celerity, as well as good order of his marches, the al / 
arrangements by which he husbanded the lives and bei; 
of his troops, and the felicitous skill with which hU can:. 
were chosen and secured from assault, are the constant su.- 
jects of contemporary eulogy. He excelled particularly :: 
the art of fortifying, besieging, and defending places ; ar. '. 
as the circumstances and localities of the contest in wL-^ 
he was engaged rendered such operations less perilous i 
the States than the hazard of decisive encounters in t 
field, his successes were gained more by a war of siec?-. 
marches, and entrenched camps, than of great battle* JL 
the victories of Turnhout and Nieuport were not the less H*. 
triumphs of his tactical system. Those actions were :i 
first important defeats inflicted upon the Spanish bates. 
who had so long been the terror of Europe; and it wa» 
the school of Nassau that the fundamental rules of nuhu- 
science were established, which, within less than half a ct • 
tury, finally prevailod over the slow and cumbrous irnj 
the Imperial and Spanish service, in the plains of Luiin 
and Rocroi. 

III. — William III. of Nassau, Prince of Orange, sts 1 
holder of the United Provinces, and ultimately king -■ 
England,— the great champion of the civil ana rebgi ^ 
liberties of Protestant Europe, — was born in the year ii: 
and was the posthumous son of William II. of Orange, •-■ 
Mary, daughter of Charles I., king of England. As WiiUi 
II. was the eldest son of the stadt holder Frederic Her.: 
who was the youngest son of William the Silent, by Lou:.*- 
daughter of the famous admiral Coligni, William III. • . 
great-grandson of the founder of the Dutch republic, i- 
was also lineally descended, in the female line, from the '- 
nowned leader of the Huguenots. Not only had a fatb.: 
care been denied to the birth and infancy of William IH 
b;.t his yci'.th was destined to suffer for the errors of hi* . 
rent. The stadtholder Frederic Henry, unlike his brv:. . 
Maurice, had administered his office without attempting 
violate the liberties of the republic, or giving umbra^ 
the jealousy of the States : but his son William II., eve. . 
the brief career which was cut short by death in his twen:- 
fourth year, contrived, by his violence and infringement 
constitutional rights, to revive public suspicion of tbe  - 
signs of his house against the freedom of the common weilt- 
and the party opposed to the Orange interest took advanu: 
of tbe helplessness of his infant son to prevent his auecr*. 
ing by election to the dignity of stadtholder, which hsd . 
come, as it were, hereditary in the line of Nassau. T • 
alliance of that family with the house of Stuart had cj& 
excited the jealousy of Cromwell, whose power was no* : 
the ascendant ; and, when peace was concluded between \ 
two republics of England and the United Provinces, in If : « 
the imperious demand of the protector, that all the su> 
should solemnly engage to exclude the infant prim; • 
Orange and his descendants prospectively from the suJ- 
holdership, was only satisfied by a secret engagement tv ::■ 
same effect, to which Holland, as the leading province of ' 
Union, disgracefully acceded. 

The restoration of the Stuarts to the British throne, r > 
few years, tended however at once to raise the hopes of " 
adherents of the house of Orange, and to increase the -- 
quietude of their opponents; and, in 1667, the repub! . 
or aristocratic party, headed by the two celebrated brotr - 
John and Cornelius de Witt, succeeded in inducing  
States to pass the ' Perpetual Edict, 9 for ever abolishing ■- 
office of stadtholder. But the iniquitous aggression of 
French king, Louis XIV., upon the republic in 1672, w 
put an end to the operation of this edict. However j ~- 
might have been the intentions of the Do Witts, their r. 
s urea had left the republic defenceless. Confiding il ' 
friendship of France, and distrusting the best officers ot • 
army, as devoted to the House of Orange, they bad, hv - 
ductions and neglect, so weakened the land forces of 
republic, that resistance to the invaders seemed hop* .- 
The Orange party were loud in their clamours against : 
administration of their rivals; and the populace, wh*» : 
always been favourable to the family of Nassau, were :r  
cated to revolt. Their fury was directed against the ' 
Witts, whom they murdered with horrid barbarity ; ami : 
young prince of Orange was tumultuously raised to ' 
proscribed dignity of stadtholder. 

William III. was only in the twenty-second year of . 
age when he was thus suddenly called to the govern me: * 
a factious and distracted state, a lawless populace, a, . 
dispirited and disorganised army. With such means «a 

N A S 



a regency, either on behalf of his wife or her infant brother. 
He declared that, except as king, he would not remain in 
the country. This decisive language hastened the proceed- 
ings of the convention parliament, which William had com- 
posed of the peers, the surviving members of the three last 
nouses of commons, and the corporation of London ; and in 
the famous Act of Settlement passed by that body, the crown, 
with constitutional limitations to its power, was conferred 
jointly upon the prince and princess of Orange, with re- 
mainder successively to the issue of the latter, to the prin- 
cess Anne and her children, and to the heirs of William by 
any other wife. 

Notwithstanding the ease with which William III. thus 
acquired the British crown, he was soon compelled to con- 
tend in arms for its preservation. In Scotland the cause of 
James was upheld by the gallant viscount Dundee, but 
perished with his fall in the brief moment of victory. In 
Ireland, the struggle maintained by James's Roman Catholic 
adherents was more obstinate; but William in person in- 
flicted on them a memorable defeat at the passage of the 
Boyne in 1690; and the capitulation of Limerick in the 
following year completed the submission of Ireland. Mean- 
while William had the satisfaction, the greatest probably 
which his new dignity gave him, of engaging England in 
the League of Augsburg. The war of that confederacy 
against Louis XIV., of which the principal conduct was in- 
trusted to William, had indeed little success ; for though 
possessed of considerable military talents, he wanted that 
good fortune which the antients numbered among the most 
indispensable attributes of a great general; and he sus- 
tained in the course of this struggle two severe defeats from 
the French under the duke of Luxemburg at S teen kirk and 
Neerwinden. By the peace of Ryswick, which terminated 
the war in 1697, littlo more was gained from the French 
monarch by the allies than the recognition of William III. 
a9 king of England. 

The possession of that throne had meanwhile given him 
little happiness. Though almost all the nation had at first 
concurred in the Revolution of 1688, the tory and high 
church party were in general indisposed to the pretensions 
and person of the new king. The Whigs were still full of 
jealousy of the royal power ; and the cold reserved temper 
and ungracious manner of William disgusted and alienated 
the minds of his subjects in general. His most favourite 
schemes were continually thwarted in parliament; his 
whole reign was harassed with intrigues of faction and 
plans of insurrection at home ; and his life and throne were 
assailed from abroad with base plots of assassination by the 
adherents of James IL, and with projects of invasion under- 
taken by Louis XIV. for the restoration of the dethroned 
king. To add to the distresses of William, he experienced 
in 1695 a severe domestic calamity in the loss of his queen- 
consort Mary, to whom he was deeply attached. Her de- 
cease, as she left no issue, terminated all claim of her hus- 
band to the crown in the eyes of that part of the nation 
who had been reconciled to his government by the sem- 
blance of hereditary right in her participation of the throne. 
His measures now experienced systematic opposition from 
all parties: from the Jacobites, as the partisans of the 
exiled monarch were termed, who of course regarded him 
as a usurper; from the Tories in general, to whom he was 
personally obnoxious ; and from the Whigs and republicans, 
who desired in various degrees to lower or annul the royal 
power. The first use therefore which was made in parlia- 
ment of the peace of Ryswick was to compel him to reduce 
the army to an insignificant remnant of guards and gar- 
risons, and to send out of the kingdom the regiments of 
French Protestant refugees, as well as his own Dutch 
guards ; and these and other mortifications had such an 
effect upon his mind as to extort from him a passionate ex- 
pression of his regret that he had interfered in the affairs of 
a nation at once so ungrateful and so suspicious. 

From the annoyances of his position in England, he 
sought relief by renewing with more ardour than ever his 
attention to the affairs of Europe, and by pursuing his 
favourite project for humbling the power of the French 
king, which the precarious health of Charles II., the child- 
less monarch of Spain, and the pretensions of the house of 
Bourbon to the inheritance of his dominions, threatened to 
render more dangerous than ever. To avert these impend- 
ing evils to the balance of power in Europe, William suc- 
cessively negotiated two treaties of partition for the Spanish 
monarchy, to both of which Louis XIV. was an artful and 

faithless subscriber ; for when the Spanish king* in indig- 
nation that other powers should dismember ana distribute 
his dominions, bequeathed them at his death, in 170u. u» 
Philip duke of Anjou, second son of the dauphin, Lv-l- 
XIV., in spite of every obligation of treaties, accepted tu 
testament for his grandson. 

William III., now in declining health, was aeutft' 
affected by this defeat of all his labours: but he appU< 
himself with his usual energy to form a new league ai$*.ii.-. 
France; and the insulting conduct of Louis XIV. at til- 
crisis, in giving the son of James II., on the death of it** 
Srince, the title of king of England, so exasperated l, 
British nation, that they eagerly seconded William's wist j 
lor a war. But, in the midst of eager preparation* fat in 
commencement of hostilities, William s life was suddec* 
brought to a close. His constitution, originally frail si . 
sickly, had now been completely exhausted by a career .' 
incessant and harassing anxieties* An accidental faU foe 
his horse, by which he broke his collar-bone, gave a feu, 
shock to his worn-out frame ; and he expired at Kenaingv* 
palace, on the 8th of March, 1702, in the fifty-second year a 
Lis age. 

With the death of William III. the male line of Wdlas 
the Silent became extinct; and the states-general *ee 
not sorry to leave the stadtholdership vacant, and taai.i 
abolished. But William had named for his personal hri 
his cousin John William Friso, prince of Naseau-Dicu 
(grandson of his aunt Albertina Agnes by William Fre- 
deric of Nassau-Diets), from whom the present regal Lu 
of Orange is descended. The following has been the sir- 
cession of the princes of this house:— 

William (IV.) Henry Friso, son of John William Fr» 
born in 1711 ; married Anne, daughter of George XL * 
England; was raised by the Orange party to die stssV 
holdership in 1747, and died in 1751. 

William (V.) Batavus, son of William IV„ bom in 17* 
was declared stadtholder (under the guardianship of b 
mother) in 1751 ; was expelled by the French in 1795, re- 
nounced the dignity of stadtholder by treaty with France - 
1802, and died in 1806. 

William (VJ.) Frederic, son of William V., bora in KTt 
was restored to the dignities of his family in 1813, was p» 
olaimed king of the Netherlands under the auspices of u« 
Congress of Vienna in 1815, and still survives; having t». 
sons, the eldest of whom, William Frederic Charles, ptu. « 
of Orange, has also male issue. 

(The principal authorities consulted for the preeedrr 
sketch of the most illustrious members of the hou« a 
Nassau are — La Gcnealogiedes lllustres Cootie* de Aojjb, 
Amst., 1624; Commentaries of Sir Francis Vers. IV 
bridge, 1657; Grotius, Annate* et Historic* ale re&ms B* 
guns, Amst,, 1 658 ; Le Cierc, Histoire des Provinces l\i* 
Amst, 1723-28 ; Burnet's History of his own Time: Hue 
and Smollett s History of England* &c; and IS Art -■ I 
Verifier les Dates, Paris, 1818-19.) ' 

NASTU'RTIUM, an old word applied to some kind - • 
pungent herb, such as cress. By the English of the r«r 
sent day it is given to the Tropeoolum majus, an Amerr- 
annual with pungent fruit ; by botanists, to the Waterc ■» 
and plants allied to it ; by the Romans it was applied i * 
plant resembling Mustard in its qualities. 

NA'SUA. [Ursida; Viverrid,e.] 

NATAL, THE COAST OF, extends along the eastr 
side of Africa from the boundary-line of the Cape Cokr* 
which, since the last war with the Amakosas, is formed * 
the Kei river (32° 30' S. 1st.), to Dalagoa Bay (26° & !w 
and constitutes the shores of Kafferland. Along the set 
is tow, and in many parts swampy. Borne of these swaa * 
grounds extend far inland, especially towards Dalagoa B: 
but in general the country begins to rise within a few n ? 
from the ses. The rise is rather rapid, for some m.i^ 
farther inland the country is said to have an a\w 
elevation of 800 or 1000 feet above the sea level, and to ab- 
sent the appearance of a hilly plain, here and there eotem 
with swamps, but mostly intersected hy narrow deep vaUV< 
through which the rivers run to the sea. The decfintie* . 
the hills are partly covered with forests and bushes, at. 
partly bare and red owing to the iron-ore whioh the} ob- 
tain. The numerous rivers and mountain torrents' af >- 
rains sometimes rise to an astonishing height, and tLc- 
waters fill up the narrow valleys, through which tbv 
rush with terrific violence. As all the rivers abound * 
cataracts, and alternate depths and shallows, they *r. 




majority. It might happen that it would in its results 
benefit only a small minority of the actual generation, or 
even nobody at all; and the allegation of this possible 
result in r sufficient answer to the assumption made by the 
advocate* of unsatisfied extinction, that the loss incurred 
would be confined to the immediate losers, and that there 
would be a real gain to the great majority of the nation. 
Such an unsatisfied extinction would in effect be a dissolu- 
tion of innumerable contracts, on the faithful performance 
of which depends the happiness of many thousands who are 
not public creditors. It is hardly necessary to remark that 
the nation would not afterwards find it easy to borrow i 
money from individuals on any reasonable terms for any 
purpose, however generally useful, or any public necessity, 
nowever urgent. 

The contracting of the National Debt cannot be said to 
have been begun before the Revolution of 1688. The kings 
of England had indeed been accustomed from a remote date 
to borrow money upon emergencies, but on such occasions 
the revenues of the crown were pawned for the amount, 
which was seldom beyond what could by that means be repaid 
in a few years. The earliest instance of this borrowing which 
we have on record was in the reign of Richard I., when 
money was wanted to defray the expense of his crusade to 
the Holy Land. Even for some few years after the acces- 
sion of William and Mary the borrowings of the government 
were for short periods only. The first transaction of this 
kind of a permanent character arose out of the chartering of 
the Bank of England in 1693, when its capital of 1,200,01)0/. 
was lent to the public at 8 per cent interest. A power of 
repayment was reserved on this occasion by the crown, but 
no corresponding right of demanding payment existed on 
the part of the bank. 

So cautious was tbe parliament in those days of burthen- 
ing future generations for the exigencies of the present 
moment, that when the annual income was inadequate to 
meet the charges of tbe foreign wars in which the country 
was engaged, and it became necessary to borrow the defi- 
ciency, annuities were granted, not iu perpetuity, but for 
lives and terms of years, the produce of certain duties being 
mortgaged for their discharge. 

This cautious proceeding could not be long continued. 
The expensiveness of tbe wars in which the nation was 
engaged at the end of the seventeenth century made it 
necessary to incur debts beyond the means of their prompt 
redemption, and at the peace of Kyswick, in 1697, the debt 
amounted to 21 4 millions. During the next ten years, 
although the country was again involved in a continental 
war, its amount was reduced to little more than 16 millions, 
and the greatest efforts were made to raise money without 
imposing any lasting burthen on the people. These efforts 
indeed soon found their limit, and at the accession of George 
I. in 1714, the debt had accumulated to the amount of 54 
millions, an amount which excited great uneasiness and 
caused the House of Commons to declare itself under the 
necessity of making efforts for its reduction. In 1717 the 
debt amounted to 484 millions, and the annual charge in 
respect of the same to 3,117,296/. A great part of this debt 
consisted of annuities granted for 99 years, the money ob- 
tained for which had varied from 15 to 16 years* purchase. 

In the year 1720 the South-Sea Act was passed, authoris- 
ing the company to take in, by subscription or purchase, the 
redeemable and unredeemable debts of the nation, the 
object being to reduce all the debts under one head of 
account at one uniform rate of interest In the accomplish- 
ment of this scheme the projectors only partially succeeded, 
while the disgraceful frauds by which the proceedings of 
the company at that time were marked, led to a parliament- 
ary investigation which caused the disgrace of some of the 
ministers, the chancellor of the exchequer being expelled 
the House, and committed to the Tower for his share 
in the plot. It is not the least remarkable circum- 
stance attending this scheme that it was attempted at the 
same time with the equally famous Mississippi scheme, 
which, with a similar object, was projected in France by 
John Law, under the sanction of the Regent Duke of Or- 
leans. [Law, John.] 

In 1736 the public debt of England amounted to about 
50 millions, but the annual charge had been reduced below 
two millions. At the peace of Aix-la-Cbapelle, in 1748, the 
national debt exceeded 78 millions, bui in the following year 
tue public obtained »ouie relief from the burthen through the 
lowering of the rate of interest. Little else was done in 


the way of alleviation at this time, and at the breai 
out of the Seven Years' War, in 1756, the debt 
amounted to 75 millions. A public writer of 
repute, Mr. S. Hannay, says, at that date, * It ha* Wi 
generally received notion among political arithmeuci: 
that we may increase our debt to 100,000,000/., but : 
acknowledge that it must then cease by the debtor bee -, 
ing bankrupt.' Those who in more recent times :.* 
witnessed the addition year after year to the debt of *. 
equal to more than the difference between its then am _ 
and its declared limit, may smile at this prediction, 
learn to put little faith in opinions which are not based  
previous experience. 

When the Seven Years 1 War was ended by the pea - 
Paris, the debt reached 139 millions and the annual i-b. . 
was 4,600,000/. During the twelve following years, a jv 
of profound peace, only 10,400,000/. of the debt wa* 
charged. The war of the American Independence ia • 
the debt from 129 to 268 millions, and the annual ch^rj 
respect of the same to 9,512,232/. So little was done <. 
way of liquidation during the following ten years, i .: 
the beginning of the war of the French Revolution the . 
still amounted to 260,000,000/., and its aunual cbar. 
9,437,862/. The outlay occasioned by the proseru:. . 
that war was great beyond all precedent. Betw«**n 
and the peace of Amiens the addition made to the • 
of the debt amounted to 360 millions and the annu^ 
then was increased from 9,437,862/. to 1 9,945,624/. Bt~ 
the recommencement of the war in 1803 and its terur.: 
after the battle of Waterloo in 1815, there were addel < 
millions to the capital of the debt, which then ann.i' 
including the unfunded debt, to 885 millions, ar,rf 
annual charge upon the public exceeded 32 million- 
money. This enormous, this frightful rate of progre- 
appears to have excited far less alarm than was expr - 
at the comparatively trifling additions made at the U-, 
uing of the funding system, a consequence which pro 1 * 
must be in great part attributed to the establishment <.: 
sinking funa. and to the hope which it held out of caoct 
at no very distant period each amount of debt succe&»' 

A plan for the gradual extinction of the national de:: 
the establishment of a sinking fund was proposed aou -. 
tially applied in 1716 by Sir R. Walpole. The schec*'. 
that purpose proposed under the same name by Mr. ?& 
1 786 had a greater show of reality about it. By this sc-jc 
the sum of one million was annually set apart from tbe 
come of the country towards the extinction of its It. 
Other sums were rendered accessory to the plan, and i: • 
supposed that at the expiration of 28 years the ir.r- 
income of the sinking fund would amount to four nn!i 
a part of which might then be applied towards relieviu£ 
burthen of the public. So far the project bore the star r 
reasonableness and prudence : had the fund of one >i . 
annually assigned to commissioners been an actual surp- 
income over expenditure, its operation must speediii .. 
been highly advantageous to the country. The faJLu> 
sisted in this, that the sums devoted to it were borio-c 
the purpose. The only real advantage secured b> 
means arose from the unfounded confidence which . 
parted to the public, under which they willingly bore a . 
rate of taxation than might have been tolerable but i : 
expectation of future relief through its means. No* 
the absurdity is acknowledged of borrowing in order t 
off debt, which absurdity would in the case of an ind: • 
always have been apparent, it is difficult to account t.r 
blindness with which the whole nation clung to tL> 
called fund as the certain means of extinguishing the 
which in effect it contributed to augment through the 
advantageous terms upon which the money was borrowed . 
those upon which an equivalent amount of debt was -! 
wards redeemed. The difference between the average r 
at which money was borrowed and at which purchases • 
made by the Commissioners who managed the sinking 
between 1793 and 1814 was such, that through the 
tions of the fund, upon which such confident nope o: it 
was placed, the country owed upwards of 1 1 millions = 
at the end of the war than it would have owed but for l- 
operations. At the period just mentioned the sniiM' 
come of the sinking fund amounted to 13,400,000/^ ar- 
from dividends on stock purchased by the comtniv; 
with funds borrowed at a higher rate of interest fur thr ; 
pose. It was impossible however during a time of peac. 




raise by means of taxes bo large an amount, in addition to 
t ho actual current expenditure of the country and the in- 
terest upon the unredeemed portion of the debt During 
the war, when the deficiency of income was covered by yearly 
loans, the fallacy was not quite so apparent as it now soon 
beeame, for a few years after the peace the deficiency in the 
public income was borrowed from the sinking fund com- 
missioners by parliament, a course which served to render 
the absurdity only the more apparent, and in 1824 the plan 
of keeping up a large nominal sinking fund in the absence 
of actual surplus income was abandoned. 

The amount of the National Debt unredeemed on the 
5th of January, 1816, was stated to be as follows in the 
fourth Report of the select committee of the House of 
Commons on public income and expenditure: — 

3 per cent, stock . . £580,9 1 6,01 9 
3± „ . . 10,740,013 

4 „ . 75,725,504 

5 . 148,930,403 


Perpetual annuities 

Terminable annuities, 1,894,612/., 

equal to an estimated capital of 

Unfunded debt , . 



Total of unredeemed debt • £885,186,324 
The annual charge upon which was:— 

Interest upon perpetual annuities • . £28,278,919 
Terminable annuities . 1,894,612 

Interest on unfunded debt . . . 1,998,937 
Charge for management paid Bank of 

England 284,673 

Total annual charge £32,457,141 

The experience of the last twenty-five years has proved 
that the only important relief from the pressure of debt to 
he obtained, even during a profound and long-continued 
peare, will probably be derived from the lowering of the 
i ate of interest. The price of 5 per cent, stock at the be- 
ginning of 1822 was advanced to 6 or 8 per cent, above par, 
and advantage was taken of this circumstance to induce 
the holders to exchange each 100/. of 5 per cent, annuities 
I or 105/. of 4 per cent, annuities. On this occasion 
14(1,250,828/. of 5 per cent, stock was cancelled, and 
1 17,263,326/. of 4 per cent, stock was created,' the annual 
charge being by this means reduced by the sum of 1 ,122,000/. 
in 1 824 a further saving of 381,034/. per annum was effected 
liy reducing to 3§ per cent, the interest payable on 
70,206,882/. of 4 per cent, stock; and in 1830 a further 
abatement of one-half per cent, was effected on the 4 per 
rent, stock created in 1822, whereby the sum of 700,000/. 
per annum was saved to the public. 

Some little progress has been made since 1816 in the 
i eduction of debt by the employment for that purpose of 
actual surplus revenue. An addition has on the other hand 
been made to the public burthens by means of the grant 
of 20,000,000/. voted by parliament for compensation to the 
owners of slaves in the British colonies who were emanci- 
pated by the act of 1833. The unredeemed funded and 
unfunded debt which existed on the 5th January, 1839, 
and the annual charge thereon, was as follows: — 

3 per cent, annuities . . £508,360,605 
3± „ . 249,922,566 

4 . 1,615,385 




Perpetual annuities 
Terminable annuities, 4,292,173/., 
equal to an estimated capital of 
Unfunded debt • • 

Total of unredeemed debt 
The annual charge upon which was:- 

Interest on perpetual annuities • 

Terminable annuities . • 

Interest on unfunded debt • 
Charge for management . 





. 4,292,173 



Total annual charge £29,306,431 

The diminution of the annual burthen in the course of 
t\\ cut) -three years, from 1816 to 1839, has thus been 

3 J 50,7 10/., at whicn rate the total extinction of the debt 
would not be effected until the year 2053. The slow pro- 
gress made in this direction stands in striking contrast to 
the rapidity with which the load was accumulated, the 
entire diminution effected during twenty-three years of peace 
being scarcely equal to the additions made during some of 
the individual vears of the war. 

It will be seen, on comparing the above statements for 
•1 815 and 1839, that the terminable annuities have increased 
from 1,894,612/. to 4,292,173/. By the act 48 Geo. III. and 
several subsequent acts, the commissioners for the reduction 
of the National Debt were empowered to grant annuities, 
either for lives or for certain terms of years, the payment 
for such annuities being made in equivalent portions of 
permanent annuities* which were therefore to be given up 
and cancelled. By this course, which it will be seen has 
been acted upon to some extent since the peace, some 
future relief will be obtained at the expense of a present 
sacrifice. This plan, provided it be not carried so far as to 
interfere with the onward progress of the country, through 
an overload of taxation, appears to be dictated by sound 

Erudence. A part of the terminable annuities (nearly one-* 
alf their present amount) will expire in I860, and after 
that time portions will rapid lv fall in; so that without 
looking to any redemption of debt from surplus income, or 
to any further reductions in the rate of interest, the next 
twenty-three years will be productive of nearly as much 
relief as has been obtained since 1816. 

If this course of proceeding is justly characterised as 
prudent, what must be said of the scheme of a directly 
opposite tendency which was brought forward and partially 
carried into effect by the government in 1822? When the 
measure for commuting the half pay and pensions usually 
denominated the • dead weight ' was adopted in that year, 
the annual charge to which those obligations amounted was 
about five millions. From year to year the public would 
have been relieved from a part of this burthen through the 
falling in of lives, until, according to the most accurate 
computation, the whole would have ceased in forty-five 
years. The measure above alluded to was an attempt to 
commute these diminishing payments into an unvarying 
annuity of forty-five years certain; and the calculation 
which was made assumed that by the sale of such a fixed 
annuity of 2,800,000/., funds might be procured enough 
to meet the diminishing demands of the claimants. Only 
a part of this annuity was sold. The Bank of England 
purchased an annuity, payable half-yearly until 1867, for 
585,740/., and paid for the same between 1823 and 1828, in 
nearly equal quarterly instalments, the sum of 13,089,419/. 
For the sake of obtaining a partial relief during those six 
years, to the amount of 94 millions, we have thus had fixed 
upon the country for thirty-nine subsequent years an 
annual payment of 585,740/. It is not possible to allow 
that both these courses, so directly opposed to each other, 
could have been wise. Without inquiring further into 
the matter, it may be said that the plan of taking a larger 
burthen upon ourselves, that we may relieve those who come 
after us, has at least the recommendation of being the 
most generous ; and considering that our successors will 
have had no hand in the contracting of the debts, the 
burthen of which they will have to bear, it might also be 
said that such a course is the most just. 

It will be seen that some saving has been effected between 
1816 and 1839 in the charges of management. This 
saving was part of the bargain made by the government 
with the Bank of England on the renewal of its charter in 
1833, and may be considered as a part of tbe price paid by 
that establishment for the prolongation of certain of its 
privileges then on the point of expiring. The system em- 
ployed for the management of the public debt by that cor- 
S oration is explained elsewhere in this work. [Bank, 
anker, Banking.] The functions intrusted to the Bank 
of England with reference to the National Debt do not 
extend to the transaction of any matter connected with its 
reduction. Such business is placed under the control of a 
body of commissioners, who act ex officio under the pro- 
visions of an act of parliament. This board is composed of 
the speaker of the House of Commons, the chancellor of 
the exchequer, the master of the rolls, the lord-chief-baron 
of the Court of Exchequer, the accountant-general of the 
Court of Chancery, and the governor and deputy-governor 
of the Bank of England. Tne greater part of these com- 
missioners do not take any part in the management of the 




business, the details of which are attended to by permanent 
officers, viz. a secretary and comptroller-general, and an 
actuary, with an adequate establishment of assistants and 
clerks : tbe ultimate control is exercised by the chancellor 
of the exchequer for the time being, assisted by the governor 
and deputy-governor of the Bank of England. 

NATIONAL GALLERY. Of the origin of this public 
collection of paintings mention has already been made at 
the end of the article on the British Museum. Previously 
to the purchase of tbe Angerstein pictures, tbe gallery at 
Dulwich was almost the only one in the whole country, ex- 
cepting the royal collections at Windsor and Hampton 
Court, to which the public had anything like free if not 
gratuitous access; for wealthy as England is in master- 
pieces of painting, they are dispersed through a great num- 
ber of private galleries and cabinets, to which, if access is 
to be liad at all, it is only occasionally. Consequently 
those stores of art have had little influence upon our national 
taste, but the public generally have been left to pick up 
their acquaintance with art at our annual exhibitions, 
where of course there is always a great preponderance of 
mediocrity. The exhibitions of the works of the old mas- 
ters at the British Institution constituted almost the only 
opportunity of seeing works of that class which was afforded 
to artists and the public. Still, however desirable in them- 
selves, such temporary exhibitions were insufficient. Hi- 
therto government had scarcely ever done anything directly 
for art ; and if it was to do so at all, no better beginning 
could be made than by securing for the nation the Anger- 
stein collection, it being, although not very extensive, of 
choice quality, and containing some first-rate specimens. 
For the Sebastian del Piombo alone 20,000/. had been 
offered (by Mr. Beck ford) and refused ; therefore, 57,000/. 
for the whole was by no means an extravagant price, parti- 
cularly if compared with what has since been given for 
single paintings, namely, 5000/. for Titian's Bacchus and 
Ariadne ; 3800/. for the Virgin au Panier, by Correggio : 
11,500/. for the two larger specimens of the same master 
(the Ecce Homo and the Education of Cupid), sold to the 
Gallery in 1834 by the marquis of Londonderry ; and about 
4000/. for Raphael's 8 1. Catherine, a single half-length figure. 

The original collection consisted of about forty pictures, 
chiefly of the Italian school, but is now (1839) augmented 
to more than treble that number, by purchases, donations, and 
bequests. The directors of the British Institution have libe- 
rally presented at different times five works, namely, the 
Parmegiano and Paul Veronese, and three specimens of tbe 
English school, Reynolds's Holy Family, Gainsborough's 
Market-Cart, and West's large picture of Christ healing 
the Sick. Sir George Beaumont s noble gift of his collec- 
tion, in 1626, enriched the Gallery soon after its establish- 
ment with several choice specimens, particularly in the 
department of landscape, with the very fine one by Rubens, 
four Claudes, and two Wilsons : the others are, a Descent 
from the Cross (sketch) by Rembrandt, the portrait of a 
Jew, by the same master, a landscape by Both, West's Py- 
lades and Orestes, and Wilkie's Blind Fiddler. The bequest 
of the Rev. William Hoi well Carr constituted a very nu- 
merous and important accession of works of the Italian 
school, besides some others, as will appear from the follow- 
ing list: — Liouardo da Vinci— Christ disputing with the 
Doctors in the Temple ; Michael Angelo'B Dream ; Andrea 
del Sarto— a Holy Family; Bronzino — a female portrait ; 
Garofalo— Vision of St. Augustin ; Giulib Romano — a Cha- 
rity ; Titian — an Adoration of the Shepherds ; Sebastian 
del Piombo— Portrait of Cardinal Hippolito de' Medici, and 
another, supposed to be that of Giulia Gonzaga ; Tintoretto— 
St. George ; Paul Veronese — Euro pa ; Doraenichino— To- 
bias and the Angel ; Ditto — Landscape, with St. George 
and the Dragon; Guercino — a Christ and two Angels; 
Claude — Landscape, with the story of Sinon ; Gaspar 
Poussin— three landscapes, one of them with tbe Adventure 
of Dido and iEneas ; Rubens — St Bavon relieving the Poor ; 
Rembrandt— a landscape, with Tobias and the Angel ; also a 
female wading through a stream, which last, though dis- 
agreeable as a subject, is for its execution a superior speci 
men of that master. 

Among other donations the principal are the two Guidos, 
Perseus and Andromeda, and Venus attired by the Graces, 
presented by William IV.; the allegorical subject, by Rubens, 

* i tied Peace and War, given by the late duke of Suther- 

' ; the two Cartoons, by Annibale Caracci, tbe gift of 

, Francis Egerton; and the picture representing the 

• V 

story of Phmeus> presented by Lieutenant-general Thora^:, 
called in the catalogue a Poussin, but asserted by some . 
be the production of Roraanelli. The roost considerable . - 
the later bequests is that of Lord Farnborough. which hn 
added fifteen pictures to the Gallery, nearly all by Flen fc 
and Dutch artists, including three by Teniers and tv j  
Vandervelde ; therefore furnishing specimens of that sch 
of which there were previously scarcely any, excepting th - 
of Rubens and Rembrandt The same number of f air- 
ings have been bequeathed by Lieutenant-colonel Har* 
Ollney, most of which also belong to the above school*: 
cept four small ones, originally described as Watteau'*, .- 
now recognised as being by Lancret, an inferior artist. 

From the great increase which has thus taken ;.*> 
within the course of a very few years, there is room : 
supposing that the liberality of private possessors \v. '. 
time augment the collection very materially* still, if .< 
desirable on the one hand that such disposition sboul 1 - 
encouraged, it is equally necessary on the other to eu: . 
against the indiscriminate acceptance of whatever ma; 
gratuitously offered; since if due regard be not had . 
quality, the character of the entire collection will be *v lin- 
gered by the influx of mediocre and indifferent works ■- 
rerior specimens of the masters whose names thev U-a 
The three pictures, for instance, presented by the duke 
Northumberland are certainly not of that rank which v< l 
have procured their admission into the original Angers J. 
collection. It has also been complained that sufficient •: - 
cretion has not been exercised with respect to purcha^ 
for while extravagant sums have been paid in some 
stances, many works of equal or even greater men! i 
been rejected, although offered at reasonable prices. ' 
specified sum is placed at the disposal of the trustees cv- 
year; but if any work of art is strongly recommended 
memorial must be sent to the Treasury, which is folk . 
up by an application for the amount to parliament: . 
delay and the system effectually prevent merchants :• 
others from negotiating with the trustees, as the doubt ; 
perplexity are not to be compensated by the price demar . 
In some instances pictures of the highest quality have !■ 
peremptorily refused, for what reasons we are unable to w 
Two of the finest works by 8alvator Rosa (Diogenes re* * 
away his Cup, and Heraclitus sitting among the remtj- • 
of Mortality) were offered by tbe earl of Lauderdale, on t: 
part of the late dowager-marchioness of Lansdownc, : 
refused : tbe individual who had the chief voice in reject.*: 
them afterwards purchased them for the marquis of Wr' 
minster, for 1400/. If tbey were worthy to be placed ic * - 
Grosvenor Gallery, they would have been ornaments t.- :. 
national collection.' (Brit, and Fbr. Rev.* No. 17, 4 Wiv 
of Art, &c. in England.') The writer just quoted a**: - 
that the prices of all the subsequent purchases after thar 
the first collection have been extravagant, with the «' • 
tion of those for the two Londonderry Correggio* and ! 
Murillo (the Holy Family), added to the Gallery in lr" 
The three pictures more recently purchased of Mr. Br . 
ford, viz. the Raphael (St Catherine), the Garofalo, aod i 
Perruzzi, originally cost that gentleman 3626/., but V- 
cost the nation 7000/., or nearly double that sum, a p 
greatly disproportionate to their worth; which may al- >; 
said of that given for the Titian (Bacchus and Arwir 
purchased of Mr. Hamlet for 5000/. The same autfa<~' 
further assures us that, besides the instances above »rv 
several opportunities of obtaining superior specimens at << 
moderate rates have been very inconsiderately neglectel 
consequence of which many fine pictures, that might a.* 
been procured for the Gallery at a much lower cost tr: 
some of inferior rank have been, have either been sent < 
of the country or disposed of to private collectors, /*&. . 
them was a fine specimen of Guercino (the Behead inp of > 
Catherine), purchased by Mr. Higginsoir fbr 350/. ; % R. 
lini, Carlo Dolce, and a Correggio (greatly supertoi , .t - 
stated, to the Virgin au Punier in the Gallery). whicK *• 
another picture, were sold to Mr. Wynne Ellis tor or. 
1200/* though the Correggio alone was worth double C 
amount Again, an exceedingly fine work by Bonefcr- 
(the Adoration of the Magi), almost equal to Titian. mi:t 
hate been had fbr the inconsiderable price of 200/, It v : 
ther appears that notwithstanding tne exceedingly kv» 
sums they have cost, some of the pictures are not in t l -» 
high condition which they ought to be. The Corregj 
(virgin au Bonier) has suffered very material/*, and ti' 
Rapfiad (St. Catherine) has undergone much xepaixmg »; 

NAT 1 

baildinft should not at all intercept the view of the portico 
of St. Martina from Pall-Mali East ; whereas had he been 
allowed to bring those part* as forward as the background 
of his portico, very much more space would have been 
obtained internally, and the end facing the church, which 
U now a very narrow and insignificant- looking bit, would 
have been considerably augmented. It is to be regretted, 
too, that the small windows at the sides of the entrances to 
the two thoroughfares were not got rid off, by being turned 
towards those passages; and perhaps a little more study 
and contrivance would have enabled the architect lo dis- 
pense with those in that division of the facade from which 
the portico projects, and where they sadly cut up that mass. 
At all events, there would have been no difficulty whatever 
in entirely concealing the windows in the basement slory, 
by merely continuing the podium as a low screen before 
thorn, with breaks forming pedestals for statues at intervals. 
By that means a deformity would have been got rid off, 
the ordinary dwelling-house look attending those kitchen- 
windows have been avoided, and an air of nobleness and rich- 
ness, with some degree of novelty of design also, have been im- 
parledlothe whole facade. It is true, the roams in the offices 
below would not have commanded the view they now do, 
yet that is a very minor consideration, and ought not to have 
been allowed to stand in the way of its being done. For- 
tunately however for such improvement it is even now not 
too late, since it may be carried into effect at any time 
without the slightest trouble or inconvenience. So also may 
the now empty niches be filled with statues; but there is 
no hope that anything will ever be done to remedy one preva- 
lent and very serious defect, namely, the excessive poverty 
of the whole entablature, which renders it not only at variance 
with the richness of the columns, hut insignificant in the 
general effect, whereas even some little exaggeration with 
respect to the depth of its members would have been allow- 
able, if merely because a little more height might thus have 
been given. Notwithstanding theseand other defects, some 
of which appear to have been forced upon the architect, there 
is much beauty in particular parts, especially the portico: 
but for further criticism on the building we must refer to 
(he work above quoted, where elevations and plains of it will 
also be found. Plans of it have also been given in the 
'Companion to the Almanac for 1837,' and the 'Penny 
Magazine,' No. 299. The latter publication also contains 
(Nos. 8, 12, 34, and 47) notices of some of the principal 
pictures. The building was begun in 1833 from the designs 
of \V. Wilkins. R.A. (died August 31. 1839), and completed 
in 1837; and the first exhibition of the Royal Academy 
within its walls took place in 1838. 
NATIONS, LAW OF. [Law, p. 361.] 
NATCLIA. [Anatolia.] 

NATR1X, Laurenti's name for a genus of Colubridar, 
family of snakes destitute of poison-fangs, and of which the 
common snake, Natrix torquata of Ray, may be taken as 
tlie example. 

Generic Character. — Head distinct, oblong-ovate, de- 
pressed, covered with scuta ; gape wide, body very long, 
nearly cylindrical, slender, scales imbricated, placed in lon- 
gitudinal series, lanceolate, generally carinated, abdominal 
shields simple, arched at the margin, caudal shields bise- 
rial. (Bell.) 

The Common or Ringed Snake is too well known to re- 

ne description : the female is larger than the male. Its 
consist* of li/inls, young birds, birds' eggs, mice, and 
- particularly tVoj;s. The latter are generally captured 
j of the bind legs, and in that case the prey is swal- 

)4 NAT 

lowed alive, and with the lower limbs and parts forem -*. 
the head still continuing in its proper position, and d*>;- 
pearinglast. During the operation of deglutition the en 
of the frog are very distressing, and we have delivered cir- 
than one from its enemy— unfairly perhaps, in conseqiw: 
of being attracted by the crtes of the sufferer. The (r ; 
evidently remains alive for some time after it ha> ttr 
swallowed, in the course of which the jaws are dilated, v 1 
so to speak, dislocated in order to allow of the passage of i» 
dis proportioned body to be conveyed into the stomach, Ii 
Bell, who gives in his ' British Reptiles' a. very accurate . 
clear account of the manner in which this operation u y 
formed and the dilatation effected, stales that lie has bu- 
a frog distinctly utter its peculiar cry several minulo ii 
it had been swallowed by the snake. The ssmi soul'. 
observes that the frog is generally taken by one of ; 
hinder extremities, because the latter is most frequemh 
the act of fleeing from its pursuer when taken ; and in lb 
case, the prey, according to his experience, is awallovtd :■ 
we have above described ; but he adds, that if the frv  
taken by the middle of the body, the snake invariably li- 
ft by several movements of the jaws, until the hnl  
directed towards the throat of the snake, when it is «*i 
lowed bead- foremost. In taking lizards or birds, the niu 
as far as Mr. Bell's observation goes, always swallows lb 
head first. The same author gives a curious but p*r . 
description of an instance where two snakes had seised t. 
same wretched frog, which, after a long and painful it™.-; 
and some fighting between the snakes, was swallowed 
the victor. 

When the skin of the common snake has been just n- 
it is a very beautiful serpent, and those who have seen i'.  
we have, gracefully swimming with elevated bead and nan 
and with the sun shining on its ' enamelled skin,' »■ 
crossed the limpid water of some clear streamer little lit 
will acknowledge its elegance and beauty. Mr. Bell hi- : 
following observations upon the subject of this cbanf- 
the skin, which, as some misapprehension has existed m < 
subject, we proceed to lay before our readers-  Sail-- 
like most other reptilia, shed their cuticle or outer ski  
greater or less intervals. It is a mistake to assign i p" 
cular period to this process ; some have stated it to or- 
once, some twice in the summer; but I have found i' 
depend upon the temperature of the atmosphere, and oc 
slate of health, and the more or less frequent feeding d 
animal. I have known the skin shed four or five i *- 
during the year. It is always thrown off by reversing i-  
that the transparent covering of the eyes, and that of  
scales also, are always found in the exuviae. Previous  
this curious circumstance taking place, the whole ft. 
becomes somewhat opaque, the eyes are dim, and the it . 
is evidently blind. It nlso becomes more or leas in»^ 
until at length, when the skin is ready to be removed. I- 
everywhere detached, ond the new skin perfectly ban! 
dernealh, the animal bursts it at the neck, and cm: 
through some dense herbage, or low brushwood, leiit- 
attached, and comes forth in far brighter and eier". 
colours than before.' 

White and others have remarked an offensive povrr 
this creature, that of ' stinking se defendendo,' as ft. 
describes it. He adds, 'I knew a gentleman who kit - 
tame snake, which was in its person as sweet as amy sc- 
while in good humour and unalarmed; but as soon t> 
stranger or a dog or cat came in, it fell to hissing, and ' 
the room with such nauseous effluvia as rendered ii hi 
supportable.' But this offensive odour, which is etr- 
from certain glands, is not emitted in self-defence alone, 
is also said to be the concomitant of sexual excitement. 

Reproduction. — Oviparous, as in the rest of the genus. '. 
eggs, to the number of sixteen or twenty, are deposited  
connected chain in some dung-heap or warm situation, 
connection being effected by a glutinous auhstancv. 
there left tilt the heat of the place or of the sun call* 
young into life. In the museum of the Royal Colics 
Burgeons (Physiological Seriet, No. 2708) is a prepare 

expanded anterior orifice of the left oviduct i 
period of discharging its contained ovum, and the Ion? 
dinal line is discernible, which indicates the place cf 
future rent by which it would have escaped. The ctoi - 
laid open; a bristle is placed in the termination of "! 
rectuvo, behind which maybe observed the semilunar fi*— 


in which the oviducts terminate, and the bilobed promt 
nenceon which the ureters open. No. 2417 (the first illus 
tr.ii ion of the A metabolism subclass, in which copulation it 
attended with inlro mission) exhibits the posterior part of 
the body of the Common Snake with the ventral integu- 
ments dissected off from the abdomen and tail, to show the 
testes and two penes in situ. The testes arc smalt, slightly 
compressed, oblong bodies, situated anterior to the kidneys, 
the right about an inch in advance of the left, corresponding 
tu the difference in the relative position of the kidneys ; the 
penes, which consist almost wholly of a prasputiutn or inver- 
lible sheath, and a siaall glens, are retracted within their 
subesuda) cells; bristles are inserted into the outlets of 
these receptacles, and pass into the cavities of the inverted 
proputia. The muscles which retract the penes and invert 
i lu; sheaths are exposed as they pass backwards to their 
origins from the inferior spines of the caudal vertebra!. No. 
24) $ exhibits the termination of the abdomen and tail of a 
large Coluber, also prepared to show the male sexual organs. 
{Catalogue, vol. iv.) 

Habit*, $c. — Tho common snake commences its hyber- 
nation in some warm hedge, tinder the rout of a tree, or 
other sheltered situation, about the end of autumn ; and 
then they coil themselves up, sometimes in numbers, till 
the spring again brings them forth. Many instances of 
tamo snakes hove been recorded, and more than one has 
came under our immediate observation. Mr. Bell gives the 
following account, showing that these snakes may bo made 
to distinguish those who caress and feed them, ' I had one 
many years since, which knew me from all other persons ; 
and when let out of his box would immediately come to me. 
ninl crawl under tho sleeve of my coat, where he was fond 
of lying perfectly stilt, and enjoying the warmth. He was 
accustomed to come to my hand for a draught of milk every 
morning at breakfast, which lie always did ol' his own accord. 
but he would Ily from strangers and hiss if they meddled 
with him.' 

The following are the synonyms collected by the last- 
mentioned author : — Natri.r torquala, Ray, Fleming, 
J enyns, Bonaparte. Coluber Natrix, Linn . Shaw, Daudin, 
Turton. Coluber iorquatut. Lncfipdde; Natrix vulgaris, 
Laurenii. Tropidonaiu* Natrix, Kohl, Gray. Ringed 
Snake, Pennant. Couleuvre a Collier, Laccpede. It is the 
Jiingelnatter of the Germans, and Tomt-Orm, Snok, and 
Ring-Oral of the Fauna Suscica. 

The editor of ihe lost edition of Pennant's ' British Zoo- 
logy,' the Rev. L. J enyns, and Mr. Bell, arc all of opinion 
that the Dumfriesshire Snake of Sowerby's ' British Miscel- 
lany ' is probably an immature variety of this species. The 
editor of Pennant seems however to be in doubt whether it 
is the young of the Aberdeen Snake, Anguis Eryx, or of the 
Natrix here treated of. But there can, we apprehend, be 
hardly any doubt that ihe Dumfriesshire Snake is the young 
of Natrix torquala. The Aberdeen Snake is nothing more 
than the SUno-uorm or Blind-worm. [Blind-worm.] 

Geographical Distribution.— Europe, "from Scotland 
and the corresponding latitude of the Cu u tinent, to Italy and 
Sicily.' (Bell.) 

With reference to the alleged inability of reptiles to live 
iti Ireland, Mr. Bell says, ' I have already mentioned the 
existence of Laeerta agilis there, and with respect to the 
present species, the following is the result of my inquiries. 
It would appear not only that the common Snake is not 
indigenous to Ireland, but that several attempts to introduce 
it have totally failed. Mr. Ball some time since informed 
me of some trials of this kind.' Mr. Bell then prints the 
following letter from Mr. Thompson, which he had recently 
received, and which, as Mr. Bell observes, gives a very de- 
tailed and clear account of the actual facts. 

'In this order (Ophidia) there is not now, nor, I believe, 
ever was there, any species indigenous to Ireland. In the 
Edinburgh " New Philosophical Journal," for April, 1835, 
it is remarked: "We have learned from good authority that 
a recent importation of snakes has been made into Ireland, 
and tliut at present they are multiplying rapidly within a 
few miles of the louih of St, Patrick." 1 never,' proceeds 
Mr. Thompson, 'heard of this circu mstanco until it was 
published, and subsequently endeavoured tu ascertain its 
truth, by inquiring of the persons about Downpatrick 
(where the tomb of St. Patrick is) who are beat acquainted 
with these subjects, not one of whom had ever heard of 
Hiinkes being in the neighbourhood. Recollecting that 
about the year 1831, a snake (Natrix torquala}, imme- 
P, C, No, 990. 

-5 NAT 

diately after being killed at Milecross, was brought by sorue 
country-people in great consternation to my friend Dr. J. 
L. Drunvmond. I thought this might be one of those alluded 
to; and recently made inquiry of James Clealand, Esq. of 
Ruth Gael House (county Down), twenty-five miles distant 
in a direct line from Downpatrick, respecting snakes said 
to have been turned out by him. I was favoured by that 
gentleman with the following satisfactory reply : — " The re- 
port of my having introduced snakes into this country is 
correct. Being curious to ascertain whether the climate of 
Ireland was destructive to that class of reptiles, about six 
years ago I purchased half a dozen of them in Covent Gar- 
den market in London ; they had been taken some lime, 
and were quite tame and familiar, I turned them out in 
my garden ; they immediately rambled away ; one of them 
was killed at Milecross," — that alluded to as having been 
brought to Dr. Druramond, — " three miles distant, in about 
a week after its liberation; and three others were shortly 
afterwards killed within that distance of the place whore 
they were turned out ; and it is highly probable that*the 
remaining two met with a similar late, falling victims to a 
reward which it appears was offered for their destruction." ' 
To this Mr. Bell adds, that it certainly does not appear 
that the failure of these attempts to introduce snakes into 
Ireland is to be attributed lo anything connected with the 
climate, or other local circumstances, but rather to the pre 
judices of the inhabitants; nor is there reason to believe 
that their absence from Irelatid is other than purely acci 
dental. (British Reptilei.) 

NATROLITE. [Mesotype] 

NATRON, native sesquioarboniie of soda. [Sodium.] 

NATRON LAKES are in a valley in the western desert 
which borders upon Lower Egypt running south-east and 
north-west between the calcareous ridge that skirts the wes- 
tern edge of the Delta and another parallel range which 
divides it from tho B»hk-ueli-mi. The Natron valley con- 
tains six lakes, remarkable for the great quantity of salt which 
they produce. The crystallizations are both of muriate of 
soda, or common salt, and of carbonate of soda, called natron 
or trona. The lakes are ranged in succession along the length 
of the valley, being separated from each other by barren 
sands; the whole occupy a length of about sixteen miles. 
The size of the respective lakes varies according to the 
season, and they are very shallow ; the bottom is muddy, of 
mixed sand and clav. The lakes are supplied by water, 
which oozes out of the banks, chiefly on the side which is 
towards the Nile. It appears that the water flaws abun- 
dantly when the Nile is high, and decreases with its decrease, 
until some of the lakes become quite dry. The banks of 
the lakes below the springs are covered with crystallizations. 
The natron is collected once a year, and is used both in 
Egypt and Syria, as also in Europe, for manufacturing glass 
and soap, and for bleaching linen. 

There are three or four convents in the valley of the 
Natron lakos; their foundation is said lo date from the 
fourth century of our sera ; they are inhabited by Copt and 
Syrian monks, who are very poor and very ignorant. The 
valley itself is a barren desert. 

(Audieossi, Mtmoire tur la Polite dee Lacs de Natron.) 
Vol. XVI.-P 


English name for the> Calamiia of Laurenti. Its 
colour U light-jellowiih inclining to brown and clouded with 
dull olive ; but its most distinguishing mark it the bright- 
fellow line running along the middle of the back. The 
warts or glands on the body and the large glands behind Ihe 
head are reddish ; the under parts yellowish spotted with 
black, and the legs banded with black. 

Sir Joseph Banks was the first who drew Pennant's atten- 
tion to it as a British species: and the latter notices it as 
frequenting dry and sandy places, and as having been found 
on Putney Common and also near Revesby Abbey in Lin- 
colnshire. The Rev. L. Jenyns records it as occurring in 
plenty on many ot the heaths about London, as well as on 
Garalingay Healh in Cambridgeshire, and in two or three 
localities in Norfolk. Mr. Bell {Britith SeptiUt) stales 
that he has found them in considerable numbers near ponds 
and ditches not far from Deptford, whore they appeared to 
hove congregated for the purpose of breeding. He observes 
that Dr. Fleming; was not apparently aware of its being 
an inhabitant of Scotland, but Sir W. Jardine informed 
Mr. Bell that it is ' taken in a marsh on the coasts of the 
Solway Frith, almost brackish (certainly so in winter), and 
within a hundred yards or spring-tide high-water mark. It 
lies,' continues Sir William, 'between the village of Carse 
and Saturness (So'ithcrness) Point, where I have found them 
for six or seven miles along the coast. They are very abun- 
dant.' The specimens sent to Mr. Bell by Sir W. Jardine 
were in every respect the same as those found in the neigh- 
bourhood of London. We long ago saw them frequently at 
Hillingdon near TJ xbridge (Middlesex). 

Pennant well describes tho movements of tho Na 
Jack. ' It never leaps, neither does it crawl with the slow 
pace of a loud, but ils motion is more like running.' He 
says that its deep and hollow voice is heard lo a great dis- 
tance. Mr. Jenyns status that it spawns later in the season 
than the common toad. Mr. Bell gives the following di- 

Total length . 
Length of foreleg . 
Length of hinder leg 

NATURAL, a musical character, thus formed— 

the use of which is, to make a sharpened nole a semi 
lower, and a Hutlcned note a semitone higher; or, in other 
words, it brings into the scale of the nnlural key of c any 
note which hud been made ..harp or lint. But it must be 
observed, iliat the power of ihis character does not extend 
beyond the bar in which it appears, except where a lasting 
change of key is intended, in which case each natural placed 
at the clef removes a corresponding sharp or Hat perma- 
nently, or until such sharp or Hat shall be restored in like 

the vegetable kingdom according to the affinities of (he spe- 
cies, it has been found necessary lo collect together intt 
Hioups mr\i iri'iK-ia a* h.i'c in. ire resemblance In each other 
ban tin?) have ui im>ihiiig i-Ue. and 10 these the name of 


natural orders has been given. They constitute the bis- 
dation of all arrangements, and are wholly independent I 
the peculiar views which different writers have taken of tti 
manner in which the vegetable kingdom should be other- 
wise classified ; thus, while one author advocates the ;. • 
priety of arranging Exogens by the modifications of U* i 
corolla, another by the insertion of their stamens, a it-, 
by what is supposed to be the progressive order of their i- 
velopment, and so on, the result of each of which musk... 
is a different sequence of matter, the natural order* thti. 
selves remain unchanged. This being so, the study ui iu 
true limitation, and of the characters by which they aie e 
senlially distinguished, constitutes by far the most imp r. 
ant branch of systematical botany, and accordingly we >. 
that a large proportion of tho natural orders yet fun;. 
are admitted without much difference of opinion. It iz- 
ba obvious also to any one at all acquainted with -- 
subjects, that in many cases there is in fact no room far ■-  
cuasion ; as in the Apiaceous, Asteraceous, and Brassic. « 
orders, or in Grasses, Sedges, and Orchidaceaa. 

It is however sufficiently singular, that notwithslarni . 
the general accordance of opinion that may be said to ■*.  
upon ibis subject in the majority of cases, no one should. 
yet, have undertaken to prove what are really the ew:r . 
characters by which natural orders ought to be distingue:. 
and what are unimportant or inapplicable to the limiiau 
of such groups. In the absence of a settlement of :, 
point, all that has yet been effected is, in its very as. ..< 
arbitrary and unsatisfactory, notwithstanding that ill!-, 
appear to be, to a great extent, right; and there is an :■ 
consistency and want of harmony in the different rhvK 
of (be natural system, which is most perplexing lo the • . 
dent. Up to the present time botanists have octli 
themselves mnch more with searching for difference- 
which genera may be divided, than for rcsemblanc, - 
which they may be combined, a state of things ^tucli 
proved advantageous to (he science of botanical clas-.:' - 
lion in its infancy, but which, if not corrected, will pre.. 
its ever attaining maturity. 

It is probable that such characters as the number of \i 
the regularity or irregularity of flowers, the insertion vt <  
mens, direction of ovules, and the presence orabsouccaf ;-■ 
(Icular organs, all which are at present considered of p. 
importance, are so far from serving to separate plant* •- 
different orders, that they maybe mere indications of a;* 
liar stateof development in plants of the same order. J. 
orders as Myrtacem and Onagracem serve lo place lb >  . 
striking point of view. InMyrtacctelbestamens vary!;. ., 
indefinite number in Mrrtus to only 5 in tho genus Bavi 
and from being polyadelphous in Ca lot ham mis, to I' 
distinct in Myrtus itself; the flowers are paly petal-.*. 
Myrtus, and apetalous in Eucalyptus ; regular in the sl- 
ot the order, but irregular in Lecythis and its allies : 
ovary is many-celled and many-seeded in Leptospsir ... 
and one-celled with two seeds in Calytrix; altogether inf.: 
in Eugenia, &c., and superior in the whole of the L 
spermeous division. In like manner in Onagracer, (I 
thera hax 8 stamens, and Hippuris one only ; the H>-~ 
are polypetalous iu the mass of the order, but a pen! - 
some Fuchsias ; regular in the mass of the order, but 
gular in Chamsanetium ; and the ovary is 2- or 4-cel*  
the greater numher of genera, but 1- celled in Tia-.:. 
in some plants referred to Haloragis. So, in like mu  
is the position of the ovule within ihe ovary at cha- 
liable to much variation ; for instance, among Urtirinx 
is erect in Urtica, and pendulous in Dorstenia and Hi. 
lus; among Myrtaces, it is erect in Vert icon) in. pelw. 
Beaufortia; and among Ouograceee, it is peltate in E: 
bium, &c, erect in Circaia, and pendulous in HaJora;:- 

We ought therefore, in sound philosophy, to disaifuv 
the differences just enumerated, as available for the 
crimination of natural orders, and yet they are of con. 
employment. If they were disallowed, the effect wou. 
to reduce very considerably the number of natural or i 
and to limit the remainder in a more positive manner - 
advantage of no little moment in the existing state at 
lematical botany, in as much as it would tend to sib" 
the distinctions of the orders, and to remove the num. 
inconsistencies whose existence it is at present impawn - 
deny. Many prejudices would be violently shorkoL 
an entirely new light would be thrown upon the 
nature of vegetable affinities; Corylaccss would bo t,i ._ 
into (he vicinity of Combretacesa, and TamaricscesB of S 

N A C 



i» w^j. There are two annual fhir*. one in Jane, insti- r chiffrable), and that it is matter cf minder thai the n *:-n-.- 
♦uf*d in 151 4. by the emperor Maximilian I.: the other, in naturalists who have rutted the Indian Seas has* 
p^eroivsr, K-uf.tiit^d in H.i, by the k»ng of Prussia, examined or captured so eunows 
Tn**e, and three of ner annual rattle and bone fairs, eon- i belongs to so common a 

H. de Blainville thus describes the genus :— 
Animal having the body irmnrlrd. and tennmared *«». 
by a tendinous or muscular filament, which attach*- « •- 

tribute grea.iy to rh<* proper:?? of the town. An interest- 
in af re rem or./, ca..*d the Kinderfeat {i.e. tbe children's 
fpf/ij, i* ann.-.ady celebrated in commemoration of an attack 

made on tfve town on the 2Sth of July, 1452, by the Has- j in the siphon with which the chambers of the * -. 
aiie* under Proeopun. On that day, by tbe advice of a pierced; mantle open obliquely, and prol>nging »:-* 
t\\>zt-T\ named Wolf, all the children, dressed in shrouds, . a sort of hood above, the head prowled with tentac. 
eac-h carrying a lemon and a green bough, went out of the ' pendages, which are, as it were, digitated, and nur.. 
city to bcfc mercy for their parents and for the city. Proeo- j the aperture of the month. 

puis, who had threatened utterly to destroy tbe town and j ShtU discoid, but little compr es s ed , with the back r 
the inhabitant^ btrau«e the late dm hop had Toted at the or suheannated, umbilicated or not, bat never mam rL 
synod of K<»tnitz for the death of John Huss, was so ; frnamelonee>; the chambers simple, am*. tie e\.*e- 
nfforter1 that ho raided the M<*ge. Though the memory of 
IIijh event has been handed down for above 3"0 years, some 
modern historian* have doubled the fact. On the 5th of 
November, 1632, the great Gustavu* Ad alphas here took 
In* J] rial leave of his queen before r he battle of Lutxen. 

(M»iJl«r, Ilandbuch; also local decryptions by Lepsins, 
\WU\ and Kratvh, Iv27.) 


NAU'l'LIA. [Napoli di RrorufiA.] 

N A U'PLl U.S. [Bba vchiopoda. vol. v, p. 340.] 

NAUTILI D/E, or NALTILA'CEA. according to 

it in re k, the sixth fam ly of his p-hj*foil<v<ru* Cfjhtl-^prda^ Umbilicated species wi:h the back rounded and a - 
consisting of the 'i* r^era DincnrbtU*, SrJtr^ite** i\/y*.'o- sirh 

mtlla, V'>Tliriah* y ~ SummuliUt** and Smt*'**- To these 
Mr. G. B- SowerSv, jun. a/Ids Stm> !'z-z* and End^tiho- 
nitt'H. In t'ie sy/t^ra of M- de Bainviile it is the filtu 
family of ).:» pJyXbaL-imar*.** and eosiprL-es the genera 



the last deeply hollowed and pierced by one or two t.\ . 

The same zoologist thus divides the genus. 


Species not umbilicated; back rounded ; aperture r . 
a single, subcentral siphon. 

Example, Sautilm* Ihmp Hi ««, Linn. 


Species not umbilicated. with a cannated back aci .. .. 
lax opening. iAnzuiithe*. De Monti) 

Exampie, Xamiiius t nonunions. 



rf/u/if'*, .V'iv'/'tt*, Potyitom''^ and L^'ittcui'i/uu 
NAUTILUS* p.dsw.:;! rely thai: 
chambered *he.»*,«d 05 Lin::a?us, who ga 

hon. j Ooff»w*.f. Ife Mo n tf X 

Example, Sautiitu mmbiU.-atmi. 

Umbilicated species, with the 
siphons. iEtitiM**i y De Montf.) 
Example, Xju£i'./*4 BtfrpAii***. 

M. under the genus X-ruttiu* of Lmr»a?cs, • 
gave tee " also J^-xti i**. J« jtiw **#, CtnrAroye*. *>*«/•»#„ /?* » • 1' 
fo:Iov.r,3f a* the g- nene ei^racter: * Jnivio/ r Rumph. and J mmenties of De Mo stf-rt. AU De Mon'.fari^ :; 
Miii / t. 1 ;. f D> 7"<?ifa univilv-.s. i-th=i^ pertbratis conca-  except Oceanus and AmmoQi'es, are fo^sd ooIt: tic • 
Merita, pf/^.tulaoft^-' Ar.d he iLvi,Ied the genu* into he descries as ccming from the Moluccas. It is, as : 

one can judge frcm the fi'jre. a very young she'L, i- • 
the young of XauZ.'u* P-mpt nts. Amm- mte* is *\^ 


Spiral rruritL 
be rli-re*! the srecies 

-V. Pmxiutiu, 

r.i -*;-,^n v*f:on ^ 

f'.tirar, ^>» *;«••#. /fc"-'i^#. ntz **iu watt j -jUui* Ztru.a. 
<\ Jm,. '>»*- L\' :bese-a-ue\»-i;pt .Vrisrr'a? " 

It lx::-.r ^f *-.«:a is *epura:cd 

as comir./ from the China Seas, and is- a^- 
cimen of ^Vi«/r/«f umbiUcitu*. De Mootfo 

rt cots". 

^- #r** 1. 

» d ' 

as the tyre of a specie* of A nm- m:es analogous to . r 

mpt i«. monites, or Cormaa A*nm<nit " a eloigns unie>." He** 
accp^a- *a ?s ^^ be potk^5^efi a superb petrification of t^ 

H - --i^ us :c:r :^e name ot surxki. are miu^te j m o n :te a fcot m diameter. 

»r tae most part ltjoi tile Airjitic 

* • 

E*»«-ugaicti, suberect cerectiuaculu. 

fn th h secm.n t-e i^ecies are o^-'.quus, PjfAjauitrifm* 
pox b. if •>!-*. G 1 "-*'**** Fiii:x>>i. F**.nu S*ztdnt-u,'iLU Les*- 
rfitn. (rrit^sm* Ot t-^ese. ail but GrtA'X-em axe m.nute, 

M. Rang gives tbe following generic character .»( N 

til us: — 

^rwa/bars^brm, Io Iged pirt^illy in the la-t t\ . . 
of the aheil, famished p«jateri'xiy wi:b an apper.'*-." 
particular organ, destined to traverse all tbe chamber- 
placed in a siphon, which serves it as a sbemtb ; l: 
prolonged above the head, which is furnished with - . 

, d frw '-*^e A<ina:;e and Med::emriean. O^tii'^ero, j numuer of sessile arms surroundau» tbe mouth. 

n,v* e-i r ^" *»~*l as a fossi 1 . zenus of cephalopods under the j SMe'J discoid, regularlv spiral, rolled on the sa 

nir,^ ot *jr".n>. 

f ,..<, f J«»etn^ *k» hive u«rt:uc\jusjutrrci.i u» uiui as lrjv wikuuub > v%. ^'ijkcu cvczLie le reiour ae la SCtre. 

3 ,. .. 'Z **-*! g"-"* ' » - ^ — 

p .«.„.•." ar..i ^e the t\ ll:w.^g observation: — * Testa 
ff*r. ,«r.r«s-^^ia per-.icara :n m*.n:.bus co^titscalcareis, inter 
/,.- .1 f- *rs.^a coh^ n-.-.a sae^e iozz^siraa, men dam nsn 

|„rir'£ the* eh ATM* Cerises the genus Siutiiut- — 

S .-c -1 -<"::i- sz.ral. mul:.»3eulir; with simple walls fa 

^•..*'. W j rls c.n:kgi»tis; the last enveloping 

ir.r -j icr*. Ch.amier» rumerous, formed by trarisverse 

n: .-. r.* i-1-.^jrsN are cencave towards the side 

• the aperture: thej (Lsk perforated by a tube, and 


<-*tx% though described by Lone a? us as j embracing at not, witb ccnti^uous w bo lis; siphon ce 
.ive been cocsjiiered by him as not without . or placed * contre ie retour de la spire-* 

£?r cewn'e^ — 'Habitat in alto Pel ago: The animal, he says* is enly known from the t: 

Rumphius, which leaves so much to be desired. He L 
the genus into two subgenera. 

L Subgenus. Nautili, properly so called. 
Ar+i*yiL as described in the generic character. 
Sfau with a spire either embracing or not; chc: 
cnited 1 unies) : siphon central, or approximated* to tv. 
ul.imate whorl of the spire, without beine cont - 
to it. a r 

1st sr^up. 
Spire embraciiig(Genexa~ 1 Vaii^/« > j Ji j fw / l 7^ <r# q^ 

De Montf-K. 
Xtntniu* Pyrnpi*iuSy &e. 

2nd group. 
Spire exposed fa decouvert>~\JjnmoJri/^#. De M.* 
Xauti*us umbtitcatu*. &c. 

II. Subgenus {Ag midst, DeMoniT>. 

Atiixtf unknown. 

SAsu wi:h an embracing spire; partition di-up ' 
two interior prolongations of its borders; siphon ti- 
the penukimate whorl ot the spire. 

AU the descriptions of the animal above giwen <*- 

LA*»>arck rec.ris two srecies. .Vzi^iV^j Ptviruiia 
af.d .V. 1/-7J *f '1 - */?««. Foe the animal he refers to Rumphius 
an 1 Denys de M-C.f-rt. 

Cu\ icr ob^rves. :n k.* list etL::ca cf the ' Resr:e Ani- 
m^*,' that Lannsus un.ted in h.s genus ^"j&i».'^i the 
genera .Si/ru.ti of I^^ ;he A ~m:i .V, pr:z*r'y 10 
dui^L Of the liUer he remarks thas they have a sheil 
differinjr from that of the Sr*r*-<r. i-.isciuch as ;he* 
increase \ery rap.d'.y. an<l t^e las: wh»jr.s :..^«ch. but envd p 
the preceding whvr'.s. T^e sirh-;o, he aii^ is in the 

uv.ddle of each s*; t -m. He rer^rs to the Xnsi uj P m- have been taken from tbe figure of Rumphius."" \V 
otltu* of Lit. v .» a- 'he *Te-* .s l: st kz »x a:, i c* rt*' rs give a cvi y of this figure, wuich represents the «i 
:o Rumph;u> lur ta».- a:»i:-*\ otrscrv.r.g h«:"veve.-. .n a c Ve. suur.e postt.on. Tre general form is not inaccura 
hat the n^ure of Run:^ r. .-s .» Lot to be iecip^erei ( ! details are confused; and many of them incorrect the i 


N A tf 1 

the soft farts. BondehHut, apparently conrbuuding Aris- 
totle's two genera of Polypi, stffiras to refer the animal of 
the first to the shell of the second ; and dwell* 
possibility of bo delicat 
about so heavy a shell. 

Gesner relates that ' . 
sicinn of England, formerly gave him the picture 
iitus, with a written description (by letter)- This descripti 
Gesner gives ; and it is not improbable that the soft parts 
there described may have been those of Nautilus Ponitriliui 
(it is clear that (he shell was); but the account is so ob 
scare and brief that there is room for doubt, though thi 
term velum is used, which would hardly be applicable to the 
palmated arms or vela of the other kind. 

We now return to the period which followed the publica- 
tion of Rumphius's figure ; and for many years no further 

information was obtained, though special directions 

given by the French and other nations to collectors 
assiduous in procuring the soft parts. These directions 
were given in rain, and all was conjecture. Fragments 
even of molluscous animals were caught at and published 
as probable parts of this much desired animal ; and HH. 
Quoy and Gaimard published their ' Description d'un 
Fragment de Mullusque inconnu, presume 6tre celui du 
Nautile Uambc' (Nautilus Pompilius, Linn.), with figures, in 
the ' Annates des Sciences Naturelles' (vol. 2D). The ma- 
terials are not sufficient to come to any safe conclusion as tr 
the animal, of which the fragment was a part; but it may 
now be confidently denied that it is any portion of the son 
parts of Nautilus fompiliu*. The parenchyma of the frag- 
ment indeed is said to have been identical with that of 
Firola and Carinaria. This fragment is preserved at Paris 
in the Jaidin du Roi. 

The recovery of this interesting animal was reserved for 
a British voyager ; and its structure has been demonstrated 
and illustrated by Professor Owen in a most masterly 
manner, leaving nothing to be wished, excepting that some 
fortunate collector may speedily capture a male specimen, 
and put it into his skilful bands. 

Mr. George Bennett, F.L.S., a member of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons, thus describes the capture of this interest- 
ing animal in his ' Wanderings in New South Wales,' &c. : 
—'It was on the 24th of August, 1829 (calm and fine wea 
ther, thermometer at noon 79°), in the evening, when the 
ship Sophia was lying at anchor in Marakini Bay, on the 
soutb-wost side of the island of Erromanga, one of the New 
Hebrides group, Southern Pacific Ocean, that something 
was seen floating on the surface of the water at some dis- 
tance from the ship; to many it appeared like a small dead 
tortoise-shell cat, which would have been such an unusual 
object to be seen in this part of the world, that the boat 
which was alongside the snip at the time was sent for the 
purpose of ascertaining the nature of the floating object. 
On approaching near it was observed to be the shell -fish 
commonly known by the name of the Pearly Nautilus 
{Nautilus Pompilius) ; it was raptured and brought on 
board, hut the shell was shattered, from having been struck 
with the boat-hook in capturing it, as the animal was sink- 
ing when the boat approached, and bad it 

upper cavity of the shell. On being brought on board, 
observed it retract the tentacula still closer than before, and 
this was the only sensation of vitality it gave after being 
caught ; I preserved the soft parts immediately in spirits, 
after making a rude pen-and-ink sketch of its form. On 
breaking the lower part of the shell, the chambers or cavities 
were found filled with water. The hood has been stated by 
Dr. Shaw (Lecture*. voL ii., p. 166) as being of a pale red- 
dish purple colour, with deeper spots and variegations ; the 
colour however, as it appeared in this recent specimen, was 
of a dark reddish brown, in fact, resembling the colour pro- 
duced by the Koka on the stained cloth of the Tongatabu 
natives, intermingled with white. We bad fine weather; 
light winds and calms a day or two previous to this animal 
being caught.' After noticing the incorrectness of Shaw's 
figure (which, as we have above noticed, was copied from 
those given by Deny* de Montfort), and the greater general 
accuracy of that of Rumphius, Mr. White informs us that 
this species is called Ki/ta, Lapia, and Krang Modang by 
Hie natives of Amboyna ; and Bin papeda. Bia eojin, by the 
Malays. He then adverts to another instance of the enp- 
i of thi* animal, by an officer of H.M. S. Ariadne, on a 

3 NAD 

reef at the island of Pemba near Zanzibar, on ibe east t  
of Africa, in 1 624. The animal was not floating upon - 
water, but was in a hole on the reef, and the officer did  
recollect which part of the shell was uppermost. The l 
tie, like a thin membrane, covered tbe shell. and was <i - 
in as soon as it was touched, when tbe shell wan di»; j. 
' I and others,' said this officer to Mr. Bennett, * when , - 
first seen, did not notice it, regarding the animal, »- 
membrane enveloped the shell, merely as a pieoe of '. 
ber; but having touched it by accident, the merobr 
covering was withdrawn, and we soon secured our bej 
prise. The fish was a large mass attached to the - 
which we soon extracted and threw away, a* it* 
tainted to collect shells.' The same officer compart: 
mantle to what he had subsequently seen cover, r:,- 
shells of the Harps [Entomostomata, vol. ix., p. 4JJ' 
Cowries. [Cyras id.b.] Mr. Bennett slates that ; 
tion of tbe shell captured by him was afterwards mi6 
board, but none of the appearances, nor whether :_■ 
water was contained within, could be recollected- A t. 
of a whaler, who had been shipwrecked upon the F- 
Islands in the South Pacific, and had resided among 
group for nearly three years, told Mr. Bennett that hi . 
seen tbe shell of the Pearly Nautilus, containing the :■. 
animal, floating on the water near one of the islands. ; 
had only seen two living, although the empty sbelU i 
very numerous among the islands. The first he saw • 
in a canoe with some other shipwrecked Europeans; £■ 
then floating on the surface of the water with tbe = 
of the shell uppermost. It was enveloped in tbe m 
which extended some distance upwards, and ovei 
whole of the shell ; and it had such an appearu \ 
caused one of the men to say, ' There is a large pi 
blubber upon the water.' On approaching it the a:i_ 
retracting tbe mantle, displayed the beautiful striped ; . 
end sank before they could capture it. (G. Bennett, If. 
deringt, vol. ii.) 

The specimen captured by Mr. Bennett is presei'-- 
the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in l»: 
and has produced the admirable ' Memoir on tbe i' 
Nautilus (Nautilus Poniptlrus, Linn.), with illostm.' - 
its external form and internal structure.' publoht 
direction of the council of the college, a summan c'   
we shall endeavour to lay before our readers. 

The external form, of which an elaborate descr;' 
given, for which we must refer cor readers to the * M; r 
itself, will be collected from the following; cats, whi.i i 
reduced from Professor Owen's figures. 

Kutltui PompDjU ffpinjilft) in the i 
-J U>» ibsll ilxnrn by . -'- -  

N A U 


N A U 

that of a fowl, as it does in Octopus. A globular cavity 
communicates with the intestine at a little distance from the 
pylorus, and its reception of the biliary secretion renders it 
in some measure analogous to a gall-bladder; but Mr. Owen 
thinks that its chief use is probably to pour into the com- 
mencement of the intestinal canal a fluid necessary for 
digestion ; so that, like the laminated and spiral rcecum of 
the higher Cephalopoda, and the pyloric appendages of fish, 
it is essentially a simple form of pancreas. The interior of 
the alimentary canal, which was filled with smaller frag- 
ments of crustaceous shell, presented a few longitudinal 
rugs and slight transverse puckerings. The liver is bulky, 
and extends on each side of the crop from the oesophagus 
to the gizzard. There was no trace of structure analogous 
to the ink-bag of the Dibranchiate Cephalopods. 

haotUas Pompoms, la the prone ion. with the labial processes and 
tentacles, the inaudible*, and the digestive organs displayed. (Reduced from 
Professor Owen's figure.) 

«a, the hood, or upper part of the oral sheath, longitudinally divided ; 6 6, 
tasKMirriur lobes or angles of the hood; ce, the posterior concavity of the 
houd; dd. the ridge in the same ; ee. the cut surfaces of the shore parts ; ff. 
the Internal surface of the oval sheath ; gg. the external labial processes ; A A, 
Ibe external labial tentacles ; i i, the internal labial processes ; ft ft, the in- 
ternal labial tentacles; /, the olfactory lamina*; m m. the circular friuged 
bp. longitudinally divided ;  the superior mandible ; o.the inferior mandible ; 
p. the muscular ba>i» on which the mandibles are fixed : e q. the superior pair 
of muscles » usch retract the jaws : r r. the semicircular muscle which protrudes 
the jaw«, ditided loogitudioally ; «, the oesophagus; t. the crop ; v. the narrow 
eaoal lead tug to r, the gizzard i tr. the intestine ; *•» the terminal fold of in- 
testine drawn out of it* situation » r, the anus ; y. the laminated pancreatic 
bag ; s, the brer ; 15, a branch of the anterior aorta, which ramifies in the 
membrane connecting the two portions of the terminal fold of the Intestine ; 

19. tl»e eontiouatiun of the posterior aorta along the dorsal aspect of the crop ; 

20, its bifurcation at the cesophagus, to farm a vascular circle corresponding to 
the oertous circle rouud that tube ; 21 and 22, arteries of the crop, gizzard. &c 
(Owen J 

In the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons (/%y- 
siological Series, No. 499, a.) is a preparation exhibiting 
the crop, gizzard, and laminated pancreatic pouch. (See 
the Catalogue, vol. i.) 

Circulating and Respiratory System.— Oxu limits will 
not permit us to go into the details of this system in the 
Pearly Nautilus, interesting as it is. The respiratory organs 
are elongated and pyramidal, and have the same laminated 
structure and sjmmetrical disposition as in the cuttle-fish; 
but they are/our in number, being disposed two on either 
side, and each pair arising by a common peduncle from the 
inner surface of the mantle. 4 From this difference in the 
number of branchiae, in addition to the other peculiarities 
in the fctructure of Nautilus; says Mr. Owen, •the existence 
of at least two orders of the class Cephalopoda is, I ima- 
gine, demonstrated j and the denominations of these orders 

might conveniently be taken from the modification* *.' - 
respiratory system. Assuming therefore that it is coir . 
to the class to possess branchiae of a laminated strut.'. 
symmetrically disposed, and concealed "beneath the n~ 
those genera which possess two such branchiae will for 
order under the term Dibranchiata, and the PearW \ 
til us and other cephalopods with shells of an arp. . 
formation, a second order, under the term Tetabras* . . 
It is in this sense that the expression ' Dibranchiate a 
lopods ' has been made use of in this memoir ; and t 
group most of the characters of the class, as given m 
immortal Cuvier in his • Regue Animal,* exclusive!) 

The preparation, No. 900, b. {Physiological St.- 
the museum of the College of Surgeons, exhibits ti<< 
lation and respiratory organs of the species now urA.. 
s ideration. The branchial vessels are continued u 
series at the lower part of the vena cava. They arc : . 
number, corresponding to the four branchiae, andlu 
three clusters of glandular follicles appended to th*-m 
senting the branchial auricles. The blood, after en - 
through the branchiae, is returned by four branchu. 
which open into the four corners of a.transver*iM > 
ventricle. This has been laid open on the opposite * 
the preparation to show the columns? carneso whim. T 
blood is conveyed to the system in two arteries, one .: 
and large, commencing by a muscular bulb, the other • 
rior ana small, which is seen partially injected with .] 
silver. A branch of this artery winds over the \t r 
and is continued downwards into the membranous v 
and a white bristle is passed through it along the pi. 
dium, and through one of the apertures, by which tbe * 
cardium communicates with the branchial chamber. .' 
thus that the fluid contained in the siphon has an 
and on the supposition that the chambers of tbe she, 
tain gas, the sinking and rising of tbe Nautilus c 
regulated by the varying proportions of gas and li ... 
the chambered part of the shelL {Cat,) 

We must refer the student for further and ample 
mation to Mr. Owen's * Memoir,' and the fifth and • 
plates illustrating it 

Nervous System and Organs of Sense. — This part 
system in the Pearly Nautilus is in many respects ir. 
to that of the Dibranchiate Cephalopods, tbough it w - 
logous to it * The part,' says Mr. Owen, * which 
sponds to the brain of the cuttle-fish, is neither enhrp. 
lobulated, nor contained in a cartilaginous recept* i: 
is a simple rounded chord or commissure placed r 
versely above the cesophagus, and connected at it* •■ 
mities to the great ganglions. These are six in mr 
are disposed symmetrically about tbe oesophagus, an«l. . 
ther with the central commissure, are loosely envelop, 
tough membrane, or dura mater.* The double <*> >; 
collar is not peculiar to Nautilus, but is also found i: 
Mollusks, Aplysia for example; though in these 
cases the subcesophageal ganglions being more rem •:• 
connecting filaments r mining to the common centre - 
are longer. The details of the nervous system ve - 
clearly explained in Mr. Owen's Memoir, and ben 
displayed in the 7th plate. In the museum of the l 
of Surgeons the preparation (No. 1306, a, Phy*i 
Series) exhibits the head and anterior or muscular - 
the body of this species laid open longitudinally a'.< 
dorsal aspect, and the sides divaricated to show this ; 
the system. The brain, or supracesophageal ma». - 
seen to consist of a transverse chord-like ganglion, t. 
ends of which three nervous trunks are continued . 
side. The anterior pair pass downwards and fonrur - 
the sides of the oesophagus to unite below it, fbrminz 
glion on either side ; these supply the digital proce > - 
tentacles, and give off nerves to the organ of smell - 
funnel. The middle and superior trunks dilate u: 
optic ganglions; the retina, which terminates th-*: . 
left side, is shown. The posterior chords surro. • 
cesophagus in a manner analogous to the anter. ; 
forming also two ganglionic swellings, from win . 
nerves of the great shell-muscles and those of the \ 
are given off; the latter nerves are of small six«\ ax- . 
continued down by the side of the great perforate- 
and are analogous in their distribution to the a> mpa' 
nerves and par vagum. {Cat., vol. iii., part 1.) 

Sight.— The eye of the Nautilus, as might be e\r- 
from the comparative inferiority of the brain, is ks»* - 

N A V 11 

membranaceous tube. Head above with an ambulatory 
disk. Arm* on each Bide, nineteen. Tentaculifermtt labial 
appendage! four, disposed around (he mouth. Tentacles 
(ninety-two !) of three kinds, viz.: OpA/Aa/nnc,laraellose,on 
each aide two; Brachial, annulose, on each ride twenty; 
Labial, annulose, on eacb side twenty-four. The whole 
body laid up in the last chamber of a large multilocular 
abefi, and affixed by two lateral muscles. [ 

Geographical Dittribution of the Genu*.— The seas of 
warm climates, especially those of Asia and Africa, and their 
island*, Aroboyna, Zanzibar, and New Guinea; and the 
Pacific and Australian Oceans. 

Fossil Nautili. 

The RhynckoUlet, formerly considered to be the beaks 
«f birds, are now, upon unquestionable evidence, proved to 
be the jaws of fossil Nautili and Ammonites. Blumenbach 
recognised these RhynchoUtei as being rather the mandibles 
of Cephalopoda, differing from all recent genera then dis- 
covered ; and M. d'Orbigny, who found some large ones in 
the same beds with the shell of a Nautilut Gigat, suspected 
that those Rhyncholites appertained to that species. 

We here give figures of the mandibles or beaks of the 
Nautilus Pompilius, the structure of which is above noticed, 
and some of these Rhyncholitet. 

'A, L'|>j>rrmudibl«. i1»*lu3 the form of the niilcaTeqDi tcmmUr, nad tfai 

troponins* of ib* catrrail ami kulrmul horuy lamiikR. 4, fJDe-hiilf of lha 
iwtr nuudible, tbowing the different proportion! of Ihp two homy limint. 

■MIR t> dtpmifni i •', Ih. liitmal bamy lulu j », Ihe nUIul hocnv 

Bhjnehglitti, appti 

1. Kit Tie* (muchtlkilk of Lua«iU*)- », Urptr viw (nm. lor.lilv). 
3. Umr tu-w iliu of Lym* Brill). *. Cilmn poul of no under 
urflli. Islinil vii-, from LnuTillc. (BuekUnd.) 

The oolite (StonesAeld), and the lias of Lyme Regis and 
Bath, will serve as examples of the British strata wherein 
these beak-stones occur. 

Fossil Nautili occur both in the tertiary and subjacent 
strata. M. Desbayes (Tables) records four fossil species 
(tertiary). Dr. Mantel] notices Nautilut imperialis, from 
the arenaceous limestone or sandstone of Bognor; N. ele- 
gant, from the chalk (Lewes) ; the last-named species and 
A', 'rpantut, from the chalk marl ; N. tnaqttalit, from the 
gault or Folkstone marl (Folkstone) ; and a nameless 
species, from the Bhenklin sand (lower green-sand). Pro- 
fessor Phillips ( Yorkshire) records the following: — N. ti- 
nratm {inferior oolite) ; A', attacaidet (lias); N.hexagonut 
(Kelloways rock); N. annularis (lias); and others in the 
Speoton clay and Brandsby slate. Mr. Lonsdale {Oolitic 
llitlrict qf Bath) enumerates N. lintatitt (lias) : and A'. 
.bout (inferior oolite). Dr. Fitton {Strata below the 

« N A V 

Chalk) records Nautili elegant, inaqualu.tlicabn.,.' 
tut, limplex, undulatut, and an uncertain specin. iht '_■ 
named species from the upper and (he rest From the i 
green-sand. Mr.Murchisun (Silurian Syffcm) deso.!,. 
flguresone species, N. undntui, from the Carsdoc mikV  

Dr. Auckland, who, in his ' Brfdgewater TreatiiC, . 
a note describing the Modut operandi of the .\'v 
Potnpiliut in swimming and sinking, thus tootlci? 
observations upon the affinities of the chambered sk . 

' It results from the view we have taken of ibe look 
affinities between living and extinct species of thin!' 
shells, that they are all connected by one plan ofw:i 
tion, each forming a link in the common i-hun -.' 
unites existing species with those that prevailed idiie; 
earliest conditions of life upon our globe; uidarlnt- 
ihe identity of the design that has effected so minj ■.: 
ends through such a variety of instruments, the on 
of whose construction is, in every species, funding 
the same. 

'Throughout the various living and extinct ntr. 
chambered shells, the use of the air-cbamberWdi|, 
10 adjust the specific gravity of the animals in ami - 
sinking, appears to have been identical. The add:: 
anew transverse plate within the conical shell :■:. . 
new air-chamber, larger than the preceding one toner 
balance the increase of weight (bat attended ibegio. 
the shell and body of these animals. 

"These beautiful arrangements are, and crcr hair- 
subservient to a common object, vis. the constntt-" 
hydraulic instruments of essential importance rath 
nomy of creatures destined to move sometimes at lliebl 
and at other times upon or near the siirftre of ih*. 
The delicate adjustments whereby the same pnnq 
extended through so many grades and modilcauon- 
single type, show (he uniform and constant igencjof- 
controlling intelligence i and in searching for the or t 
so much method and regularity amidst variety, the: 
can only rest, when it has passed back, through it.'  
dinate scries of second causes, to that great EK 
which is found in the will and power of a common f> 

%* At page 109 (right-hand column) of this Bt* 
20 from the (op, for ' band ' read ' hood.' 


NAVAN. [Mbath] 

Logrcno in Castile. He is commonly known l>) iw : 
olBlMudo, from having been rendered deaf on<K r 
an illness in the third year of his age. This "» ! 
probably led to the choice of a profession, in uhicliV r 
such rapid progress in the school of Fr. ViewUM 
drid, that he was soon able to visit Italy, and u : 
to study at Venice (he works of Titian. After hi*'' 
Madrid in 1568, he was appointed painter to the l^- 
whom be painted his finest works, which are ffy' 
the Escunal. Among them are a small picture oft 
tism of our Saviour, the celebrated ' Presepio," In* 1 ' 
principal light proceeds from the infant, the'S.)' 
lytus, in search by night of the bud) of St-Lawtcr. ■. 
Holy Family, generally considered as bis ntswr}^ 
which the singularity uf the accessories t attracted' - 
notice as the beauties of the composition. B>' ( 
Valencia, Salamanca, and Estrella are scarcely ic 
the preceding, and all are distinguished by a >""•'■ 
oolou ring which justly gained him the appelUtw 
Ticiano Espaiiol.' 

He died in 1 577, aired G fly- three years. 

Spanish Dominican of the seventeenth century. ■& ' 
1647 as missionary to the Philippine Islands, from* 
be afterwards proceeded to China, where he reman* 1 
yean, as head of the missions of his order, sludting- 
same time the language and the history of the wow 
was at last put in prison by the Chinese autnon i» 
succeeded in escaping to Macao, from whence he w- 
to Europe in 1673. He gave to the pope an accour.i 
missions in China, in which be exposed the li< 
rianism of the Jesuits in accommodating Uino*- 


tcra applied hj U 

N A v 


N A V 

Navarre yields more valuable timber than any other pro- 
vince of Spain. Heaths, ferns, and broom, with many 
aromatic plants, grow on the mountains. Of grain Na- 
varro yields annually 3,452,800 bushels, of which about 
2,053.500 are of wheat, 303,>>50 of maize, 673,200 of barley, 
30j>,000 of oats, 70\S 50 of rye, and the remainder of spelt- 
wheat. Of vegetables (including chesnuts) the annual 
quantity is about 197,600 bushels, of which the principal 

Eart arc broad and kidney beans. The annual produce of 
emp is 600,000 lbs., of flax 200,000 lbs„ of olive-oil about 
130,000 cral Ions, and of wines, which are excellent, and of 
various descriptions, about 10,500,000 gallons. After a rich 
vintage people are invited by the public crier to take the old 
wine away from particular vaults gratis, in order to make 
room for the new. The old wine is even wasted sometimes, 
and allowed to run down the streets. A small quantity of 
cyder is also produced in the Baztan and Cinco V illas. 

According to Minano, there are in Navarre about 38,000 
head of horned cattle, 630,000 sheep, 70,000 goats, 32,000 
pigs, and *26,U0O mules. The annual produce of wool 
amounts to 1,412,000 lbs. The mountains abound in game 
and the rivers in fisb. The average value of all the natural 
productions of Navarre, animal, vegetable, and mineral, 
Minano estimates at nearly 1,500,000/. The wild animals 
are wolves, foxes, and wild boars in the Larraun Mountain. 

The manufactures of Navarre are inconsiderable. There 
are 634 factories of coarse linen, 319 of woollen cloth, 67 of 
leather, 12 of soap, 30 of iron, and of brandy the quantity 
annually distilled averages 2,000,000 gallons. Besides these 
are some potteries, a royal shot and shell foundry, and some 
manufactories of Spanish liquorice. At the commencement 
of the present century the average value of manufactures 
was 142,600/. per annum. 

The greater part of the produce, natural and manufac- 
tured, is consumed in the province, but about 30,800 
English bushels of grain, a little oil, half the wine, the 
greater portion of the wool, and two-thirds of the iron an- 
nually remain unconsumed, and are exported, which how- 
ever fall very far short in amount of the cottons and silks, 
cutlery, tobacco, sugar, spices, and other luxuries imported, 
principally from France. 

Navarre is divided into five districts, or merindades, as 
they are called, viz. that of Pamplona in the north, of 
TudeU in the Bouth, Sangiicsa in the east, Estella in the 
w^t, and Olite in the centre. Each merindad has a capital 
l/»»fi of the same name. The kingdom contains 9 cities, 
I \'$ V>%u*. 675 villages, with a total of 38,289 houses. It 
h+< t»* b.tbofirw, those of Pamplona and Tudela ; 753 
;,«;.«;>-«, 7o invents and hermitages, 1 university, 4 col- 
Ur * *<*'i VI hospitals. 

'!;>- w«:tr',j#oli* is Pamplona, situated on an eminence on 
<:* .*.♦: \,*i\ of tlie river Arga, in the midst of a small, 
I- - '., «;/' uiar plain, called La Cuenca, enclosed by lofty 
r. .J* h*. It was antiuntly the court of the kings of Na- 
>%•■*, i* fti.ll the residence of the viceroy of the province, 
» - a* «i *A adujiuist ration, and see of a bishop, suffragan of 
j> . •/ * It it divided into twenty wards, and contains a cathe- 
4 . '* i*"%i (joihic edifice of great antiquity, disfigured by 
» m. ,*».tu f. ';3fJi;j, 4 parish churches, 7 convents of monks 
«,■**. l >A ii-»:»» (suppressed in 1835, because under the 
« v -M-r 'y <4 the queen), a royal and an episcopal palace, 
» m*u'« ii'suse, a town-hall, a mint, a public gra- 
j.. •», a uimersity, an hospice, a foundling hospital, a 
i-4>4*';e, 41 inns, 1632 private houses, and a population 
vf J >,000. The city, including the citadel, measures 960 
*«;<!» from north to south, and 1633 from east to west. It is 
jjj ouilt, but contain* a few handsome houses ; the streets are 
narrow, but well paved, and kept thoroughly clean by means 
of sewers. There are 3 large and 3 small squares, in the 
largest of which bull-fights are occasionally held, 6 public 
fountains, and an aqueduct, by which the city is supplied 
with water from the mountain of Subiza, twelve miles dis- 
tant Pamplona is well fortified; the citadel is a regular 
Pentagon, of 1000 feel each hide: it was built by Philip II. 
'here is a beautiful pruineuade, called Taconcra, within the 
walls, and three others without. The manufactures of Pam- 
plona are very trilling, namely, two tanneries, two factories 
of wax, one of woollen cloth, and one of guitar-strings, be- 
side* a paper-mill and six corn-mills on the Arga. Its 
roiiiim r«<« is cuiifiiied to the importation of woollen and 
silken tfirfidt, principally from England and France; but 
sonic cloth in imported from CaMile, M-rges and silk from 
Aiaguti, und a little Indian bilk Itoiu Catalufia. 

Pamplona is called Pompelon by Strabo (161. fn . 
who adds, 'as if it might be PompeiopoltV that .-, 
city of Pompey. The people are called Pom[o:. 
by Pliny (in. 3). The name of the city was c>\:, 
by the Arabs, who took it in the beginning of the e . 
century, into Bamblona. In 778 it was destroy , 
the French, but afterwards rebuilt In 907 it *a> 
sieged "by the Moors, and in 1138 by the IV.. 
but on both occasions it maintained a success, : 
sistance. In 1277 it was again taken by the FrcncL 
1512 it was blockaded and taken by the duke of AK. 
neral of Ferdinand the Catholic. In 1808 it was *izu 
the French, who had been allowed to eater as tnct .. 
1812 blockaded by Mina; and in 1813 it capitulate 1 
allies under the duke of Wellington, after tbe bun.. 

The city next in importance is Tudela, situated : 
right bank of the Ebro, which is here crossed h * 
fine bridge of seventeen arches and 1200 feet in ler,f . 
has a cathedral, 10 convents (lately suppressed), I :• 
tals, and a population of 8150. The streets are i» 
and crooked, but well cleansed; the houses aitUt.. 
all contain fountains. About two miles east ofTV 
the commencement of the canal of Aragon, which, .. 
finished, will connect -Navarre with the Mediterrane-. 

The other cities are — Estella, a town lately fbrt:lk J 
Carlists, with 4600 inhabitants, recently the stron; 1 
Don Carlos; Olite, with 5000 inhabitants, celebrate r 
salubrious climate, and at one time tbe residence of tl • . 
of Navarre ; Corolla, with 4000 ; Tafalla, with 2s 
Sangiiesa, with 2500 inhabitants. 

The political constitution and laws of Navarre :* 
the same which it enjoyed when an independent m -■■-" 
and differ altogether from those of the rest of Spam. 
governed by a viceroy, who presides at tbe rojal o. 
the supreme tribunal for civil and criminal cause* 
legislative body is composed of the three estates . 
kingdom : the clergy, who attend bv right of their »'. : 
the nobility, by right of birth; and the deputies ■' 
elected by the people. Navarre enjoys also pecuL: 

The inhabitants of Navarre are tall, well made,n^ 
very hardy and brave, independent in spirit, str - 
tacbed to their government and religion, and > 
their privileges. The guerrilla bands under Mi" ' 
most formidable opponents to the French in the 
Independence. The Navarrese are also grave and n> 
but witty and shrewd, obstinate and quarrelsome. ^ 
industrious and honest. 

Castilian is the general language of the province. 1 
Basque, or a mixture of these two languages vitfc ' 
is spoken in some districts. 

The earliest inhabitants of Navarre were called ] -• 
by the Romans. In a.d. 470 they were subdue 
Goths. Early in the eighth century Navarre was«-; 
by the Arabs; but the Christian inhabitants who - 
to the recesses of the Pyrenees, resolving to e\p 
vaders, chose a noble knight, Garci Xiroenei. 
chieftain or king; and thus was founded them 
Navarre. His family became extinct in the inn 
ninth century, and the Navarrese then elected I 
chez, count of Bigorre, in the hands of whom ta 
the sceptre of Navarre remained for five cenu 
1512 Ferdinand the Catholic obtained po^c»: 
part of the antieut kingdom of Navarre which : 
present province, and annexed it to the Spam>h a : 
leaving unconquered the portion on the nortbej 
the Pyrenees, which was afterwards united by 1' 
to the crown ot France, und is now known as t.i 
ment of the Lower Pyrenees. On the invasion oi 
Bonaparte, Navarre eminently distinguished -* 
its obstinate resistance: and it has recently ^ 
the eyes of all Europe as being, with Biscay* the • 
theatre of the civil contest between Don Carlos ji- • 
II. of Spain. 

(Minano, Die. Geog. ; Laborde, Itittcraire D- x "- 
VEspagne ; Antillon, Geografia de Espana y Por:>:^ 
Bowles, Introduction a VHistoria Natural & : 
Cook's Sketches in Spain ; Mariana, Historic (>. 
Espafia ; Conde's Arabrs, &c\) 

NAVARRE, BASSE. [Pyrb'nb'es, Basslk 

NAVE. [Church.] 

NAVICELLA. [Neiutida.] 

N A V 


N A V 

154 vessels, carrying 6930 guns, and 42,000 men, whereof 
nine vers first-rates. 

King William immediately on being placed on the throne 
went to war with France, whose navy was then very power- 
ful; in 1681 it consisted of 179 vessels of all sorts, carrying 
7080 guns, besides 30 galleys. An act was passed in his 
second year, for building 30 ships, to carry 60, 70, and 80 
guns respectively. The dockyard at Hamoaze, out of which 
has since grown the considerable town of Devonport, which 
now returns two members to parliament, was then esta- 
blished. Queen Anne found at her accession the navy to 
consist of 272 vessels, measuring 159,020 tons, but this esti- 
mate includes hulks, hoys, and other vessels not carrying 
guns. In 1704 one of the greatest and most destructive 
storms ever known took place. It began in the middle of 
November, and did not attain its greatest height till the 
27th. The Eddystone lighthouse was destroyed, no less 
than 10 men-of-war were totally lost, and many more were 
driven on shore and damaged. All measures adding to the 
strength and efficiency of the navy were exceedingly popular 
during this reign. We find at the death of Anne in 1714, 
that the number of ships was less, but the tonnage in- 
creased, being ships 198, guns 10,600, tons 156,640. The 
parliamentary vote of that year was 245,700/. and 1 0,000 sea- 
men and marines. During the first four years of George I., 
large sums were voted for the extraordinary repairs which 
were required after the long war. A new establishment of 
guns also was ordered in this reign. The navy remained 
stationary till 1739, when hostilities commenced against 
Spain, and the navy was augmented, particularly in the 
smaller classes, and the dimensions of several classes were 
enlarged. War broke out with France in 1 744, at which 
period there were 128 sail of the line. At this time all prizes 
taken by H.M.'s ships were declared to be the property of 
the captors. In 1747 a naval uniform was first established. 
The navy increased vastly during this war, in which 35 sail 
of the line were taken or destroyed by the English. George 
III. at bis accession found the navy to consist o( 

** ° f lo 6 S and unde'r 15} ™™* 321 ' 104 <«■ 

The vote for the year 1760 was 432,629/., and 70,000 sea- 
men and marines. In the short war of 1762, 20 sail of the 
line were added to the navy, and at the end of the American 
revolutionary war it was composed as follows:— 

SaiUf the line . . ,74} ^ ^ ^ 

The navy was kept in a high state of preparation, and when, 
on the 1st of February, 1793, the French republic declared 
war against England, this country was not unprepared. A 

Seriod now commences in which the gigantic efforts made 
y England, and the protection necessary for a mercantile 
marine, which almost monopolised the commerce of the 
world, raised the British navy to such a height as to enable 
it single handed to maintain the sovereignty of the seas 
against all other navies combined. Sir Charles Middle ton, 
afterwards Lord Barbara, had, when comptroller of the 
navy in 1783, established the regulation that a great pro- 
portion of stores, sails, &c. should be laid by for each ship 
in ordinary ; so that in a few weeks after the declaration of 
war there were 54 sail of the line and 146 smaller vessels 
at sea. The vote for the service of the navy was 5,525,331/., 
85,000 seamen and marines. The navy of France had never 
been so powerful: it amounted to above 200 vessels, of 
which 82 were of the line and 71 in addition were imme- 
diately ordered to be built. The English had about 115 
sail of the line fit for service, but the majority of the French 
ships were larger and finer, and carried heavier guns on 
their lower or principal battery. The following abstract will 
show the losses on both sides up to the peace of Amiens, 
exclusive of the casual losses. 

British ships of the line 
Smaller vessels 

Total . . 

French ships of the line 
Dutch do. 

Spanish do. 
Danish do. 

Captured. Destroyed* 
. D •  

. 37 9 











French smaller 
Dutch do. 

Spanish do. 



Total 443 76 

This estimate does not include 807 privateers, chiefly Frea. . 
taken and destroyed. Of the above, 50 sail of the lint; ^. 
94 under that size were added to the British navy. 

During the peace of Amiens preparations for war w 
actively continued on both sides, and the declaration ou 
part of England was made in the month of May, I*ma: . 
which time the navy was of the following force, as com: .*. 
with 1793:— 

Ships of Una. Under. Tc 

1793 . . 153 . . 411 . . 402,555 
1803 , . 189 • . 781 . . 650,976 
Notwithstanding the apparent increase, there were ik: * 

many line-of-battle ships fit for sea at the latter a» *: 

former period by about ten. The French force in sen.. 

able line-of-battle ships in March, 1803, was 66, the Bn . 

111. During this war there were employed from lot*. 

to 120,000 seamen and marines till 1810, when the nux - 

was increased to 145,000. There were about 100 sail of :: 

line, 150 frigates, and above 200 sloops, besides small art... 

vessels, amounting in the whole to about 500 sail uf j». 

danta constantly employed. The following abstract sL.t> 

the losses on each side during the war : — 


British— Ships of line ,0 o 

Under . . 83 7 

Enemies'— Ships of line 




134 37 

of which 33 saQ of the line and 68 under were added s 
the British navy. 

In George IH.'s reign the dockyard of Hembrokc v., 

The parliamentary vote lor the service of the asn. 
1839-40, was as follows: — 

Officers . 3,400 For the effective service £X&±\ • 
Petty do. 3,998 For the non-effective do. 1,48V... 
Seamen . 12,846 Other departments, viz., 

convicts and transport 

20,244 of troops . . . 2j:.i:i 

Marines 9,000 

29,244 Total charge . ,£5,1?:.. 

The following tables will show the force of the Bp •- 
navy at three distinct periods, viz. : the breaking out of - 
French revolutionary war; a few years subsequent to ".- 
peace; and the present time: also the disposition o/u 
British naval force at the present time, as well as the ci • 
force of other countries possessing a navy. 






Of the Line 


Sloops . • 
Gun-brigs, \ 
Schooners, > 
Cutters J 

• • • 

Grand Total 




























* • 























la \ 

















— — l 

22. 127 

7 21 
2ft 106 





. __  

14 & -• 
1" . ' 
34, - * 

4651 17*1 !«•«• -<- 

• In 1793 *hc fourth-rates on two decks formed part of the line of ban 
i O f these steam-vessels only sercn appear to be adapted for vi 
malnder are employed u carrying despatches, troops. Sec. Then ax* 

adapjed for war; t fc r- 

r»iA~ • 

steamers, not catered here* which are employed in the 
t There ate alio 23 sloops fitted for foreign packets, whose at 

I .1 I II . 


true fill fur 





Id 11 

•lilpi of the line. 
> Jilt heavy gun*. 






,.. u f ■]■.< Llur 





















■, -I.iu 8 . 














. . z 

rn-JTtal . 









■1" ' 

3 1 S 

ll»llud nai 10-1 guu-hiMUj Dennutk, 67; Swnka, 33J. 

Tutil llio Restoration there does not appear to have 
ii any precise division into classes; nor have we any 
i mi t of the armament of ships; at that time certain 
■s were ordered to be built to carry the following: — 

lit Ellis 2nd Hut.. Sri Tt.te. 

DeiciiptuB of fiiuu. ISO men. HO bob. 47« bub. 
C:ii-niun = 42 pounders 26 

] ii;inicannon = 32 pounders .. 26 26 

Culveriiuss 18 pounders 88 26 

1 ). mi do. —12 pounders .. .. 26 

bakers = 6 pounders 28 26 ,. 

Forecastle , . 4 . . 4 

Quarter-deck 12 10 10 

3 -pounder*  . 2 2 4 

i'uiiil number of guns 100 90 70 

li.-ro was however no uniformity preserved; and in 
j :i committee was appointed, which recommended cer- 

, I'hmvrei in the rating and arming, which however were 
..■li io red to any more than the former systems. At the 

,-v! tiio Board of Admiralty represented this to the 

Table showing the armament of a ship of each clas 
the weight of metal. 

w.«- un i 


18 tun*, '. 

Brixanlinci^UQ 1 

32 r l,r 

iE,3*i.leB. 66 

>G J* y,i- r - 0"| 

"■_■ %'iid'- I 
s; l >.',■:!  

-1 «ra r h 6 

is';t!-i»i.-M. 5 

i iLj, ;s 

18 38-pdi 

 :j'». i,i,-i>. 
HHi.cik. : , 

;| ja-prl.TJ. -ii 

■I 32-T"l"^ 

Great improvements have taken place in the size and 
form of the British ships, as well as in the arrangement 
of the materials composing tliem, especially during the 
present century. As France and Spain enlarged their ships, 
the English were obliged to do the same ; while from many 
of their ships added to the English navy ivo greatly im- 
proved our models. The following view of the increase of 
the size of first-rates will demonstrate this point : — 

N A V 


N A V 

Year Tonnage of Firtt-RatM. 

1677 . . 1500 to 1600 

1720 . 1800 

1745 . 2000 

1795 . 2350, the Ville de Paris. 

1808 . . 2616, Caledonia. 

1839 . 3100, Victoria, and 3 

others building. 

There is now a frigate of greater tonnage than the first- 
rate of 1745, viz. the Vernon, of 2080 tons, and 50 guns. 

We cannot do more than glance at the improvements in 
naval architecture. Sir Robert Seppings, late surveyor of 
the navy, introduced the circular bow and stern, the system 
of diagonal timbering or bracing, whereby the strength and 
durability of our ships are so immensely increased; the 
method of scarfing short pieces, by which the delay and 
difficulty often attendant on the procuring of crooked timber 
are avoided ; the making frigate-timber applicable to the 
building of line-of battle ships, by the use of a circular coak, 
or dowel, instead of chocks, thereby effecting a saving of 
about 1000/. in the building of a 74-gunship, and the use 
of iron knees, by which he effected an immense saving of 

timber and space. 

Sir William Symonds, now surveyor of the navy, has 
effected a still further economy of space by removing the 
chocks behind the iron knees, and using metal diagonal 
braces instead of wood. In latter years the various naval 
architects, Sir R. Seppings, Captains Hayes and Symonds, 
R.N., and Professor Inman, have been permitted to try 
their respective systems in various experimental squadrons, 
composed of vessels built under their directions ; and al- 
though many opinions are held as to the merits of each, 
there can be but one with regard to the general advantage 
arising to the science of naval architecture, so long ne- 
glected. A school for shipwright apprentices was esta- 
blished at Portsmouth, which, after producing more officers 
than could be provided for, was broken up. Our ships, 
those at least built of oak- for we have not yet worn out a 
ship built of teak— do not seem to be as durable as in 
former times. The Royal William, of 100 guns, which 
bore the flag of Sir Richard Bickerton at Spithead in 1813, 
and was shortly after broken up, was built in the year 1719. 
The Sovereign of the Seas, built in 1637, was repaired in 
1684, when all the ant lent timber was so hard that it was 
difficult to work it. It was the practice in the north of 
England, and in Staffordshire especially, to bark timber 
standing, and to let it remain in that state for a time to 
season. The Sovereign of the Seas was built of such timber. 
The Achilles, 60, was built by contract in 1757, of timber 
barked in the spring and felled in the next winter: she was 
docked in 1770, and found exceedingly sound, and was sold 
] 784, because she was too small for the line-of-battle. The 
Hawke sloop was built in 1793. Half of this vessel was 
built of timber barked in 1787, and felled in 1790; the 
other half of timber felled in the usual manner from the 
same soil and neighbourhood. In 1803 she was so decayed 
that she was taken to pieces ; both sides appear to have been 
equally decayed. 

The government of the navy is vested in the lord-high- 
admiral, which office has been in commission since the Re- 
volution, with the exception of two short periods, 1707-8 and 
1827-8, when it was held respectively by Prince George of 
Denmark and his late majesty when duke of Clarence. At 
present the Board consists of a First Lord, who is a member 
of the cabinet, and five junior lords. By their orders all 
ships are built, sold, or broken up; commissioned, em- 
ployed, and paid off. All appointments and promotions are 
made or approved by them ; all honours, pensions, and gra- 
tuities are granted on their recommendation. All orders 
for the payment of naval monies are made by them ; they 
prepare the navy estimates, and lay them before parliament. 
The civil departments of the admiralty are directed by the 
surveyor of the navy, accountant-general, storekeeper- 
general, comptroller of victualling, and physician-general. 
The navy is composed of two bodies of men — seamen and 


There are commissioned, warrant, and petty officers. 

The commissioned officers are flag-officers, captains, com- 
manders, and lieutenants. 

Flag-officers are divided into the following classes, and 
rank and command in the order here following : — 

Admirals of the fleet. 

Admirals of the red, white, blue squadrons. 

Vice admirals of the red, white, blue squadrons- 
Rear-admirals of the red, white, blue squadrons. 
There are superannuated and retired rear-admirals, •« 

enjoy the rank and pay, but do not rise. 
The admiral of the fleet, when in command, bears  

union flag at the main- top-gallant-mast The other i_ 

officers bear a square flag of the colour of their squ* . 

at the main, fore, or mizen top-gallant-mast, accord. re 

their rank. 

The flag-officer holding the chief command of a fittf 
squadron employed within certain geographical U 
termed a station, is called a commander-in-chict Hi 
responsible for the efficiency and conduct of the fleet u 
his orders ; he disposes of the vessels composing it m 
manner as will be most advantageous for the service 
without some especial necessity he is never to seni 
beyond the limits of his station. All vacancies in •. 
under his orders which are caused by death or ill-- 
from the service by the sentence of a court-martial, *.' 

his gift. 

A temporary rank is given to captains called comm&. 
they are of two classes; the first class having the pa. 
allowance of a rear-admiral, with a captain under him : 
bear a broad pendant, but must strike it in the present-.. 
senior captain. Captains and commanders are appo.;. 
command her majesty's ships, except when the la'/..- 
appointed to flag-ships and ships of the line, under a r . 
lation of his late majesty when lord-high-admiral ; in -. 
case they must have served three years in comroaiu 
sloop or as first-lieutenant of a rated ship. 

When a captain or commander is ordered to corur.1.- 
a ship, he does so by hoisting a long pendant, ham z - 
George's cross on a white field next the mast, and : 
the colour of the Admiral's flag under whose ordtr- 
placed. No vessels, except such as belong to her m: 
or are hired for her service, and commanded by a 
officer, are entitled to wear this pendant. The ship 
commissioned, a hulk, or receiving ship, is allotted f 
use of the crew while fitting for sea ; a party of ot 
commanded in rated ships by a commissioned officer. ~* 
on board ; seamen are entered as they volunteer, on U . 
ported fit for the service after examination by the s~ - 
stores are demanded as required, and the sea-store* • 
visions, and water stowed away. When ready fc>r *.- 
ordnance and powder are received on board ; the rt* 
paid two months' wages in advance, and the ship or.' ' 
the sailing orders from the admiralty to proceed to co- 
nation. The duty of the captain as regards the bo.v 
accounts is regulated by act of parliament ; but the - 
arrangements and discipline depend mainly on hur- 
which he has for his guidance the act 22 Geo. IL - 
the Articles of War, and the General Printed In*-.- 
issued by the Admiralty. All muster and pay bw*- • 
are signed by the captain, commander, or senior l.*c 
master, and purser, or other officer in whose char: 
stores in question may be placed. A commander ta= v 
been employed on actual service and full pay for ic* 
plete year to become eligible for promotion to the r : 

The senior lieutenant is nominated by the cap ta * 
has under his direction the whole management and *■■ 
tendence of the internal arrangements of the ship, 
on the qualifications of this officer must in a great r 
depend the state of discipline and efficiency. Tbeo't 
tenants take the watch by turns, during which tr_ 
have charge and command of the ship ; they or* ' 
quit the deck without being relieved. The va:«- 
periods of four hours, except that from four tori;. 
which is divided into two, called the dog^watcK- 
mate is eligible for the rank of lieutenant until he h i> 
six complete years in the navy, has completed r* r 
teenth year, and passed in seamanship and naviga 1 . 

A lieutenant must have served two complete yo - 
to qualify him for promotion to the rank of eommar.1- 
warrant and petty officers take rank and eotnmar ? 
order in which they stand in the table of pay, \ntb : 
ceptions here following: — 







Rank with, 
but subordi- 
nate to Lieu- 


Second Master 

Assistant Surv< 




jf whom, mas 
.wains, carpent 

The. master 
icrul charge i 

ii mis wain, and , . p 

lirecliona of the captain. Secretaries are appointed by the 
Li j; ofliirer whom they serve. 

(Jhuplaina must be in priest's orders of the Church of 

Thu purser has charge of the provisions, and the issuing 
if ilium, also of the slop clothing, soap, and tobacco; ha 
■ntcrs into a penal bond with sureties for the honest dis- 
iiargo of his duties. 

Mutes are midshipmen who, having passed the examina- 
ii.n qualifying them for the rank of lieutenant, receive a 
 arrant from the captain ; their rank and command cease 
ii their discharge or the ship being paid off. 

Gunners, boatswains, and carpenters must have served a 
■..mplete year as petty officers before they can be promoted, 
flic gunner has charge of all ordnance stores; the boat- 
.viiJn, of all the sails, rope, and rigging; the carpenter, of 
if nil stores in his department, and is also to see the ports 
.'.-lire and water-tight, and to sound the well daily, and 
iavo tlie pumps in order for service. 

In the event of the command of a ship devolving on petty 
Llir-em, they are to take rank and command as they stand 
11 the table of pay, except the following, who are not to 
,ikc command: — 

Schoolmasters, Masters-at-arms, 

Clerks, Ship's corporals. 

Midshipmen are rated by the captain, being fourteen 
. .in s of age, and having served two years as volunteer of the 
irsi-class, or three in any other capacity; they are appointed 
iv Ihe captain, subject to the approval of the Admiralty, 
ill j one fresh entry into llio service being allowed in each 
iu|i. They have no specific duties. 

School masters must pass an examination to qualify them 
.ir that situation. 

Cooks, Ropetnaker, 

Masters-at-arms, Caulkers, 

Sail makers. Coopers, 

ire appointed by warrant from the Admiralty or commander- 
n -chief: 
Tlie crew of a ship consists of potty officers, able seamen, 
nlinary seamen, landsmen, boys, and marines. In time of 
■i-ace the whole crew are entered voluntarily; during war, 
liu very superior rate of wages which the merchants are 
''impelled to give, renders the press inevitable. The follow- 
ng persona are exempt from it, and no seaman can be im- 
..] e-seJ except by an officer having a press-warrant : — 
Masters of merchant vessels ; 
Mates of those above 50 tons; 
lioaiswaini and carpenters of vessels of 100 tons and up- 

Mi; ii belonging to craft of all kinds employed in the navy, 
\k-i nailing, ordnance, excise, customs, and post-offir-  

WnUnnen belonging to the 
iinJ Westminster; 

All men above 55 or under IB years of age ; 

Apprentices not having used the sea before the dale of 
ilieir in dentures, and not more than three years from the 

-aid date} 

Landsmen not having served at sea full two years ; 

llar|iuoiicrs, line-managers, slcerers, and all seamen and 
mariners who have entered the Greenland and southern 

Tlie best seamen arc rated petty officers by the captain ; 
thi'V are of two classes, distinguished by a crown and anchor 
i r the lirst class, and an anchor for the second, worked in 
while cloth upon the left arm; they have an increase of pay, 
and are not amenable to corporal punishment while hold- 
There is a supply of boys to the navy from the asylum at 
Greenwich and from the Marine Society, but many more are 
Ill-ought into the navy by volunteering. Erery ship, accord- 
ing in her rate or class, bears a certain number of marines, 
j, ;ijit of her complement. [Marine.] 

For :h<: due maintenance of that discipline without which 
■he navy would be powerless, the caplain or commander 
if every ship or vessel is authorised to inllict corporal pi 
i-liiiieul on any seaman, marine, or boy, by warrant under 
t.i- linnil. Courts-martial are ordered by the Admiralty and 
c- in i nil nil crs- in-chief. 
P. C, No. 992. 

offices in London 

Salt beef, Jib.) [Salt pork. Jib. 

and Jalternatclyt and 

Flour, I lb.) iPease, J pint. 

Biscuit, I lb. 
Spirits, i pint, or wine, 1 pint; and, whether on fresh 

or salt provisions, 
Cocoa, I oi. Vinegar, J pinti k] 

Tea, I ox. Oatmeal, 4 pintf we " 1J - 

Sugar, ijoz, 
A portion of the flour may be exchanged for a proportion 
of suet and raisins; and after 14 days on salt provisions, 
lemon-juice is allowed in addition. 

The following tables will show the full-pay of every 
officer and seaman in each class of her Majesty's ships, and 
the half-pay of all officers entitled to the same : — 

Admiral of the fleet . .600 330 

Admiral . . . .500 220 

Vice-admiral . . .400 1 12 6 

Rear-admiral . . .300 1 5 9 

Commodore of first class and 

captain of the fleet . .300 of their rank.. 

Master of the fleet . . 10 11 

Physician of less than three 

year 110 10 & 

Physician of less than ten 

years . . . .1116 0150 

Physician of more than ten 

year 2 2 110 

Secretary to admiral of licet. 17 4 

Secretary to admiral com- 
mander-in-chief . . 1 1 11 
Secretary to vice or rear ad- 
miral commander-in-cbiaf. 16 5 
Secretary to a junior flag- 
officer or commodore .092 000 
*. d. 
Two clerks to secretaries of com- 
manders-in-chief, each. . . 3 4 per diem. 
One clerk lo junior flag-officers .29 „ 
Admiral's coxswain . . ,19,, 
Admiral's steward | 

Admiral's cook t , .12 „ 

Admiral's domestics*) 
•The number of those ratings are, for the 

Admiral of the fleet ... 12 

Admiral . . . . . 10 

Vice-admiral 7 

Rear-admiral or commodore of 1st class 5 

Captain of the fleet ... 3 

In flag-ships all the lieutenants (including one exlia as 

flag-lieutenant) are allowed Gd. per diem additional pay. 

Surgeons are paid according lo their length of service. 

Jfl Rum. 

£. t. </. 

Of less than six years' service . . Old tt 

Of more than six and less than leu . 1 1 

Of more than ten and less than twenty . 14 It 

Of more than twenty . . . . in 

Surgeons of hospital-ships . , . IH V 



IV, Uka 

To each of the lirst 100 on the list 

To the next 150 

To the remainder 

in so 


14 6 

is - 6 

10 6 

Totheflrst 150 
To the rest . 

To Ihe lirst 300 
To the next 700 
To tho remainder 




8 6 






Ro**l Mariiwn. 

To each of the first 100 
To the next 200 ... . 

To the remainder, having served 5 years in the 
navy • 

Of six years' service 
Under that time .... 

Three years' service 

Two years' ..... 
Dispensers .... 

After eight years at sea or ten in harbour 
For each year's subsequent service, 6d. per 
diem till it reach 

To Ihe first 100 ... 
To the next 200 .... 
To the remainder .... 

Naval Instructors and Schoolmasters. 
Two years' service .... 
Three years' do. • 

8. tL 






Admirals . • 



Captains . 



Masters • 


A ssistao t-Surgeons 

Pursers . , . 





















There are 19 naval instructors and school master* 
pointed under regulations issued May 1st, 1837, who r .• 
6/. 14#. per lunar month, and 30/. per annum boui.'\ 
j 6/. a-year from each young gentleman who 6hall rccviv 
struction from him. An additional rating of fir*: 
petty-office re is also allowed, called 'seamen's schools "~ 
There are at present 56 retired rear-admirals : 
, retired captains; 100 retired commanders under ur\ 
[council of 30th January, 1816, and 181 under ord-z 
council November 1st, 1830. There are 7 naval Kl._ 
of Windsor, 9 superannuated masters, 1 1 physic-iL\ 
retired surgeons, 40 retired chaplains, and, in the r 
; table, there are 138 surgeons and 27 masters unfit fx.. 
The following table shows the number of officers for ' service: of the lieutenants, probably not many mere in- 
active service at three periods since the peace : — \ 1 000 are fit for active service. 

Net Sea Pay of the Royal Navy. 


Ranks and Ratings. 

Captain . . 


First Lieutenant, of 7 years' 

All other Lieutenants 
Master . 
Purser . 
Naval Instructor 
Mates . . • 
Second Master 
Assist ant- Surgeon • 
Gunner . 

Master s Assistant 
Volunteer, 1st class 

Master-at-arms . 
Seamen's Schoolmaster 
Captain's Coxswain 
Gunner's Mate . 
Boatswain's Mate 
Quartermaster . 
Captain of Forecastle 
Ship's Corporal . 
Coxswain of Launch 
Captain of Hold . 
Carpenter's Mate 

Ship's Cook 
C f Captain of Main-top 
Captain of Fore- top 
Captain of Mail . 
Cuptaiu of Afterguard 
Yeoman of Kim ml* 
Coxswain of ■'•itniiu; 
Kail maker'* Mata 
Cooper . 
Armourer . . 








First Rate 

Pay per 




Pay per 


£ 8. d. £ s. d. 



Pay per 

Mensem - 



Pay per 


Pay per 



Pay per 



100 Men 

.Under 100 

5 G - 

1 Bem>V». «.- 

, I Men IP* *•» 

npirard*. £?' 

Pay P«r iP y P ^ 

l*_ _~~_ aft 

£ g. d£ s. d.£ 8. d£ 8. d.£ #. d. 

61 7 4 53 14 0<46 8 38 7 30 13 8!26 17 0! 
23 4 23 4 

11 10 11 10 
9 4 0, 9 4 

13 8.12 5 4 

12 5 4 12 5 4 
see ante > 

7 0* in all 
see ante I 
3 18 6 in all 
5 9 4 do. 
9 4 ! 


see note 

2 6 

3 11 

1 2 

4 14 

2 12 
2 12 

2 6 


in all 

4 6 4 
2 12 
2 10 

2 6 

23 6 4 

11 10 
9 4 Oj 9 4 

11 10 10 14 8 

12 5 4 12 5 4 


4 6 4 
2 12 
2 8 

2 6 


9 4 

2 6 2 6 2 6 



~ vCttulk«n> Ma'o 

2 12 

2 13 G 

2 1 o 

2 12 2 12 

2 13 <i 

2 1 

h 0" 2 

r, (i 

2 13 6 

2 1 


3 18 8 
2 9 
2 6 

2 4 

2 4 






5 4 

5 9 4 



23 4 

4 9 4 
8 *l 7 13 4 

< .• 

Mev ^ 

£ 8. cL£ 

£ 8. <L 

23 4,23 4, 

5 9 4 

4 14 

3 11 3 110 

2 9 2 9 2 
2 4 01 2 2 o! 2 

3 11 


9 4 

9 4 C 1! 

7 13 4' 7 13 4- 7 j. 

4 14 6 

3 110 


4 14 I' 

2 4 

2 4 

2 9 2 9 

2 13 6 2 13 6 




2 4 

2 4 

2 9 

2 12 6 


2 3 2 3 

2 3 

1 2 

2 o' 2 

7 0. 2 
1 0. 2 

3 11 (■ . 

7 V . 
1 V . 


2 2 

2 2 

2 '2 . 

2 7 

2 12 6 

1 18 


2 7 

2 12 6 

1 18 


2 2o. 

2 7 C i 

2 m - 


1 IS o" \ 

2 o ui : 

upe liter's Crew , . 

£ i. d. 

1 16 in 

Hour's Steward 

.It- Seaman 

'n- berth Attendant 

piuiii'a Steward . 

[■Mill's Cook 

1 14 Odo 

nil-room or Gun-room 

Steward and Cook 

1-lnpmen's Steward and 

Ordinary Seaman 

Purser's Steward's Hato 

Cook's Mate 



Seamen Gunnel's 

Boys.— 1st class 

2nd rlnss 

Engineer boys . 

. Jo 4 Odo. after S years' 
to 5 Odo. after 10 years' 
service, in addition to the pay of any 
other rating they may hold. 

£. *. 

s of the 1st class ..120 per lunar month, and Gd. 
a-day for each boy they 
2nd class., 8 per lunar month. 

., 3rd class.. 5 G per lunar month; ar 

within the tropic 
while the steam is up, 
one-half in additio 
the above. 

3rd class ..130 „ 

„ 4lh class ,.0146 „ 

io rnrpenter and each of his crew are ollowc 

m«* per month additional for tools. 

'here no surgeon is borne, the assistant-surgeon 

irrr>ase of pay of 1*. 6d. per diem. 

living shown the emoluments of those who are fit for 

:c employment in her Majesty's naval service, we will 

turn to the rewards and pensions for services rendered 

Hounds or other injuries received; and in the first 
;■ we must name that noble establishment and asylum 
unrn-out seamen, Greenwich Hospital. The idea of 
ili-hing an hospital for infirm and disabled seamen ori- 
tcil with Mary, consort of William III., and Sir Chris- 
it Wren was employed to build an additional wing to 

ruvich Palace. The king granted 2000/. a-year towards 
i i"lt»- subscriptions were added by noble and wealthy 
ill*, estates were willed to it by individuals, all mariners 

made to subscribe 6ot. per month, forfeited and un- 
neil prize-money and various grants were given. The 
:i.-d estates of the earl of Derwentwater, the net rental 
uicli is now between 30,000/. and 40,000/. a-year, were 
i. The revenue of the hospital is about 1 SO.O00/. a-year. 

establishment consists of a governor, lieutenant-go- 
ir (both flag-officers), four captains, and eight litu- 
nts, residing in the hospital. There are about 2?10 
rn-i oners, and 120 matrons and nurses, all of whom 
t lie seamen's widows. 

□ undedand worn-o 

s for officers and 

n admiral, from 300 to 700 

captain (wounds), 250 Loss of limb300 

91 5 

91 5 

Marine officers, as iu tins army. 

mate, second master, assistant-surgeon, midship- 
iter's assistant, naval instructor, clerk, and volun- 
Llie first and second class, from If. to 2*. (id. a day, 
I.' to the nature and degree of the injury. 
wains, giinnars, carpenters, and engineers, when 
>r further service, shall receive a superannuation 
re of 3/. a year for each year they served in a ship 
ni-sion, and 1/. a year each year in ordinary, and a 
sum of from If. to IS/, a-year may be added by the 
Ity. They retain besides any pension for servitude 
ny-officer to which they may be entitled, and for 

from 15/. to SO/, a year in addition to all other 

Every other petty officer, seaman, murine, and boy. shall 
receive for wounds from Grf. Io 2*. a day ; and every able 
seaman for twenty-one years' servitude, reckoning from 
the age of twenty, from ttid. to I*. Id. a day ; if discharged 
from infirmity after fourteen years' service, from 6<f. to 'id, 
a day; and under fourteen years' service, if discharged fium 
disability contracted in the service, from 3d. to Gd.'a day, or 
a gratuity in lieu, of 1/. to IHl. If a man become totally 
blind, he shall have 3rf, a day added to any of the above. 
Ordinary seamen receive three-fourths, landsmen two- 
thirds, bins half Ihc able seaman's pension. Marines, as 
able soam'on. 

Ship's corporal 
Captain's cox- 
Gunner's mate 
Boatswain's mate 
Captain of fore- 
Captain of bold ( 
Coxswain of 

Ship's cook 
Sail maker 
Carp ' 

2 J ib 
5 2G 


Captain of raain- 
Captntn of fore- 
Captain of mast 
Captain of aftcr- 

.Yeoraan of sig- 
I nals 

wain of pin- 

7 3j Corporal of i 

9 17 8{ 

S 3', 

12 II 

1 6j 

1 8 U 

Persona discharged with disgrace, or by sentence of a 
urt-martial, are not entitled to a pension. On a ship 
being paid-off, the captain may recommend any petty-officer " 
or seaman, non-commissioned officer or marine, for the 
medal and gratuity for invariable good conduct; IS/, for 
first-class petty-officers and Serjeants, if they have served as 
such ten years, 7/. to second-class petty-officers and Serjeants 
who have served as such seven years, and Si. to ablo 
seamen and marines. 

The widows of officers who are left in distressed circum- 
ou instances receive pensions on the following scale, under the 
regulations and at the discretion of the Board of Admiralty, 


N A V 



P«r Annum. 
. 120/. 
. 100 












Retired rear-admiral . 
Captain, three years' standing, 
„ under three years, . 

Superannuated commander • 
The widow of a / Physician 

Lieutenant • 

Master .... 
Chaplain .... 
Surgeon • • • 

Purser . . . . 

The amount paid in pensions to officers for wounds and 
good service, to widows of officers, widows and relatives of 
officers slain, and the out-pensioners of Greenwich Hospital, 
is 521,572/. 

Abstract of Pensions paid to the Navy. 

Good service pensions .... 4,350 

Commissioned and warrant officers . . 81,619 

Widows and relatives of officers slain . . 11,786 

Widows of naval officers . • . 172,381 

Widows of marine do. .... 10,356 

Compassionate fund .... 14,000 

Out-pensions of Greenwich Hospital . . 227,000 


There are two schools at Greenwich, called the Upper 
and Lower Schools. 

The Upper School comprises two classes : 

1st. One hundred sons of commissioned and ward-room 
warrant-officers of the Royal Navy and marines. 

2nd. Three hundred sons of officers of the above or 
inferior rank, of private seamen and marines who have 
served or are serving her Majesty, and of officers and 
seamen of the merchant service. 

They are admitted from eleven to twelve years of age, 
under certain regulations, and are subject to the same dis- 
cipline, diet, education, clothing, and destination. The 
term of education is three years, at the expiration of which, 
or sooner if the course of education be completed, they are 
sent to sea in the queen's or merchant service, or otherwise 
disposed of, as may be determined on. 

The Lower School consists of 400 boys and 200 girls, the 
children of warrant and petty officers, seamen and non- 
commissioned officers and privates of marines, who have 
served or are serving, or have lost their lives in the service 
of her Majesty. They are admitted from nine to twelve 
years of age, and quit at fourteen, the boys being sent to 
sea, and the girls put to trades and household service ; any 
unprovided for at fourteen are sent to their parents. Any 
boy may be removed from this to the Upper School on 
obtaining a presentation, if not more than twelve years old, 
and possessing character and abilities. 

We have seen that in 1744 all prizes were declared to be 
the property of the captors ; the following is the scale of the 
distribution of prize-money by order in council, February 3, 
1836:— the flag-officer or officers have one-sixteenth part 
of the proceeds ; the captain or captains one-eighth part of 
the remainder, or, where there is no flag-officer, one-eighth 
part of the whole ; the remainder shall be distributed in 
shares, according to the following scale : — 

First class. The sea-lieutenants, captains of marines, mas- 
ter and physician of the fleet, and masters, ten shares each. 

Second class. Lieutenants of marines, secretaries, chap- 
lains, surgeons, pursers, mates, second-masters, gunners, 
boatswains, carpenters, and first engineers, six shares each. 

Third class. Assistant-surgeons, midshipmen, masters'- 
assistauts, schoolmasters, junior engineers, clerks, masters- 
at-arms, admirals* and captains' coxswains, quartermasters, 
* gunners* and boatswains* mates, captains of the forecastle 
and hold, coxswain of the launch, sailmakers, ropemaker*, 
carpenters* mates, caulkers, armourers, captains of the fore 
and main top, pilots and Serjeants of marines, three shares 

Fourth class. Volunteers of first class, ships cooks and 
corporals, captains of the mast and afterguard, yeomen of 
signals and coxswain of the pinnace, sailmakers' mates, 
coopers', caulkers', and armourers' mates, and corporal of ' 

arines, two shares each. 



Fifth class. Gunner's crew, seamen -gunners, earpe^r. 
sailmakers*, and coopers' crews, able and ordinary *eu:i 
yeomen of store-room, stokers, privates and fifcrs of tea:.:- 
of seven years' service, one share each. 

Sixth class. All other ratings, boys of the first chu« . 
marines under seven years' service, two-thirds of a > 

Seventh class. Volunteers of 2nd class and boys of 
class, one-third of a share each. 

When captains and commanders share together. * 
captain to have double the commander. Lieutenant 
command share as captains when not in company v.- 
captain or commander. Clerks in charge, as pur*er> -' - 
purser be present 

When any of her Majesty's ships carries bullion oris- 
on freight, the caplain or commander is allowed a per 
age, regulated by the queen in council, as compensate 
the risk and charge, one-fourth part of which is t' 
Greenwich Hospital, one-fourth part to the coram - 
in chief if he shares the responsibility, and the other 
to the captain. 

Officers settling in the Australian colonies are «lk«< 
remission of the purchase-money, in amount from u 
300/., according to their rank and length of service. 

(Reference has been made to Derrick's hfenwirt ~ 
Rise and Progress of the Royal Navy; James'O 
History ; Sir W. Raleigh's Kssay on the Invention <J > 
ping ; Sharon Turner'* Hist. Anglo-Saxons ; Barrow » I 
of Lord Anson; and various official papers.) 

NA'XIA. [Maiadje, vol. xiv., p. 298.] Dr. Lea- 
pears to have been the first who established tbe genu 

NAXOS, NAXIA, one of the larger Cycladcs. btii 
3G° 43' and 37° 15' N. lat. and 25° 20' and 25* 35' E 
lies east of Paros, from which it is separated by a chan: 
miles wide. It is situated in the middle of the Arch:;* . 
about half way between the coast of Greece and ::. 
Asia Minor. It was antiently called Strongyle (rou::< 
account of its shape, and also Dia, in honour of Jupitt: 
Dion) sias, from the worship of Dionysus, who, accoi 1 . 
the mythi, was brought up on this island. Its first ink.l> 
were said to have been Thracians. The name of Nu • 
been stated by some to have been derived (Stephana 
Byzantium: N<i(oc) from that of the leader of s tr- 
colony which settled on the island. According to He;*' '-' 
the Greek inhabitants of Naxos were Ionians from A- 
(viii. 46). The island was taken by the Athenians . 
time of Pisistratus. The Persians made a fruitless a ikr 
take the island, under the conduct of Aristagoras, 
afterwards was captured and ravaged by them uiuKt '»• 
and Artaphernes (b.c. 490). After the defeat of X*i - 
Salarais (b.c 480), the Naxians threw off the Pervt u 
and recovered their independence. After the fc ' 
Mycale, Naxos became one of the confederate su:<\ 
the head of which was Athens ; and it was the first ; 
states that fell under political subjection to Athene. 

In modem times, Naxos, after the conquest of O - 
tinople by the Latins, became the seat of a <2li. 
founded by the Venetians, which embraced nx*( 
other Cy eludes. [Archipelago, Grecian] It «v* 
possession of by the Turks in the sixteenth century, - 
now forms part of the new kingdom of Greece. 

Naxos is the most fertile of the Cyclades, and us 
much esteemed; it produces corn, oil, cotton, bilk- 
kinds of fruit, and abounds with game. The pb i • 
valleys are well supplied with springs, and all in 
describe Naxos as a very pleasant country. The 
town, called Naxia, is on the western coast of the in'.s 
near it is the harbour, called Porto Saline, on ac 
the sea-salt which is collected there. The castle of N 
on the hill above the town, was built by the Veiietur- 
was the residence of the dukes. According to Th.- 
the plant which produces the ladanum grows herv. . 
his time the substance was collected from tbe beard* • 
goats which fed on the plant, in the manner xn<: * 
by Herodotus (iii. 112). There are about forty \ 
and many country-houses scattered about the i«Ia: 
population of which is reckoned at 10,000. Ttu * 
Greek and a Latin bishop, with convents of both « h« - 
The northern part of the island contains some -* 
tains, from which came a kind of marble callel 
Greeks ophites on account of its being spotlel . 
serpent's skin, and which was much valued. Eo'* 
also found there, which is considered of the best i^-> 

N E a i: 

ties nil article of export. According to the descrip- 

TUcvenot, what ho calla tho palace of Bacchus, that 
emplo of Bacchus, must have been in tolerably good 

alion in his time : hut the Turks and other* were 
instantly employing the materials for various pur- 

Tu ui- no fort, who travelled forty years later, describes 
c of the temple as the only part left standing, and 
i sketch or it ; it was of white marble, of elegant 
. simple workmanship, 18 feet high and 11 wide; it 
m a detached rock near the coast of the harbour, 
was an antient city of Sicily called Naxos, north 
.no and near the site of Taorniina, which was founded 
e Chalcidians from Eubcea. (Slrabo, p. 967.) 


Urili.h Miui'iira. Aetna] Siin. Silver. 

NAZARENES. It appears from many parts of the 
\i v. Testament, that tbe majority of the Jewish converts to 

In inanity continued to observe the precepts and ceremo- 
.■'■■* of the Mosaic law. The destruction of Jerusalem by 
i ii-, was the cause of many of the Jewish Christians laying 
■iilo their peculiar customs; and from this time those 
'it isi mils who continued to preserve the Mosaic law appear 
i have received the name of Nazjrenes and Ebioniles. 
'!..■ o two seels, though frequently confounded, differed in 
i my essential particular!, the latter held many erroneous 
.ui ii. us rm some of the leading doctrines of the Christian 
ii- li. while ihe former only differed from the orthodox in 
luinlainine that Jewish Christiana were hound to observe 
).■ Mosaic law as well as the precepts and commandments 
f i lie Christian religion. Tho early fathers do not appear 
u have regarded the Naiarenes as heretics. This may be 
he reason why we find no mention of them till the fourth 
etitury, when they are named, for the first time, by Epi- 
ihanius. On tho gospel of the Nazarenes, see Gospel. 
I Burton's Lectures on the Ecclesiastical History of the 

 ,■■>,„! nnd Third Centuries, p. 89, BO; Mosheim's Kccle- 
:.i\tical History, vol. i., p. 191, 192, od. of 1826; Lardner's 
I'nrlto, vol. vi..p. 383-387 ; vol. x, p. 104, ed. of 1831 ; and 
l.e nriiclo Ebionites in this work.) 

NAZARETH. [Syria.] 

N KAGH, LOUGH, a lake in the province of Ulster, in 
 ■Innd. Its form approaches to that of a puinlinlii^rjiii, 
•vnig its length from north to south, from the village of 
..iiiiu tu the place where the Blackwater river enters tho 
ski.', about 13 miles; and its breadth from east to west, 
:>.iut 1 1 or 12 miles. It is bounded on the north and east 
I.-* by the county of Antrim ; on the south-east, for a very 

r distance, by that of Down; on the south side by that 

I" A rinagh ; and on the west side by that of Tyrone. The 
i , .;i occupied by Lough Neagh is estimated at more than 
-,uiki English acres, or 154 square miles; and its circum- 
ciice, following the windings of the shore, at about 80 
nli*. The surface of the lake is 48 feet above the level of 
n> sen at low-water, and its greatestdepth is about 102 feet, 
i i- the largest lake in the British Islands. 
'I'lu' border of Lough Neagh forms by its windings several 

 lull bays; such as Antrim bay, which forms tho norlh- 

i .111 iiiijile, Sandy bay and Bartin's bay, on Ihe east side, 
id Washing hay, in the south-western angle. The points 

i land projecting into it are Ardmore and Ligimbey points 
; -!.■ i ■:!;;■. Bide, M.iUoili point on the west side, and Hau- 

l.pii point in Washing hay. There are several islands, but 
, i are very small ; on Ram Island, one of them, there is an 
itit-nt round lower. Lough Neagh receives a number of 

: twin*! Ihe Blue It water enters it at the south- western angle, 

. \\'a-.hint,'bay ; the Upper Bann, which is incorporated with 
.. hue of the Nowry canal, on the south side; Ihe Six- 

 -If-uatrr at the north-eastern angle, near Antrim; Ihe 
nT Main on the north side; and ihe river Moyowla or 
, ^ uln in the north-western angle. The only outlet is the 
...iisr Bann, which quits the lake at the north-western an- 

.-. n.'iir where the Moyowla enters it, and, passing through 
-•■-^li Beg, enters the ocean below Colerainc. 

3 NBA 

The shores of Lough Neagh are low and flat, and in 

some parts marshy and liable to be frequently Hooded ; 
they are altogether deficient in picturesque beauty. The 
water of the lake possesses in several parts a petrifying qua- 
lity, which it is supposed to derive from Ihe adjacent shore. 
The petrified wood is manufactured into approved hones, 
and the pebbles found in the white sand of the shores, 
chiefly chalcedony, are polished and employed for seals and 
necklaces. The char, Ihe pullan, or fresh-water herring, 
the dollaghcrn (a species of trout), and other fish, are taken 
in its waters ; and the swan, the heron, the bittern, the teal, 
and the widgeon frequent the shores. 

Lough Neagh is navigated by small vessels, and commu- 
nicates by one canal wilh Lisburn, Belfast, and by another 
with Nowry. A steam-boat is employed on it in towing 
vessels across. 

NEAL. DANIEL, an English dissenting divine and 
writer of considerable eminence, was born in London on the 
14 th of December, 1078. His early education was received at 
Merchant Taylors' schuol. In 1697 he entered tho academy 
of the Rev. Thomas Roue ; and after having continued 
there about three years, went to prosecute his studies at 
Utrecht and Leyden. On returning to England he became 
assistant to Dr. Singleton, the pastor of an independent 
congregation in Aldcrsgate Street ; and at the death of the 
latter in 1706, was chosen his successor. Notwithstanding 
his official duties, in discharging which lie was eminently 
faithful, he found leisure for literary labours. In 1720 he 

pox,' practised in the same slate. His printed discourses 
also are numerous. But his chief work is the ' History of 
the Puritans,' which is written wilh great minuteness and 
accuracy. It was originally published in 4 vols. Hvo., the 
first of which appeared in 1732, and the second, third, and 
fourth in 1733, 173C, and 1738 respectively. It has sinco 
passed through many ediiions. The first volume was re- 
viewed by Dr. Mwldox, bishop of St. Asaph, and tho remain- 
ing volumes by Dr. Zachary Grey. To the former Neal 
himself replied ; and an answer was given to the latter by 
Dr. Toulmin, in au edition of Neat's History, published in 
1797. Neat died in Bath, in April, 17-13, highly esteemed 
as an author and o divine. {Ntul's Life, by Toulmin.) 

iilly esteemed as the author of some of the best specimens 

December 26, 1724, and lost his father when about eight 
years old, but was so fortunate as to possess in his surviving 
parent not only a tender guardian, but a model for those 
virtues by which ho afterwards distinguished himself. 
Having completed bis studies at the university of Halle, 
ho first became tularin a private family, and in 1750 was 
appointed pastor of a small congregation in a retired part 
of the country, to whom and to the duties of his office he 
became so attached, that when a professorship at Halle was 
prcssingly offered him, he refused to accept it, preferring 
to remain in obscurity, where he felt that he could be emi- 
nently useful. If be afterwards consented to quit his 
former living for the more lucrative one of Gtiinihof, it 
was wilh no other interested motive than that of being 
thereby enabled lo support a widowed sister and her live 
children. By this change too the sphere of his usefulness 
was greallv enlarged, fur he became greally followed as a 
preacher, 'in 177o he was made dean of the diocese of 
Doblen; and in 1784 superinlendent of church matters in 
the duchies of Courlaud and Semgtdlea; but he si ill con- 
tinued to reside among his congregation at Griinzhof. He 
died July 21, 1802, regretted by all who knew him either as a 
man or as a writer. In the latter character bis fame rests 
chiefly upon his ' Gcistliche Lieder,' a collection of devo- 
tional songs, which may justly bo regarded as models of 
that apparently easy.yet in reality exceedingly difficult species 
of composition. At once animated, simple, dignified, and 
breathing heartfelt piety, they are equally free from affected 
sublimity and bombast on the one hand, and from puer- 
ility or unbecoming familiarity on the other. They are 
the genuine effusions of devotional feeling regulated by 
cultivated taste. 

NEAP or NEEP TIDES. [Tides] 

NEA'POLIS. [Naples.] 

NEARCHUS,thesonof A nd rati m us, was aCretan by 
birth, but an inhabitant of Atnphipolis on the Strymon. 




He accompanied Alexander in bis invasion of Asia, and 
was appointed by bim to conduct to the Persian Gulf the 
fleet which had been built on the Hydaspes. The narrative 
of this voyage, the earliest of which any account is given, 
was written by Nearchus himself; and though the original 
journal has been lost, Arrian appears to have given us, in 
his * Indtca,' everything of importance which it contained. 
Strabo and Pliny have also preserved some account of this 
voyage, but their narratives are full of mistakes and in- 
consistencies, and cannot be compared with the full and 
accurate account of Arrian. 

Dodwell and some other modern critics have considered 
the journal of Nearchus, as preserved by Arrian, to be 
spurious ; but its authenticity has been fully established by 
Gosselin (Gcographie dea Greet, p. 25), Sainte Croix (Esy 
amen Critique, p. 250), and especially by Vincent (Com* 
tnerce and Navigation of the Antiente in the Indian Ocean, 
vol. i., p. 68-77). 

The course of the fleet from the H yd as pes to the mouth 
of the Indus is described under Alexander (p. 300, 301), 
who explored in person the mouths of the Indus, and sailed 
into the great Indian Ocean. 

The fleet under Nearchus took its departure from a 
station south of Pattala, about nine miles from the mouth 
of the Indus, in the beginning of October, B.C. 326. After 
getting clear of the mouths of the Indus, the first place 
which they reached in the Indian Ocean was Krokela, which 
Arrian describes as a sandy island. This place appears to 
correspond to the modern Curacbee, or Crotchey Bay, in 
which there is a sandy island, dry at low-water. At Kro- 
kela, Arrian places the commencement of the territory of 
the Arabii, an Indian nation, and its termination at the 
river Arabia. 

After remaining one day at Krokela, the fleet proceeded to 
the west, keeping a promontory (3poc) named Eirus ( C. Monze) 
on the right, and a low island, almost level with the sea, on 
their left, which ran so near the coast as to leave only a 
narrow channel between both. Having cleared this passage 
and doubled the cape, they came to a bay, or harbour, 
protected from the ocean by an island called Bibacta 
( Churna, or Chilney). This harbour Nearchus called by 
the name of Alexander, and here he determined to remain 
till the season should be more favourable for his progress. 
It has been already remarked that he left the mouths of the 
Indus at the beginning of October ; and as the north-east 
monsoon does not commence till November, and only 
becomes settled in December, a delay of some time was 
almost unavoidable. Having remained at this place for 
twenty-four days, he continued his voyage, though the 
monsoon had not yet completely changed ; but he proceeded 
very slowly for some days. The fleet anchored successively 
at Domsp, Sara nop, Sakala, and Morontobara, or Moron to- 
barbara, the position of which places cannot be determined, 
and afterwaras arrived at the mouth of the river Arabis {Son- 
meanny), which separates the country of the Arabii from 
that ot the Orita?. From the Arabis they proceeded twelve 
miles and a half to Pagala, and from Pagala nineteen miles 
to Kabana, an open and desert shore : between Pagala and 
Kabana they lost two galleys and a transport. From Ka- 
bana they proceeded twelve miles to Kokala, where Nearchus 
disembarked his men and formed a camp on the shore. Here 
Leonnatus, who had been left in the country of the Oritas 
by Alexander with a particular charge to attend to the pre- 
servation of the fleet, joined them, and supplied them with 

After remaining some days at Kokala, they proceeded 
thirty-one miles to the river Tomerus. This was the longest 
distance they had sailed yet in a day ; and their progress 
corresponds to the change of the monsoon, which would 
become more fixed about this time. They remained six 
days at the Tomerus, where they found barbarians, shaggy 
on the body as well as on the head, and with nails sharp and 
long like the paws of wild beasts. Thence thev proceeded 
nearly nineteen miles to Malana (Fas Matin), where Arrian 
fixes the boundary of the Oritro and the commencement of 
Gaflroaia. The whole of the coast from Malana to Cape 
.Ia«k, a distance of 450 miles in a right line, was inhabited 
by the lchthyophagi (fish-caters), who lived almost entirely 
on fieh. Their bread was dried fish, pounded and made 
into loaves or rakes; and even the few cattle which they 
had fed upon dried fish. Arrian's description of the coast 
and the people is confirmed bv modern travellers, one of 
whom, quoted by Vincent, informs us that • they have few 

ports, little corn or cattle; their country is a low plaiu - 
desert; their chief support is fish, of which they take * - 
of a prodigious size: these they salt, partly for their 
and partly for exportation ; they eat their fish dry, and » * 
dried fish likewise to their horses and cattle.* 

From Malana the fleet proceeded thirty -seven m '»» 
Bagisara ; and on the following day they sailed round ar/-. 
promontory, which extended a considerable way into ih» 
(probably Cape JrwAaA), and proceeded successively tok. 
and Kalama (Kafyba), where they found the dates --• 
Opposite to Kalama was an island called Kamine, ¥ 
appears to be the same as the modern Ash tola, or Sla. 
deep Island. From Kalama they proceeded twelve mu 
Karbis ; and thence, after doubling a high rocky pr*T 
tory, which projected nine miles into the sea, and .* 
is probably dthe modern Cape Passeenoe, they re&ci< 
safe harbour, called Mosarna, which must be lookd 
a little to the vest of this cape. 

At Mosarna Nearchus found a pilot, who uudrrt 
conduct the fleet to the Persian Gulf, and from tin* 
they sailed on each day a much greater distance. 1 
Mosarna they proceeded in succession to Balomu*. B. 
Dendrobosa (perhaps the Dendrobilla of Ptolensw. 
Kophas, the position of which places is uncertain, scl. 
exception of Kophas, which is perhaps the same i- . 
modern Koppah. From Kophas the fleet sailed r 
Gape Gwadel, and proceeded fifty miles to Kyiza, v . 
they did not land, as the coast was rocky and barren, 
the following day they surprised a small town, pn.. 
situated on Gutter Bay, and obtained some corn, ?l 
they were greatly in want of. They afterwards an I 
at a cape in the neighbourhood called Bageia ; and t! 
proceeded about eighty-seven miles in two days to K 
sis, a town in ruins, probably situated on Chouba: 
From Kanasis Nearchus sailed twenty-four hours w. 
intermission to a desert coast, where he was oV.:^ 
anchor at some distance from the shore, as the di-i.v 
the people was now risen to such a height, that if u 
suffered them to land, he had reason to suspect th . 
would not have returned on board. From this pla<v 
proceeded, in great want of provisions, to Kanate ( T 
Troi, and Dagasira, and at length reached Ba<h\ i ; 
on the western side of Cape Jask, which sepan'~>* 
country of the lchthyophagi and Karmania. At B*l . '. 
found corn, vines, and fruit-trees of every kind eir» ;' 
olive, a town inhabited, and the inhabitants ready to k. 
their wants. 

From Badis they proceeded fifty miles, and cam* * 
anchor on an open coast, opposite Cape Maketa (£k ' 
sendori), from which point Nearchus considered tt*. 
Persian gulf commenced. From Badis they pn 
forty-four miles, to Neoptana (near Karroon). in tl» .' 
sian gulf. From Neoptana they sailed on the follow.:;  
six miles to the river Anamis (Ibrahim), at the m*.  
which was a town called Harmozeia, the name off - 
still preserved in the celebrated island of Ormiu. 
neighbourhood. Near this place Nearchus landed L»* - 
and ordered the ships to be drawn on shore; and - * 
that Alexander was only distant a journey of fire d.j- 
went with a few attendants to his camp, and was n 
by the king with marks of the greatest honour and r - 
At first Alexander would hardly believe that the fl« , 
arrived in the Persian gulf in safety; and wh*r» : 
assured by Nearchus of the fact, he is reported to h*u «  
• By the Grecian Zeus and the Libyan Amnion, I ^* 
you that I am more happy in receiving this inn'.. ! 
than at being the conqueror of all Asia; for I shot:!-: 
considered the loss of my fleet, and the failure of this » 
dition, as a counterbalance to all the glory I have ace- 
So anxious was Alexander to establish a corn mere: x! 
course between India and the western provinces of L:- 

After remaining a few days with Alexander, Nc- 
returned to the fleet, and set sail again about the U-g 
of the following vear (b.c. 325). During the th:n. 
sail three of the snips grounded during a storm on a • 
off the western coast of the island of Oaracta (AmA«*u 
they got off when the storm ceased, and joined ibe fV 
the following day. The remainder of the fleet escaf* 1 
danger bv sailing to the south-westward, and and*-.-, 
the islands called at present the Great and Little Tom 1 
the following morning they sailed again to the ma- 
leaving on their left the island Putora (iVfor), and i.' 




director of the treasury, in 1776. This was a new office, and 
was created for the purpose of giving assistance to that of 
comptroller-general, which was filled by the counsellor of 
state Taboureau de Rcaux, a mild and unassuming man, 
who, feeling his inferiority to Necker, resigned his place in 
the following year. Necker was appointed director-general 
of finances, in June, 1 777, but without a seat in the council. 
That was a critical period ; the finances had been long in a 
state of great embarrassment, and the impending war with 
England on account of the American colonies required a 
great increase of expenditure. Necker, being averse to im- 
posing new taxes, endeavoured to make up the deficiency by 
economy and loans. [Louis XVI.] In 1781 he published his 
• Compte Rendu,' which disclosed for the first time the state 
of the revenue and expenditure of France, and made him 
numerous enemies. In order to counteract their in- 
trigues, Necker asked for a scat in the council as a mark of 
the king's confidence, but this being refused on the score of 
his religion, he tendered his resignation, which was ac- 
cepted, in May, 1781. He withdrew to Switzerland, where 
he purchased an estate at Copet, on the banks of the Leman 
Lake, and here he wrote his work, 'Sur r Administration des 
Finances,' 1784. * Both Necker and his predecessor Turgot,' 
says a contemporary writer, " worked for the public good, 
and both made war against abuses. But Turgot had the 
disinterestedness of a philosopher and a philanthropist who 
entirely forgot himself for the good of the state and of man- 
kind. Necker was disinterested, but only in money matters, 
for he was tormented by the ambition of fame and popu- 
larity. Turgot had faith in his principles; Necker con- 
fided in himself Turgot had fixed ideas on legislation, and 
be wished to give a durable government to France ; Necker 
combated only partial abuses, and appeared to have no 
settled notions of the science of government. . . . Turgot 
wished to give to the French a political and moral educa- 
tion; he wished to form public opinion ; Necker believed 
that public opinion in France was very enlightened, and he 
bowed himself before it The former spoke to the people 
as a legislator, the other as a courtier of the people/ In his 
retreat however, after his second resignation, he altered 
his tone. ' Public opinion,' he says, in the preface to his 
work 4 Dc TAdm in ist ration de M. Necker, par lui-meme,' 
1791, appears to me no longer as it did once. The respect 
which I felt for it has been weakened since I have seen that 
opinion influenced by the arts of the wicked, since I have 
seen it waver and tremble before men whom it ought to have 
rightly estimated and marked with its scorn and reprobation.* 
' Keeker's first resignation however was much to be regretted ; 
it was a loss to France at a critical moment, and it was a 
great fault on his part, for he might have maintained him- 
self in office ; but his unconquerable self-love prevented 
him. He fancied that they could not do without him, and 
that he would be soon recalled, and thus become all- 
powerful. He was mistaken ; and when at last he returned 
to office, the situation of the state was greatly changed, and 
circumstances had become such as to require talents very 
superior to his.' (Droz, Histoire du Rcgne du Louis XVI. , 
b. II, 1839.) 

In 1787 Necker returned to Paris, where he wrote against 
Calonne, who had just been dismissed from his office of comp- 
troller-general of the finances, and he was, in consequence, 
banUhed from the capital, but was soon after recalled. 
In the following year (August, 1788), on the resignation of 
Bncnnc, and at the suggestion of that minister, Louis XVI. 
appointed Necker director-general of finances, as the only 
man capable of restoring order in the administration. The 
king had already promised the convocation of the states- 
general, and Necker urged him to keep his promise. But 
he failed as a statesman, in not arranging beforehand a plan 
for the fcittings of those states, so as to prevent the collision 
that took place on their first meeting. In fact Necker 
was a financier, but no general statesman ; he was a phi- 
losopher and a man of letters, but not a jurist or a legislator, 
and be was thus considered by a man well qualified to 
•udge of tbe-c raattcjs. [Mirabkai!.] His second ministry 
wa» »b'jrt. Unable to clwk or direct the popular storm, 
and not enjowni; the confidence of the court, Necker, un- 
Williug to become a watch wot d of the agitators, offered 
privately to Loun XVI. to quit his place and the kingdom, 
if he thought In* at>»<Mirc would tend to calm the public 
effervev-erir.\ On the 1 1 Hi of July, J7S0, the king wrote 
Imn a confidential no'e, requesting him to set off quickly 
and privately. Necker obeyed, and set off for Switzerland 

that very night. But this step, instead of prevent;:,- 
precipitated the Revolution. After the taking of ihe if. 
the National Assembly demanded the recall of NV M - 
Louis complied. Necker was received in triumph, 1 
popularity was short-lived. He did not go far en 
please the movement-men. In December of the fl. 
year, 1790, he gave in his resignation to the .V' 
Assembly, which received it with cool indifferent. 
spent the remainder of his life in Switzerland, in reti, .- 
and study, and wrote several political tracts. H- 
written, several years before, a work, ' De I'lmporu* 
Opinions Religieuses.' He died in April, hv, 
daughter has become celebrated as Madame de v 

NEGRO'S IS (from v«p<fc, ' dead') is the term  
particularly to mortification or death of bone. Its : 
causes and the mode of reparation are the same as  
mortification generally. [Mortification; Infla^ 
NECTARINE. [Pbach.] 
NECTARiNI'ADiE. [Sum-Birds.] 
NECTO'PODA. [NuclbobranchiataJ 
NECTU'RUS, M. Rafinesque's name for a p r.> 
rotremata, placed by Cuvier between the Aiui : . 
lotl] and the Proteii of Laurenti. This km 
Mennbranchus of Harlan and the Phanerubr /. « 

Generic Character, — Four toes on each foot A 
teeth on their in term axil laries, and another, p*r. .. 
more extended, on their m axil laries. 

Necturus lateralis {Triton lateralis of Sir: 
branchus lateralis of Harlan; and Phanerobr:- 
Fitzinger) is the species best known, and will sent 
example of the genus. It is olive, with black- 
above* and a blackish stripe running from the mi> 
above the eye and reaching to the branch iff, win*:. 
comes continuous with the blackish belly, wh.rh 
gated with olive spots. The size is considerable; ;- 
as much as two or three feet in length. 

Geographical Distribution. — The great North .t 

Necturus lateralis. 

NEDJED, or NEDJD. [Arabia.] 
is supposed to have originated in Spain, from uV 
stance of the name Spanish needles being orig- 
in England, although the art was brought here : 
many. Needles were first made in England abou: 
1565, by Elias Crowse or Krause, a German,* 
in London. This manufacture can never bee-" 
much importance to a nation, and it is not the* 
prising that we are without any historical di-n * 
progress. The reputation long enjoyed by A 
needles points out the particular locality in Lou ; 
the manufacture was carried on. At this time, t 
number of needles are made at Hathersage in Df 
in Warwickshire, in and near Birmingham, an* 
Redditch in Worcestershire. 

The manufacturing processes are as follows :- s 
wire of the required thickness is first cut into j 
about five inches, and these lengths, being pi* 1 ' 1 - 
in a bundle, are bound together by means of •:■• 
five inches in diameter, placed at each end of th 
This bundle is then placed on a cast-iron table. ." 
to and fro upon it, under the pressure of aflat bar : 
which means the wires are made perfectly strain- 
dozen and a half or two dozens of these wire* r 
taken by the grinder, and together are pointed . 
dry grindstone. This process requires consul' 
terity for its proper accomplishment, as csch i»irc r 
so held by the grinder as to revolve in conurt * 
grindstone. It is this dry-grinding which makes il 
a needle-grinder so injurious to health, through il •' 
of the small particles of steel which are thrown s 
the operation. A preservative against this evil a*» • • 




i ded : this consists of a maBkof magnetic wire-gauze, worn 

> iis to protect the mouth, and the particles of metal, being 
itracted by this means, are prevented from passing! into 

10 lungs. It is but seldom however that the grinders can 
!>- nduced to wear these masks. 

When the pointing is finished, the wires are cut into the 
vq uired lengths, and the holes or eyes are perforated. This 
aeration is usually performed by females. The tools era- 
ti'iyed are, a small anvil fixed on the work-bench, a hammer, 

finely-pointed and well-tempered 'steel punch, a pair of 
Ivors, a file, and a block ofiead. The woman first slightly 

.tens the unpointed end by a stroke of the hammer, then 

tkes an indentation on one side by means of the punch 
id hammer; the needle is then taken from off the anvil, 
■A, being placed with the indented side downwards on the 

h k of lead, the perforation is completed by striking with 
n* punch and hammer on the opposite side of the needle. 
tddmg then the needle in the plyers, the head is some- 
hat bent, and with the file the guttering is performed, 
Inch is the forming of the channel that may be seen on 
eh side where the perforation is made. The head is then 
toothed by passing the file over it. Needles to which the 
mie drilled-eyed is applied are perforated in the manner 
iu described, but the additional process is used of smooth- 
.u the ey<* by means of a drill after it is perforated. 
Fur racking the eyes and gutters in large needles, ma- 

Mery is employed. The wires used for making these 
idles are pointed at both ends, and the channels and eyes 
-• £>rmed in the middle, when the two needles thus made 
' cut asunder, and their heads smoothed with a file. 
1 Hese operations being performed when the steel wires are 
n soft state, they are more or less bent, and must be straight- 
t.-rl, which is done by rolling them on one plate of metal 
• ler the weight of another. The needles are then placed, 
my thousands together, in a kind of crucible, and covered 

r with ashes, when they are put into a close furnace and 
posed to a cherry-red heat. When this degree of heat 

> been attained, the crucible is withdrawn, and the needles 
dropped into cold water, from which they are taken out 

1 put upon an iron plate almost red hot, where they are 
ned about so as to cause the heat to apply equally to all, 
1 as fast as the needles become of a blue colour, they are 
ioved as being of a proper temper. 

> uch of the needles as now appear crooked are straitened 
a small anvil by blows from a hammer. 

'he needles are next ranged in parallel rows upon a 
i .so cloth, which has been smeared with a mixture of oil, 
soap, and fine emery powder. In this cloth from 40,000 
:»n.<iuo needles are rolled up, and several of these rolls 
placed together in a machine like a mangle. The 
nig to which they are here subjected is continued, by 
'in of steam or water power, for two and sometimes 
co days, during which time the cloth wrappers, being 
n out, require to be once or twice replaced by new ones, 
.n taken out, after this rolling, the needles are perfectly 
: lit. 

m;v must now be sorted, by placing the heads of all in 

-nine direction. This task, as well as that of separating 

ken and spoiled needles from such as are sound, is per- 

;i«-tl by children. Placing a finger-stall of cloth on the 

- linger of the right hand, the ends of about a dozen 

lies are pressed against it, when such as have their 

it a next to the cloth stick into it, and are withdrawn 

i ease. The needles thus arranged are then placed, a 

t«»r of a hundred together, in papers for sale. 

is not possible to form any satisfactory estimate of the 

ibor of needles made and used in this kingdom, neither 

. «* know the quantity nor value of such as are exported, 

hey pass at the Custom-house, with a great variety of 

' i objects, under the general name of haberdashery. 

lies of English make are very generally esteemed for 

r superior quality. 

Cabbage's Economy of Machinery and Manufactures; 

hier's Cabinet Cyclopedia, 'Manufactures in Metal.') 

K K FS, PETER, called • the Old/ born at Antwerp in 

\ ear 1 570, was a disciple of the elder Henry Steenwyck, 

i> manner he closely imitated. He painted views of 

rhes and convents, especially interiors, preferring those 

:♦.. Oothic style of architecture. He possessed a pro- 

i knowledge of perspective, and represented his sub- 

. with all their rich ornaments, and every member of 

architecture, with strict truth, and yet without be- 

. ..» t be appearance of anxious labour. Every object is 

' I J . C, No. 993 

marked with 1 minute precision, and finished with an exqui- 
site touch and a light pencil. His bright clear pictures, in 
which he avoided the darkish brown colouring sometimes 
observable in the works of his master Steenwyck, are the 
most esteemed. Being an indifferent designer of figures, 
he often got F. Francks, Van Thulden, Velvet Breughel, 
orTeniers, to paint the figures ; those of the two last greatly 
enhance the value of the pictures of Neefs. 

He died in 1651, at the age of eighty-one. His son, 
Peter Martin (called 'the Young') painted in the same 
style, and chose the same subjects as his father, but was by 
no means equal to him. 

NEER, ARNOLD VANDER, born at Amsterdam in 
1619, is well known to connoisseurs and artists both by the 
peculiarity of his style and by the handling and transparence 
of his landscapes. His subjects are chiefly views of villages 
with fishermen's huts on the low banks of rivers and canals. 
His pencilling is remarkably neat, his touch free and clear, 
and his imitation of nature faithful. His reputation is 
founded on his moonlight scenes, in which he has never 
been excelled, and perhaps never equalled. The lustre of his 
skies about the moon, and the reflection of the beams on the 
water, whether calm or slightly rippled, are inimitable. His 
genuine pictures are highly prized all over Europe. In 
some instances they are rather too black, probably from the 
effects of time. He died in 1683, aged sixty-four. 

preceding, was born at Amsterdam in 1643. He studied 
first under his father, and afterwards under Jacob Vanloo. 
He was well versed in all the branches of the art. In his- 
tory, his composition is skilful and his drawing correct ; his 
portraits, both large and small, are spirited and well 
coloured ; and his conversations have all the excellencies of 
Terburg. He lived first at Paris, then at Orange, and 
lastly at the court of the elector palatine at Diisseldorf, 
where he died in 1 703. 

NE E'XEAT REGNO, the name of a writ which issues 
out of Chancery on the application of a party complainant, 
to prevent his debtor from leaving the realm. The writ is 
directed to the sheriff of the county in which the debtor is ; 
and after reciting that ' it is represented to the king in his 
Chancery on the part of the complainant against the debtor, 
the defendant, that he the said defendant is greatly indebted 
to the said complainant, and designs quickly to go into parts 
beyond the seas (as by oath made on that behalf appears), 
which tends to the great prejudice and damage of the said 
complainant,' commands him to ' cause the said debtor to 
give sufficient bail or security, in the sum of /., that 

he will not go, or attempt to go, into parts beyond the seas, 
without leave of the said court;' and in case the said 
debtor shall refuse to give such bail or security, the sheriff 
is to commit him to prison until he shall do it of his own 
accord, &c. 

The question which always arises on application to the 
Court of Chancery for this writ, is nothing more than this : 
whether the plaintiff has made out a case which is conform- 
able to the terms of the writ, as interpreted by the decisions 
of the court. 

The writ cannot be applied for unless in a suit, that is, 
unless a bill is already filed; but a plaintiff may apply for 
it in any stage of a suit, whether the writ is prayed for by 
the bill or not. The plaintiff cannot have the writ if he is 
out of the jurisdiction. There must be a debt in equity 
actually due at the time when the writ is applied for; and 
the writ will not be granted for a demand on which a party 
can be held to bail at law. The application for the writ 
must be accompanied with an affidavit swearing positively 
to the debt, except where the bill is for an account, in 
which case it it sufficient if the plaintiff swear that he 
believes there is a balance in his favour ; or except where 
there is other decisive evidence of the debt, such as may 
appear from the master's report absolutely confirmed, or 
from admissions in the answer. The affidavit must also 
show that the defendant is going abroad, or it must show 
facts which prove that conclusion, and that the debt will 
be in danger if he quit the realm. The writ may be moved 
for ex parte, and it issues until answer and further order. 
A defendant may apply to discharge the writ on putting in 
his answer. 

It is unnecessary to enter into further particulars here. 

This writ is founded ou the real or supposed prerogative 
of the king to restrain his subjects from departing from 
the realm. The ' Natura Brevium ' contains two forms of 

Vol. XVI.— S 




was written for popular use. The European protnotrr* 
algebra, with the exception only of Vieta, adopted tfc< 
of two species of quantities, positive and negative, eit'i 
explanation above noticed.. Vieta not only avoided 
negative quantity, but, as for as he could, dis}>eiised \ 

quires no secumy irom uie F v,,a«u ««, -*--. subtractive terms and subtraction itself. Hediscar. 

other respects from the other writ. These writs are both double nature of quantities in the words Tina autea 
entitled De Securitate Invenienda, &c, and seem to be in minus non constituunt genera divefsa,' 

writs, one of which has for its object to restrain a clergyman 
from going abroad without the king's licence, and com- 
mands the sheriff to take security from him or commit him 
to prison ; the other has for its object to prevent a layman 
from going abroad without the king's licence ; but it re- 
quires no security from the party, and differs m ™™™ 

Substance, though not in name, writs of Ne Exeat Regno 
?rom the former of the two the present writ of Ne Exeat 
seems to be derived- 

It is said that the object of the writ, as applied to clergy- 
men, was to prevent them from having frequent intercourse 
with the Papal see. Whether the prerogative on which 
these writs were founded was a usurpation on the part of 
the crown or not, is a matter which has been somewhat dis- 
cussed. The opinion that such a power as that which is 
exercised by this writ * appears to have been unknown to 
the antient common law, which, in the freedom of its spirit, 
allowed every man to depart the realm at his own pleasure ' 
(Beames), is a vague surmise, expressed in language equally 
vague. This writ, which was originally designed solely for 
political purposes, has now been applied, as already ex- 
plained, to the object of restraining a debtor from evading 
his creditor's demand by quitting the realm ; this applica- 
tion has been sanctioned by long usage, the commencement 
of which is now unknown. 

(A Brief View of the Writ Ne Exeat Regno, by 

NEGAPATAM, a town and port on the Coromandel 
coast, in 1 0° 45' N. lat. and 79° 55' E. long. The Portuguese 
had formerly a settlement here, which was taken from them 
in 1660 by the Dutch, who added materially to its defences, 
and made it their principal station in that quarter. They 
established a mint for coining gold money, and carried on 
an extensive trade from the port. The fort fell into the 
hands of the English, after an obstinate resistance, in 1781, 
and since then the European inhabitants have deserted the 
place. Many of the houses fell quickly into ruins, and 
others were pulled down, such of the materials as were of 
value being carried away to Madras. The native town is 
likewise much decayed, and the population is greatly 
diminished. The trade at present is quite inconsiderable, 
being almost wholly confined, as far as Europeans are con- 
cerned, to the procuring of refreshments for snips that touch 
at the port for that purpose. 

the plan of this work had permitted detailed treatises on 
different branches of science, the subject before us would 
have fallen under the head of Algebra, and would have 
been fully treated in the description of the difference 
between algebra and arithmetic. As it is, the present arti- 
cle and that on Operation will embrace the consideration 
of those peculiar abstractions the attainment of which dis- 
tinguishes the science of algebra from the art which was 
cultivated by the Italians of the sixteenth century 

In the oldest treatises on algebra which exist there is men- 
tion of a modification of quantity unknown in arithmetic, 
called negative quantity, as distinguished from positive. In 
the VigaG anita we find this distinction and the rules for its 
use precisely as in modern treatises : one of the commenta- 
tors says that negation is contrariety ; and the 'Liliwati' con- 
tains the geometrical interpretation of a negative line, 
namely, a line measured in the direction contrary to that of 
a positive line. The commentator says that Patna is fifteen 
yojanas east, and Allahabad eight yojanas west, of a place 
called Varanasi; ' the interval or difference is twenty-three 
vojanas, and is not obtained but by addition of the num- 
bers. Therefore, if the difference between two contrary 
quantities be required, their sum must be taken. 9 Surely 
it will be said that algebra began in a strange confusion of 
ideas ; but yet the fault is rather in expression than in concep- 
tion. An art was in existence presenting undoubted means of 
discovering truth, commencing with a generalization of which 
the use was obvious, but not the meaning. In Diophantus 
we find the common rule announced as a definition (with- 
out even a previous notice of the distinction of quantities) 
in Wrm* as broad as the following : ' Aui//ic lirl \Ii\f/iv iroXXa- 
vXatunilvja wom Hurapiiv* &c. ; literally, • Defect upon defect 
repeated, makes existence.' In Mohammed BenMusa [Musa] 
the rules are announced in the same way, though the sepa- 
rate existence of positive and negative quantities does not 
seem to be assumed * it must be remembered that this work 

It is not our intention to follow the earlier algeb" 
through their different uses of negative quantities, i 
creations of algebra retained their existence, in the L - 
the obvious deficiency of rational explanation which ck 
tensed every attempt at their theory. Newton, and I 
distinctly admit the existence of the quantity leas tbi 
thing : the latter asserts that a man who has no pr . 
and is in debt 50 crowns, would only have nothing if a- 
else made him richer by a gilt of 50 crowns, and tbe 
begins with 50 crowns less than nothing:. Elen 
treatises for the most part try to append an explanat 
negative quantities to an algebra which is nothing - 
than arithmetic instead of introducing those new a • 
tions which are the basis of the separate science : * 
algebra, instead of being systematically learnt, is r 
by slow and often dubious steps from arithmetical ru'i 
in which the rules of operation of the former science r,i 
ployed, preceded by the principles of the latter. Few <fc- • 
acquire a real perception of the meaning of the sebjee\ \ 
those who study mathematics to great extent. It is ru 
notoriety that difficulties attend the beginner in lit « 
a nature totally different from those which are i - 
geometry ; so tnat while a person who has reed a ie« 
of Euclid may be imagined capable of writing an u?> 
commentary on what he knows, another who has tr'-> 
a common elementary treatise on algebra is conso c- 
of a great increase of working power* with a ghmtae- 
principles which owe their reception more to tl>c - 
failing accuracy of their results than to native ev.c' 
logical deduction from easily admitted truths. 

It is but recently that such a view ha* been t ~- 
algebra as will at once explain both the distraction r' 
tive and negative quantities, and the difficulty atie- •'. 
square roots of negative quantities, usually ealWd »-- 
bte quantities. We shall endeavour to ascend tt» tb - 
of algebra, on the supposition that the student fcxs - 
what beginners usually read, and is well eeqaai? ^ - 
the common operations. We must however prwir- 
as in all other cases where the first principles of & 
have been matter of dispute, it by no means f< 1: . 
oue view of the subject is the most easy to ew* s. 
Something must depend on the intellectual con»tiu 
the individual; and if this be most probably - 
geometry, the remark applies with still greater I - 

The first abstraction which meets us in arithmc :. 
the transition from actual magnitudes (concrete r l 
so called) to their numerical representations. We * 
general properties of numbers, in which we learn t 
number independently of a specific concrete unit i 
see in 7+5 — 3=7—3 + 5 a relation equally true * 
may be the nature or magnitude of the unit. ^ 
drop the concrete number and rise to the abstrari  
something more by the transition than immed>s'> 
pears ; and this the student should particular - 
because some of the succeeding difficulties wlu,-- 
the passage into algebra are very similar inehsrsctrt 
preceded by a stranger and harder process. The c: 
of multiplication takes a power and a property whir.: 
not before : thus if we denote concrete number h> * 
numerals, aud if we speak of yards, it is deer that 
=XXXV,,or seven yards taken five times is tl. - 
yards. But we may not therefore say that VII X5 = \ * 
for VII X 5, the number 5 multiplied by 7 yards [>1- * 
cation], is an incongruous and unmeaning set of * . 
it would be equally improper to say that it is mud s 
not thirty-five yards. In abstract numoers no such 
is necessary ; 7 X 5 and 5X7 are both the saose. ; 
had never considered number independently of nu 
measured or repeated by it, the arithmetician «>•.. 
confounded VII X 5 and 5 X VII, because he wo; 
have found that no false results would have sprui^ 
from; while VII X 5 would have been a sort of uur 
quantity, useful in practice and difficult in theory. 
We are now on the ground of abstract arithnsetrc, *. 

training the fa *■ 

..■ulty in either is 

early admitted I >n 

Multiplication iy 

11. i numbers or « 

 ,il numbers or ; o- 

. imaginable existence, unless a be greater thaui; when 
— b, tin* magnitude of a—b vanishes entirely, and when a 
loss than b, the direction to perform a — 6 is just the same 

* asking fur a part which shall be greater than the 
a ile i>f which tt is a part. If vre confined ourselves to 
uiicukir arithmetic, in which all numbers used have spe- 
tie values, it would most likely be thought of no use to 

irrr the subject further, and in one point of view correctly; 

lat'is, it would be of little moment to deduce methods by 
inch an individual so careless as to write down and ope- 

Ae upon such a symbol as 3 — 4 might be enabled to arrive 
ii subsequent correction of the mistake which a glance at 

.i' symbol sliould show him he has made. But whon we 
i- ^'tieral symbols of number, we are liable to mistakes 

' two kinds, both dependent upon our liability to invert 

murder of terms of which the less should be subtracted 

!'"Lrst, we may mistake the nature of the quantity which 
Miili : thus if it he part of the conditions of a problem that 
pay £a and receive £b. and if the application of the con- 
lio'us requires that I should state how much I gain or lose, 
e answer should be either a loss of £(a— 6) or a gain of 

 A — n), according as a or b is the greater. We have then 
a choice between adopting one of these with the chance 

being entirely wrong, or of working the problem in two 
-tmel ways. And if it should happen that the conditions 

(lie problem present this alternative in six distinct in- 
iiK'os (and sometimes it happens oftoner), there would be 
p loss than G4 cases of solution, all, arithmetically spcak- 
'„'. essentially different in the mode of obtaining the 
i < wit, whether the answers obtained be the same or dif- 

Secoiidly, we may make an error of the same kind in the 

mils of operation. For instance, suppose we have 
\-b—e, which it is convenient to exhibit in the form of o 
.red by one single addition or subtraction. If we assume 

aiklition, and write a+{b-c), we maybe in error; for if 
i.: le^s than c, the proper alteration is a— (c— b). 
It is evident that both species of mistakes are precisely 
i lie same kind. Let us call them, for distinction, errors 

interpretation and errors of operation, and let us show 
-t that an error of interpretation will produce the error 
operation and no other. If. in the first problem, we sup- 
-v a — b to be lost where b — a is really gained, and if the 

libera, far instance, require the result of the preceding to 

annexed to a loss x, we shall suppose there is altogether 
lo-a of x+ta — b), whereas it should be a loss of only 
-i A — a). Secondly, the error of operation will produce 
i,- error of interpretation, whenever any interpretation is 
ilk' ; for when wa look at x+la-b) as a loss, we shall 

'.eiiily suppose it to be more of a loss than x, or that a — i 

loit besides; whereas, had wo lo.ikird at *— (&— a), m 

mill have inferred that there is a less loss than x, or if 3 
T« lost, b—a was gained. Now the first step of tin 
mux algebraist, before he attempts any transition from 
iv«r=ul arithmetic to algebra, must be to examine by many 
-..unecs the effect of both classes of errors upon thesubse 
,-m proceedings and results. We shall here only staff 
,. truths at which he will finally arrive, with an example 

u.u-h. The beginner cannot, as the proficient may do, 
,■ ix sufficient reason for these results in the common rules 

.il^fbiaical operation; and we should doubt that anything 
1 1 a* large number of examples would serve to give him the 
. e".T-ry insight into the conclusions. 

I . The mistake of operation, how often soever repeated, 
,,[ how complicated soever the deductions which may be 
,i,i ii from it, produces no result in any way different from 
...i of the correct process ; that is, its result can be reduced 

t he result of the correct process by the use of no more 

in those rules which apply in the rational process. 

('bus ifx + o— 6, wrongly taken tobea:+(a — 6), 6 being 
.iter than a, be multiplied by x+p—q, wrongly taken as 
~-:p — q\ <i being gi eater tlianp, we find as the (supposed) 

1 N E G 

**+{*- b+p-q} x+(a-b) (p-qi, 

to which the application of the common rules gives , 

x'+ax— bx+px — qx+ap— bp— aq+bq, 
precisely the same as the product of x+a— b and x+p—q 
The reason of this is as follows : — In all tlte rational cases 
of the four operations, a term in the construction of which 
two signs ore used has + before it, if those two signs ba 
-like, and — if Ibcy be unlike, as in 

a+b-ic-d), or a+b-(0+c-d) 


(a-b) (c-d) or (U+a-6) (O+e-d) 

= 0+ac - ad- bc+bd. 

If then a term were subjected to the signs ++. it would 

make no difference if the same term were subjected to the 

iigns ^ , for the effect of is the use of +. If then 

we take x+a-b wrongly as X-ib-a), we see that when 
we coma to add this, say to c, we hare 
in which a, before it is disengaged, must come under the 

signs +  or, if the phrase be less objectionable, under 

the application of the rules to those signs, successively. But 
" e correct process would give 

which a falls under the application of the rules to + + ; 
d such application to + + gives the some result as that 

H , necessarily and demonstrably, though in one of 

; two applications there is the symbol of absurdity. In 
; same way the other cases may be proved, whence it fal- 
vs that however many of these simple operations may be 
performed, no result can arise except either that of. the cor- 
* operation or one which may be brought to it by the 
operations on signs, already described. 

We must here pause to remind the reader that errors, 
however palpable and admitted, are not necessarily produc- 
tive of error. True reasoning, on true principles, must 
lead to truth; but if for true we write false, and for truth 
falsehood, we have nolonger any right to say must, but only 
most probably will. If then we can show of a particular class 
of errors that, used in a certain way, the results agree with 
those of true reasoning on true principles, we may demand the 
of those errors as demonstrated means of finding truth, 
; mind of man would never stop at such a point ; but, for 
all that, we have the conclusion, as a logical consequence of 
the rules of arithmetic, that the mistake of the impossible 
htraclion introduced in operations, and not having pre- 
jusly vitiated the interpretation by which the funda- 
mental objects of operation (equations) were deduced from 
the conditions of the problem, will produce no falsehood in 
the result. 

2. Let us now examine the consequences of the error of 
interpretation. The effect of this is, that we write a — b 
instead of 6 - a, but at the same time we suppose the quantity 
of which we are thinking to be of a diametrically opposite 
character to that which it ought to have. But also at the 
same time we add this symbol where we should subtract it, 
and vice vertU; so that whore we should taken — b. and add, 
giving c + (a—ii), we make one mistake in taking b — a, and 
another in subtracting, giving c — {b — a). When mere rules 
i-.-iic to be applied, we find thesamc result from both, namely, 
. i(i-.6 and c—b+a. We might then so manage as to 
elude the actual presentation of the negative quantity, as in 
the fallowing problem:— Two persons are now aged 00 and 
40 ; at what dato is (was, or will be, as the case may be) the 
first twice as old as the second ? Let us suppose that we 
reach the date by going a years forward and afterwards b 
years back from the epoch to which we then come; here is 
a supposition which is perfectly competent to yield any re- 
sult, before or after the present epoch, by properly assuming 
a and b. But we must now choose a supposition; let it be 
that the ratio in question exists at some future lime, that is, 
a is greater than b. In a — b years then the thing happens; 

50+(a-o)=2(40+{a-6)) . . (I) 
fii)+a-6=80+2a-26 . . . (2) 
80+80- SA- 50-o+6=0 
6=a+30. ' 

Or any number of years forward and 30 more years back it 
all the answer the conditions of the problem will give, or 
the event took place 30 years ago. But the correctness of 
this reasoning is only a semblance, for the result contradicts 
the supposition on which it was obtained, namely, that a ii 



N fi a 

greater than fc To increase 50 by the excess of a over 30 
mora than a is beyond the power of the arithmetician. If 
then it be taken that o is less than b, or that the event hap- 
pened 6— a years ago, we have 
^ 50-(6-a)=2(40-(o-a)) . . (3) 

50-6+a=80-26+2a .... (4) 
and (4) is the same as (2) ; so that we arrive at the same 
result as before, and find our conclusion to justify the sup- 
position on which it was made. The steps (1) and (3) differ 
to the same effect as if an error of operation had been made 
on (4) or (2) in retracing the steps. 

In the preceding, by the use of two symbols, a and 6, we 
have enabled ourselves to obtain a correct and intelligible 
answer, even by the incorrect process, since we end with the 
determination of 6— a (=30), even where we reasoned on 
a— b. If however we had represented our unknown quan- 
tity by a single symbol, x, our first process would have stood 

as follows: — 

50+x=2 (40+:r)=80+2a? 

And the answer is obviously impossible. Our second pro- 
cess is, 

50-a?=2 (40— ar)=80-2a? 
x= 80- 50=30. 

From such instances as the preceding it may be collected 
that an error of interpretation, which causes us to write 
a— b instead of 6— a, will, in finding the value of a - b, cause 
an impossible subtraction to appear ; and vice versd, that 
the appearance of an impossible subtraction in the result 
can arise from nothing but a primitive error of interpreta- 
tion in fixing the nature of that result. This point must 
be well ascertained by every beginner from repeated in- 

Such a result as 3-8 may be written 3-3-5, or 0-5; 
so that the error of attempting to subtract 8 from 3 is re- 
ducible to that of attempting to subtract 5 from nothing. 
At our present point we can say that the occurrence of 0^5 
shows as that the result which we supposed ourselves about 
to obtain was diametrically wrong in quality in our previous 
supposition : thus in the preceding problem we found 50— 
gfl, or — 30, and the real answer is 30 in its magnitudo, but 
instead of being, as we supposed, 30 years after the present 
rim*, it * 34 ?«ar* before it 

Hvr>$r *rn?ed at this point, the earlier algebraists at 
<m|4*a #**«r»*l such symbols as 0—5 and 0—30, which they 
«r.vy*vt — V %tA —30, into the list of algebraical objects of 
A4ft*sn.t\4£ ***t:tt'/ them negative quantities, and treating 
*:t«*nv ** 4 a 'artrually opposite in meaning to 5 and 30, 
*'tw^ *Juvr..4 f*r comparison be written + 5 and + 30. 
UW* «at*7 e*^*4 positive quantities. And, because, in all 
j***a>* *»•-«/ net ions the remainder is less than the minu- 
et 'a -t> h let* than a) they called 0—5 less than nothing. 
7'utbvlt committed by elementary writers, in beginning 
*i£f vr«jcal works bv an exhibition of these definitions with- 
vu< tlm letst warning of the manner in which arithmetical 
t*ttu* had been extended, converted the vh<Ae science into 
a Mjy»tery. 

If we extend the notion of cuaisiitr avuto give different 
auubm to those of diametnccXv vy\rj*v># kinds, we may call 
*Mi*i *et of auantities direct, uud lite viber* inrerse. Thus 
property ana debt, distance north and distance south, time 
before end time after, ascent and descent, loss and gain, 

Cogrestion and retrogression, &c &c, are of different 
nda ; either of any one pair may be called direct, but the 
other is then inverse. And in circumstances-which require 
the addition of the direct quantity, the subtraction of the 
inverse is equally required : thus whatever an increase in 
A's property will augment, a diminution of it will dimi- 
nish ; whatever distance on a line progression on that line 
will increase, retrogression will diminish. If then we have 
a + b where we imagine both quantities were what we took 
them to be ; but if it should turn out that b is of the con- 
trary kind, we know that wc should have bad a—b. If we 
put + b for the quantity we thought we were using, and 
—6 for its opposite, the ordinary rule of signs will be suf- 
ficient to make the conversions which the correction of the 
mistake requires. Thus if, attending only to the rule that 
like signs produce + and unlike signs — , we treat 

« + (+*) and a + (-6) 
we find 

a + o and a-6; 
or* in this instance, the affixing of + or - to a quantity 

according as our initial supposition is correct or inrrr 

leaves us with our result if we were correct, and mak<- 

necessary alteration if we were incorrect. The app:.- 

of the same reasoning leads to the same conclusion - 

the cases* of addition and subtraction. Observe also t:. 

any one, disputing the propriety of making the signs -l 

— take a new meaning, should prefer, say, to denote c 

quantity by the prefix of ^[, and inverse quantity by »h 

§, the rule he would arrive at by induction is that likt v 

produce + for operation, and ^f for interpretation, t 

unlike signs produce — for operation and § for intery 

tion ; where by like signs he would find he must vac* 

and +, or + and % t — and — , or — and $, and all :'- 

unlike. His final rule then would be, use ^f as if ;t • 

+, and $ as if it were — , so that he would ultimately . 

from the algebraist by the continual use of two ne* - 

without any new uses or practical meanings. 

In the operations of multiplication and division uV 
of signs is thus shown : — It is said that two negative 
tities multiplied together produce a positive quantity, 
means that a mistake of direct for inverse, or vie* - 
made in both the terms of a product, produces no u • 
in the product, when the latter is formed by the usuil 
Thus, if a, which should be ar— y, has been take, : 
y—x, and if b t which should be v—w, has been taken : 
w—v, the algebraical product 

(m— v) (y— x) or try— t«r— vy+vr 

at which we arrive in the mistaken process, is precis  
same as 

(0— to) (a?— y) or t>a?-*t>y— tca?+try 

at which we should have arrived in the correct protest 

The first step then from arithmetic to algebra is mx 
the following definitions : — 

1. Quantities are distinguished into positive and - 
tive, which are to be considered as of diametrically op- 
kinds ; and common arithmetical quantities (abstract 
bers without signs) are to be considered as positive. . . 
rules of arithmetical algebra are to be applied to t:.- 
tended algebra, and in all cases in which the latter pr~ 
a case unknown to the former, the rule of signs x 
known in the former must be applied. The purely u 
question of the terms less than nothing, &c, will b: .- 
sidered under the word Nothing. 

The preceding extension gives an extended mean>: 
all the terms of operation ; thus addition is no loa$- 
simple arithmetical process, but a compound opera ti : 
reducing a multiplicity of signs to one alone, and tlr. 
lowing the direction of that sign; and the same of »v x 
tion. Thus a— ( — b) is a + b. It maybe asked tbf 
we are to trace our steps through any problem so as t. 
its equation out of symbols which seem to have *v 
meanings ; for it might appear as if the + of algebra 
either the + or — of arithmetic, as the case may be. 
answer is very simple: since the extended algebra - 
more than arithmetic in its actual operations* howtu: 
meaning of those operations may be extended, we -— 
sure that if we assign a particular case of a prober 
treat it entirely as in arithmetic, we are, though * ' - 
case only in view, performing upon limited symbols - 
because we think at the time only of a limited mean.* : 
same steps which we should have to follow if we cou. 
one act of the mind, grasp the symbols in their '-*. 

Our limits will not allow us to pursue this subject * 
extent which might be necessary for an unpractised ~- 
symbols, and we therefore pass on to the yet higher % 
the question, in which the introduction is made to a p 
symbolical algebra. If we examine any symbolical 
tity (the sign of identity being = ) for example, so sar . 
one as 

a + b = 6 + a 

we see of course that its truth is a consequence of the - ' 
tion of -f and of the conceptions which are insepanL 
our minds from the addition of quantity to quantity . 
truth of the identity, then, follows from the meaning < 
symbols, but the converse is not true; the meaning * 
symbols does not follow from tbe truth of the identity. 1' 
is, let it be granted that + = 6 + 0, and it doe* 
follow that + means addition, for consistently with li.t • 
ceding it might mean multiplication, or it might meo- 
fonnation of a rectangle by erecting a line equal to the aev. 

htter may be interchanged without an; alteration of the 
result. And the game maybe said of any other funda- 
mental symbol of identity; it may preserve its truth under 
many different meanings. 

Next, when we perform operations of algebra with that 
mechanical cxpertness which practice teaches, we do not 
l,ii, k back to the meaning of our operations at each step, but 
ijiuceed upon a few rules of operation, of the meaning of 
a liich we must become conscious the moment we have to 

lop and contrive the mode of proceeding, dropping tlwt 
■■■n-ii-i msness as soon as we are again in the routine of 

1'irjtion. If we collect the symbols of algebra, we shall 
inri them all in the following list. 1. The numerical sym- 
nila of arithmetic. 2. Letters denoting magnitudes. 3. 
I'he signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and divi- 
ion, the latter with their usual abbreviations of a X b into 

if/, and a 4- b into t" 4. Tho exponent, as in a 1 , b being 
my algebraical magnitude. S. The symbols of logarithms, 
iiics, cosines, &c, which may be considered but as abbre- 
i it ions of series composed of terms made up of and con- 
lei-tod by the preceding symbols. The list of fundamental 
iperations is not very large : such as 

a lb + c). 

T. fce.1 

■> that it would be perfectly possible to imagine a person 
vim had forgotten the meaning of the symbols able to per- 
■niii the mere operations by reference to a few primary 

This being the case, suppose these few rules of reference 
ollectcd together; we can then conceive a person operating 
v means of these rules, without thinking of llieir meaning. 
\s it is of importance that a clear idea should be formed of 
his separation of symbolic from arithmetical reasoning, we 
hall propose the following illustration. A person who has 
liiiroughly studied the algebra of positive and negative 
[iinntities, is attacked by a severe illness, on recovering 
rum which he finds all memory of connection between his 
, incept ions and the symbols which represented them totally 
;»ne, while his expertness in performing the mere trans- 
u mi at ions with which algebra abounds remains undimi- 
ii-.hed. When he sees (a + b)* he perfectly remembers 
liat its substitute was itM -iab -+ -4*. but what a,/>, +, &c. 
[noil for, or might have been supposed to stand has 
i holly forgotten. 

He is now a purely symbolical algebraist Suppose that 
ii' endeavours to recover the meaning of his symbols by 
lose examination of their relations. He remembers, for 
\ainple, that u + 6 bad such a meaning as made it identical 
utli b + a, and he tries all meanings which will fulfil this 
midilion, and attempts to give conformable meanings to 
iihor symbols, in the hope of picking out a set of definitions 
I'liieh shall be consistent with each other, and of which the 
• -hit tons which live in his memory shall be logical conse- 
|iii'iK-es- He succeeds in his attempt, and thus gives 
iieaninglo his transformations, and converts his symbolical 
I'.^ubra into a deduction from some fundamental notions 
>f magnitude which he has slowly recovered. Perhaps the 
i-nder will say, he must then have discovered or remem- 
>, red that a, b, e, &o. stand for numbers, that + and — 
lira n addition and subtraction, &c.8cc By no means; the 
L'nor of this article will require us to show another set of 
iii-nningson which he may have happened to alight, not 
iily as consistent with each other as the arithmetical mean- 
n.;-.. hut more consistent; and in the article Operation 
ic shall have to show still further the pliability of the 
.!c«>brnical system, by pointing out that the number of 
1 I lor en t interpretations under which its symbolical relations 
.nil represent truths, is absolutely unlimited. The basis of 
lie algebra which our supposed recoverer of meanings 
might construct, is geometry, as arithmetic was that of the 
.no which we imagine him to have forgotten : and its deft- 
nt ions are as follows. A plane is chosen and a point in it, 
and « line of a definite length, which may be called the 
•mit-lint, is drawn at pleasure from the point, in any direc- 
i M hi in the plane. All letters denote lines drawn from the 
Mii-in, either in the direction of the unit-line, or at any 
nsjKit-S angles being always measured in one givm direc- 
tion of revolution. An equation, a = b, means that the line 

becomes the sum when a and o are in the same direction. 
The sign a — i means the remaining side of a parallelogram 
in which a is o diagonal and b one side. Again, n 6 means 
a fourth proportional to the unit-line, a, and b, directed so 
as to make an angle with the unit-line equal to the sum of 

the angles made by a and b with tbe unit-line ; and is 

as to make an angle with the unit-lim 

of the angle of a over the angle of 6, in the usual direction 

of measurement (If the angle of a be tbe greater), or to the 
excess of the second over the first, in the contrary direction 
(if tbe second be the greater). All the other definitions 
follow as in common algebra; thus on is abbreviated into 
a', and «/« means such a line that */n. <Ja = a. The num- 
bers of arithmetic stand for lines measured on tbe unit 

Grant such a change of definitions and every formula, 
which expressed a truth in the old algebra, expresses another 
and a very different truth in the new one. We shall now 
point out how to show (by construction) the truth of the 
old formula 

(a + o)(u-i) = ao-66, 
supposing the terms to have their new meanings. 

OU is the length and direction orthe unit-line, and OA 
and O B those of the lines a and b. Hence O C is what is 
culled a+ h, and OD is a- b, since it is the other side of 
a parallelogram which bos a for diagonal and h for one side. 
Again, take OE, a fourth proportional to OU, OA, and 
OA, with the angle TJ E double of U O A, and we have 
what is called aa. Similarly OF is 66; whence OG is 
aa—bb, the other side of a parallelogram which has a a for 
diagonal and 66 for one side. And it will be found on 
measurement that O G is also a fourth proportional to O U, 
O C, and O D, inclined at an angle which is the sum of the 
angles UOC and UOl): whence it is la + 6) (a-6). 

To show the truth of symbolical algebra, when the terms 
have thb above-described meanings, would require a small 
treatise: we shall presently give references to works on the 
subject. We shall now recapitulate the conclusions at 
which we have arrived. 

1. The conclusions of algebra may be made logical con- 
sequences of a few simple relations, without reference to 
the meaning of the symbols used: all algebra is true when 
these relations are true, so that all algebra U true under 
any meaning of the symbols wbicb will allow of the truth 
of these relations. 

2. It is not true that there is only one set of meanings under 
which the fundamental relations of algebra are truths, foe 
three sets have been already alluded to in this article, 
namely, the common and limited arithmetical meanings, 
tbe extensions under which the difficulties of tbe negative 
sign disappear, and the geometrical meanings last de- 

3. The order of discovery is aa follows I— We first ask what 
sort of magnitude is to be reasoned upon ; next, what ore 
the obvious relations existing between such magnitudes ; 
lastly, what is a convenient mode of representing the mag- 
nitudes in question ; all that follows is an application of the 
logic common to all branches of reasoning. But when wo 
wish to give tbe idea of symbolical algebra, we invert the 
oidar of the preceding questions ; and we ask, firstly, what 

tf E G 


N E P 

symbols shall be used (without any reference to meaning) ; 
next, what shall be the laws under which such symbols 
are to be operated upon ; the deduction of all subsequent 
consequences is again an application of common logic 
Lastly, we explain the meanings which must be attached to 
the symbols, in order that they may have prototypes of 
which the assigned laws of operation are true. 

We have two remarks to make before proceeding to the 
consideration of what are called, in common algebra, im- 
possible quantities. 

First, we have talked hitherto of change of meaning in 
symbols, as if we really passed from one to another and a 
totally different and even contrary meaning, keeping the 
same symbol to express both. The word change is too 
general; it is that particular change called extension 
which U employed, at least throughout this article. The 
meaning of a term is said to be changed by extension, or 
extended, when the new meaning contains all the old, and 
more : or when all cases which fall under the old meaning 
£ul under the new one also. Thus in the preceding geo- 
metrical definition, the new meaning of a + b (the diagonal 
whose sides are a and b) contains the old one (or simple 
addition) ; for if the two sides of a parallelogram be made 
to c. made, one diagonal becomes the sum of these sides. 
If then we call the last-mentioned set of definitions the 
RtT a I zebra, it may be made to appear that the old algebra 
» ell that part of the new which treats of lines making no 
a:.*Ie with one another. We shall presently see further 
u< . «tration of it. 

Seo.ju'lly, we have noted the two extreme cases, in one of 

whi-h we begin with the meanings of all symbols fixed, and 

in the other of which we have no specific meanings attached 

to any symbol, but wait for the time when it may be con- 

T*.*i».cn t to investigate sufficient meaning for all. But 

between these two comes the possible case of having found 

it advisable to affix meanings to some symbols of operation, 

leaving others only defined by the symbolic relations 

v.'ji'li dictate the manner of operating, and not further 

<U:fnuA in meaning. Thus from the enumeration above 

g:ven of the definitions of a geometrical algebra, it will be 

cX-tr that a'* means the eleventh geometrical proportional 

to wji unit and a, inclined to the unit-line at 10 times the 

a .:'!»• of a. But it would be impossible from thatenume- to decide at once on all the cases of a 6 , for instance, 

*Ji re £ = V(— 1). In such a case, namely, where the 

\w.** .u% of a s>mbol is left undetermined, we must wait 

u r.'i ••': <~iTi investigate the question whether such meaning 

it :.',*• K>. to be given, consistently with the meanings 

avv ,*A to the previous symbols. This process is called 

/♦*.•> ''•azTiTiox, and in the article cited will be found an 

if..t. ": »i,:*:h occurs in common algebra. If such meaning 

*-»'.:. ,t i* g.ven, then the s> mbol is properly impossi hie; 

if ,i <-*;. \* g.vcn in more ways than one, it is usually called 

VV<; now drop what we have gathered on symbolical 
*'/< >,ra, and tjkc up the science at the point at which such 
/. 4 i,-;.*:<,r.i t*ere made as abolished the difficulty of the 
t >(,->, r,</:itive quantity. It is then obvious that a, or 
 v*. .« K rU fax+a and -a X -a, so that every posi- 
«. •' - ;. ^ .' h»» two vqinre roots of equal numerical value, 
-, ^ y.<. .*. to/1 lb'* '/t'.er i.egative. But it immediately 
I. .,.<". it * t*y -I. 1 ** q-ai.trty has no square root, at least 
\.s+ n - -. '** :+ ' y* ''t quanta), a* defined, for the squares 
'/ y * %A A {<*■•/**'». quantities are equally positive. 
4, \. ,+ . , \. ., a \,:u**A *♦ V(-D is (with reference 
-  jr ,«, ,;;.,•*«. ..*, j-kt a» 7-10 is impossible in 
% , ' .*+. 7, ..4 '#',u-r*ation i* as old as algebra: 
/ / , ',s * **;*,' it.*:* i» no square root of a nega- 

• * « .t .* 'tsA, a •quare.' 

,. . /, - .+;.'. 'y however, like the negative one, 

.»: • .*- 4, '•* obje-tt of algebra. Bombelli 

.- « > >4+ .-, +'us\i the root of a cubic equation 

. -/ .u <A UApsfciiible quantities, is pre- 

» .* . *.» t'.'i T'SjU are real and possible: 

^'*4 a >>'# u.h kx \>\ a fiat ion of impossible 

v» < y>* *'■*! */*ui •Tti*eA to be used as 

•!:.».'* ,-«'/*- r»-mber of verified cases 

,' . ,. /•'■•* V* '"• '"*''** an algebraical ope- 

, 4 4 . ',, •..y». '/ .Mj, Iea/1» to a result in 

y ./,.'.•'• *; .*/**t, that result will be 

.. . , f r s >s.' + .w, u.*. rebelling contained 

/ ' ., > .. , ..',►' -V *.>^'i t/i symbols which 

' ^ . 1. * *>+ '/•♦-* *** &*A ufoa tho same sort 



t. f 

* 1» • '» 

of evidence as a physical law of nature ; it was cods:. 2 
round to prevail. It had also analogy in its -favour 
precisely the same law bad been observed as to nu~ 
quantities, though the explanation of the latter was oU. 
too soon to need the aid of induction in their case. 

We will suppose ourselves using these impossible f u 
ginary) quantities, not with a view to establish re»ulu 
to examine the consequences of applying to them pr^ 
the rules which have been shown to apply to quaL. 
The following is perhaps the shortest synthetical m -. 
treating the subject. 

If, by rules) we multiply together cos x+k sin x, 
cos y+k sin y, k being merely an abbreviation of J - 
so that #= - 1, A 8 = - fj (-1), * 4 =l, &a, we find * 

cos Oc+y) + k sin Gc+IT) 
if then ^ x=zcos x4-h sin x t we have 

T?(o:+y) = 0xXo>y; 
froni which relation, as shown at length in 
Theorem, it follows that 

cos x+k sin rc=K* 
whore K is a constant independent of x. From (h 
follows that 

cos nx+k sin n :r=(cos rc+A sin arlT 
which is called De Afoivre's Theorem. It is true t* 
values of n. Let n x~9 t which gives 

(0 9\+ 

cos^-r-* sin- j 

whore : n=x. The second side may take the form 

(eoa xf (1+ A>n a:)" or (I -8 sin* fcr)* (1 +A tin /' 
Let sin \x : \x=p, and tan x: xz=q, then it is knev: 
both p and q have the limit unity when x is dim.: 

without limit, fhe preceding is the product of (I -ij 

and (\+kqx)*: let these formula? be developed h 
binomial theorem, and they become (writing e : » for i 

6* P ft~l 

l-^+(J^) l 5 ;-2--...- 

i+*qp+*t* \± +*v* ^ 


If we now suppose n to increase without limit, x d;&.: 
ing without limit so that nx remains = £, p and a a- ;■: 
ing without limit to unity, we have unity as the W.: - 
first series, and 

1 + ^ + T + 273 + • • ' • ** f 

as that of the second, e being the base of Napier's logar 
[Logarithms.] Consequently 

cos 0+k sin 0=f , cos 0—k sin ft=c 

the second of which is obtained from the first (which > ' 
for all values of $) by writing —0 instead of 0. Froac :. 
by addition and subtraction, the well-known exp** 
expressions for the sine and cosine are deduced, nan-... 

cos ©= 


sin d= 

— € 

2 ' " Ik 

expressions which, however widely used, never fail ! 
true results, in all cases in which they give results cv 
ing only even powers of k, or real algebraical quant" - 

We shall give a glance at some of the symbolical 
quenoes of the preceding, previously to entering up^- ' 
rational explanation. 

1. The representation of impossible quantities 
might be supposed that such a symbol as k or *J{ —\)> 
lead to a number of other symbols, just as —I «r 
*/(—!). 8nch however is not the case, and it can be < 

shown that any algebraical expression, however eomplr- 
whkh is a function of */(- 1), can be reduced Co the 
A -fB V(— Di where A and B are possible quantities. : 
instance (k being V( - 1 ) ) 

ia+bk) m+nk =/ cos B+A. e\ sfn B 
where A and B are determined as follows. Let 


A«»Jog r-n*f Bam hg r | w l U 

N E G 


N E G 

f we take a simple quantity, y=a+bk, theri if t«n0=&:a, 
= V(£* + a')t we have 

y=r (cos0+*sin0)=ri u . 

2. The extension of the theory of logarithms. The Whole 
.•volution, or four right angles, being 2*r [Angle], We have 
■>•> •ivnr=\ f sin 2m*=0, where m h any whole number; 

iMtive or negative. Consequently 

« 2 " *' sr cos 2mir+k sin 2mw = 1 

»r all such values of m. If then x be the cornrriott alge- 
i .iical logarithm of y, positive or negative, we have 

* X i* m * k at ^i***"*-* 

y=€ ,yxl=e 

t) that according to the definition of a logarithm, the mo- 
hnt \vc admit impossible quantities, and in what sense 
><.'\cr wc explain them,, from that moment and in that 
r.<>c wc must say that x being the usual or real logarithm 
f //, it has an infinite number of other logarithms contained 
i the formula x+lmn-k. In the same manner, using 
l>n + \) it where m is a whole number (-(- or — ) we find 
)it — y, which, when we talk of real quantities, has no 
-anthra, has now an infinite number, included in the form 

.{. The complete extraction of the roots of any quantity. 
Vv know thaw has two square roots, three cube roots, and 
•ui fourth roots, since We can find them by common alge- 
ra. Now since unity can be represented in an infinite 

2jh •> h 

umber of different ways, in the formula « ' and since 

:c ?i\U root of this formula is 


n 2m* . t . 2mir 

t or cos H* sin , 

n n 

v mii<ht at first suppose that there is an infinite number 
f these roots, made py giving different whole values to m. 
»u examining them however it is found that they occur in 
ureols, each containing n distinct roots, and each parcel 
eing a repetition of the preceding one. [Hoot.] 

4. The complete conversion of trigonometry into a branch 
f algebra. We see that we have given symbolic expressions 
>r the sine and cosine of any angle, which would, were 
ich a thing necessary, enable us to dispense with separate 
• mi hols for these functions. 

j. Ready means of calculation, by means of the trigono- 
n.*tical tables, in cases where ordinary means fail. For 
i stance, in what is called the Irreducible Cass of cubic 
{ua' ions, Cardan's formula gives the root in the form 

If we assume a = tco&0, Ossfsinfl, or rsrVt^+o^Jt 

uiO=- f the preceding becomes (making te *f(— 1) ) 

Vr. {cosfl+ft sin0}J-f #*• {cob 6- A sin&Jl 
or t/r. {co* J0+*sirij0} + Vr {cos JO-ftsin }0} 

hich is 2 l/r. cos J0; and since tne original suppositions 
ill not be altered by writing 0+2*- and + 4* instead of 
.the results of these latter suppositions are equally values 
f the expression under calculation : so that its three values 

real under the extended meanings may be incongruous and 
self-contradictory under the limited meanings. Such was 
the case with the negative quantity, which is no less impos- 
sible than its square, considered with reference to strict 
arithmetical definitions. The preceding results, then, are 
rationally true, whenever such a signification is given to the 
symbols as will, first, satisfy the fundamental relations, se- 
condly, give rational meaning to V(-l). Ordinary alge- 
braical definitions only fulfil the first of those conditions. 

We shall now turn to the fundamental definitions of what 
we have called the geometrical algebra : this name is given 
because it is only in geometry that a subject matter has yet 
been found, our conceptions of which are wide enough to 
give meaning to all the symbols which result from the pri- 
mitive rules. In most of the objects of calculation we can 
only conceive two states, which we call diametrically oppo- 
site ; and this geometrical word enters here, precisely be- 
cause in geometry there are other states of opposition, of a 
weaker character, so that when we wish to express the most 
decided opposition, we turn to that sort of magnitude in 
which a less degree can be conceived. Thus we have no 
word drawn from the relation of loss and gain to express 
complete opposition ; nor could we have, since there is 
nothing less complete with which to compare it : between 
absolute loss and absolute gain there are no gradations. 
Thus property, debt, or neither, before, after, or now, may 
be compared with ascent, descent, or neither; but though 
we can, for instance, imagine time after to be represented 
by a line drawn north, and time before by another drawn 
southward, our power of comparison ends here ; it would be 
impossible to give necessary or even obviously convenient 
meaning to a line drawn east. But in geometry there are 
an infinite number of directions, no one of which is north or 
south, all being intermediate. Again, a gradual passago 
from one state to its opposite can generally only be attained 
by a passage through the intermediate state in which mag- 
nitude vanishes: for instance, a gradual loss of property 
followed by a gradual increase of debt requires that at one 
moment there should be neither property nor debt. But in 
geometry, a line can attain the direct opposite of its first 
position without changing its magnitude, by revolution 
round one of its extremities. These preliminary observa- 
tions will prevent its being matter of surprise if geometry 
should be fouhd to admit a wider use of symbols, con- 
sistently with rational interpretation, than arithmetic or tho 
algebra derived from it. 

We have explained the meaning of a + b, a — b t a 6, and 
a : b 9 from which it follows that we know how to construct 
a a, a a a, &c, which we may abbreviate into a*,a* % &c. 
And we are here in the position just now pointed out, 
namely, that some of the ordinary symbols of algebra have 
received meaning, whereas others are yet without it; for 

instance, a-*, a* , d*^-O f & c . And since our object is to 
detect meanings which shall make the symbolic relations 
of algebra* true, we must always interpret exponents so 
that their meanings may make the following relations 

'2-¥r. cos 


2 Vr. cos 






3' "* 3 ' ""* 3 

e three are distinct: but 0+6* (which might equally 

e written for 0) would give 



r. cos 

or 2</r. cob - 

repetition of the first This amounts to the discovery 

i <\v by Bombklli. 

Wc now come to the explanation of these quantities. 

Mice we have used no rules except those which apply to 

imI positive and negative quantities, it follows that if we 

ad merely laid down the symbolical foundations of algebra, 

.•ii-nit reference to the meaning of symbols, the symbol 

/< — ] ) and formula* in which it occurs would have been 

/ical consequences of the relations permitted at the out- 

r, as much as those in which no such sign occurs. It is 

1) when we come to attach meaning to signs, that we can 

> whether any result is real or not: and a result which is 

M ft 


_ _ -- _ , a ' = a 

We shall now proceed with the interpretation of 

1. The symbol — a must stand for a line of length equal, 
and direction opposite, to that of + a ; for — a means tho 
other side of a parallelogram of which the diagonal disap- 
pears, one side being a. 

2. a-» must represent 1 : a", and a must always repre- 
sent the unit line ; for a must be such that a m a = a m + p 
= a" 1 ; that is, a fourth proportional to 1, a°, and a w , is a m ; 
whence o° must be 1 as to length. In direction a m a is 
the same as that of a m ; whence the sum of the angles of 
a™ and d° is that of a"», or the angle of a is nothing. Again, 
a-» must be so explained that a" a-*, and a"-" or a , may 
be the same; whence a n a~ n — 1. 

3. a m,n must be so explained that <r ' =a m ; 

whence it means the first of n — 1 mean proportionals be- 
tween I and a m t inclined at an angle which is the nth part 
of the angle of a m . 

But it is necessary to notice that any angle is, consider- 
ed as pointing out a direction, the same thing as 2 jt -f- 0, or 
— 2 *> or 8 1 2 m w, m being a whole number That is td 



N E G 

\tr. 0-69, 0-4 w, 

+ at, e + e*. 

0-2*-, e, e + 2«- f 

+ 8w, ... 

' 4 2 4 

0*0 w 
4~2' 4' 4 + 2' 

0, , 3* 

4 4 2 

— -j- 2 s% • • • • 

ist, a hike which set* out from the ami line nay be eon- 
eerierf tv ba*e attained tbe position denoted by an angle 0, 
either by nom^ simply through 0, or by afterwards mak- 
rog **y number of complete revolutions in either direction. 
So ioo£ ** we multiply angles by a whole number, this 
makes no ambiguity ; for instance, if a hare the angle 0, 
or + 2x. fcc-,tf*has the angle 40, 40 + 8 w, &c all of 
WL/ h indicate the tame direction. But if we wish to find 
a 1 -* or to take tbe first of three mean proportionals be- 
tween I and a, inclined at the fourth part of the angle of a, 
then the fourth parts of the angles 


are severally 


giving a succession of directions, each of which diners from 
tbe preceding, not by four right angles, but by one right 
angle. There are then four distinct meanings of this sym- 
bol a> *. 

%. Tbe symbol */<—l) stands for a line equal in length 
to to* uiiit line, and inclined to it at a right angle ; for 1 
atj'j — 1 make two right angles with each other, whence 
t — j^.z M ihe mean proportional between land 1 (or 
1 I'h^.U u>'.v.u*A at half that angle, or at a right angle. 
S ;u.»ur;y — Ji - 1 ; it m the opposite direction, and makes 
Uirt* ; t\i\ *z#\<* +Ah the unit line. Also oV(— 1) i» * 
;.mt m A't}Tii eous) to a, but making an angle with the 
tu>t j^*>tr ixi'iyx by a rr.^jt arizle than the angle of a. 

i. Ji-.y ..u* u*lj n*jw Kce'iire a simple representation; 
Jut i^j,^4, ity:*it^4 at the angle to the unit line, is the 
t .t-jtvvv. vf a r&*aagie, of which the side in the direction 
v* o* *x t i.,ie i» a ws 0. and that perpendicular to the 
vs~: , as » & length a&in 0, so that its symbolical repre- 
tt.uts/:. js Jl—ij.a sin 0. Hence tbe line a, inclined at 
lueaAgle 0,b 

afcosd + V( — l).sin0). 

Hence we see the mooning of the symbol a,tfi^~" 1 ^; for 
since the definitions satisfy all tbe fundamental relations of 
algebra, the theorem 

.e^-^rr cos0+ V(- Dsm0 f 

which is a necessary consequence of these relations, re- 
quires us so to define the first side as to establish its iden- 
tity of meaning with the second. Consequently, «*^, k being 
J( -\), must represent a line equal in length to the unit 
1. .*, inclined at an angle 0. 

T , ev.'er further into the details of this extension of alge- 
v* -m-A t .\ reroute too great a length' we shall now proceed 
*., ./v.*..* r*tr«arks upon it. 

J; * .7 r>j Kt*,^'A object that it is founded on geometry, 
** % * . **r tlvit it i* not so much fourided on geometry 
«» • w •*' v, * Tr«e •vrnbolical algebra, which we draw 
*» t-tf. .' ****** from arithmetical suggestions, and 
.♦« .»r * 4 "« *;w» /-an*, io u> speak, from that science, found- 
. t r uv* vu*«r»j syiuboiieal definitions, is applied to geo- 
u#»'.** i*>»;*um: iu tue Latter science, and in the latter only, 
o. *u tiud li-jtioui of magnitude, the different affections of 
»u<<;ti aie buflicieut to supply rational meaning to all its 
»> unjoin Let any one produce other ideas of magnitude, of 
lyw aud gain for instance, as varied in their different affec- 
tions, and the general truths of symbolical algebra will find 
u new application. 

The subject-matter of the preceding algebra is geometry 
of only two dimensions; whereas it might be supposed that 
the application would never be complete until it embraced 
geometry of three dimensions. No such extension has how- 
ever yet been made ; though it is not unreasonable to sup- 
pose that it may be made at some future time. 

But perhaps it may be said that this new algebra, being 
based upon its own definitions, however logically its conclu- 
sion* may follow from those definitions, can afford no aid 
to the common algebra in explaining those quantities which 
are as impossible in the latter as they are possible in the 
former. "What does it profit us, troubled as we are with 
mu*u' 1% which upon our own definitions we cannot ration- 
u * •'x;..* n, u> know that those same arbitrary marks, being 
Uu+uc u> L«\e other meanings, would not present the same 

difficulties? It may almost seem as if we abocld r. 
ourselves from the trouble of mvestigaling tbe err: - 
process which ends in 2 + 2 = 5, by remember..--: 
those who should mean by 5 what we mean by 4 w 
see any n ecessi ty for revising the operation*. Tbe d~! 
thus broadly stated must be felt more or less by ere-. 
before he can entirely make up his mind, if njt • 
reception, at least to the proposed application of sjia. 
algebra. The answer is as follows : — 

In the common operations of algebra we do r. - 
particular value upon any symbols or meaning*, exri 
so far as they answer our purpose. If that purpose . 
discipline of the mind, there is no point at which i r 
enlargement of its power takes place than mu&: i. 
when it begins to comprehend that any net of oVi 
may be such as to require restriction upon operat. -. 
that the alternative is, the enlargement of the defc . 
an extent which will allow of every result of <r r r 
being rationally explained. If it be one of the err 
which our bounded faculties are liable, that we m n 
tbe processes and mechanism of a genus upon tee - 
tions incidental to the consideration of a specie*. < 
thing of that kind, we have made a discovery, when • 
our error, which is well worth the trouble, even lesv. . 
of consideration tbe expansion of views which is cbta.- 
the investigation of the correction. But if the ptr r 
the investigation of a formula for practical use, « ^ 
physics or any other branch of application, not hire i 
more indifferent than the manner in wbieb our r<a~ 
obtained, provided only we are sure of its truth. 

When we reason upon the principles of the old n 
we are sufficiently sure of the truth of unr results, p it 
actual verification, partly by those imperfect vievs .. 
nature of symbolical algebra which preceded t^ 
science. But it was not always possible to arrive -« 
highest degree of mathematical assurance, for ereo .i 
where a result could be obtained free from impoasib 
tities, the intermediate steps could not always be fu. • 
prehended ; and their verification, if required, was - 
times (though not often) imperfect: and in every r^ 
must be remembered, no result was fit for actual apf ... 
until the impossible quantities had disappeared. 

Let us say that we are now considering sues i <v 
namely, one in which quantities impossible m cr~ 
algebra have been used in the process, though t>. 
appear in the result. The consequence is that if t\ 
tended definitions were employed, the answer reprc- - 
line drawn in the direction of the unit line if posme, 
the contrary direction if negative; and tbe same - 
symbols of which the answer is a function. But k: 
measured in that unit line the extended definitions c 
with the ordinary ones, as has been noticed. So thit, ~ 
as the result is concerned, we are sure of tbe same i • 
(when there is an answer that we call possible), wbet 
employ one or the other set of definitions; with tbe 2- 
tage of being able, in employing* the new definitions/ 
a rational interpretation upon every step of tbe proct*. 

But has the new algebra no impossible quantities m 
to itself? We cannot tell, for all time to come, ***-'■ 
answer to thir question shall be; at present we a: ■- 
that though there are symbols which would indio ? ' 
vious misconception if tney appeared in a result, y* 
are none which do not admit of interpretation, f - 
stance, we see that angles in our definitions may be t * 
or negative (measured on one side or the other of f>- 
line), but we have no angle which V (— 1) cau rep 
If then, in the most extended algebra, the answer 
question, ' At what angle must a line assumed =* 
clined to satisfy such and such conditions?' were, 
angle must be a + b *J ( - 1),' we should at first w •'• 
the question was impossible. But if we examine i»'~ 
we see that a line A applied at an angle a + b J ( - ' 
represented by 

j,(.+»v l -ow(-i) which »a«-* r"i- v 

when treated by symbolical rules. We should cc: J 
then that we have made some error by which h was i** 
mined in a manner which cannot satisfy tbe condiun^.N 
that a line equal in length to h *~ b , inclined at ar. '-4 
a, will satisfy them. This last answer must at least t- 4 
amined, before it is asserted that the question is imrv«*sj 
The following formulae, if they occur, may be intexpn •:* i 1 



N E I 

i' i 'li>n ileal expressions given in the second sides (k = 

- -1.)) 

cos (d -f- bk) = cos a - —  — sin a. — . k 

in ui + M) = sin a 


+ cos a 

&- r-* 


2 ' 2 

The whole of the ambiguous cases of algebra depend upon 

\ that any quantity x can also be represented by x.t nk , 
I'Tc a represents any whole number of revolutions. As 
i_r as only multiples of a occur, different appearances of 
m piescnt themselves, not indicating real alteration 
fior of length or direction; but when submultiples of a 
\ir. an alteration of direction takes place, unless such sub- 
■Iiiple be also an exact number of revolutions. 
f he logarithmic theory of the most extended algebra 

us a particular notice. It is remarkable that the first 
r of it was given by a purely symbolical investigation, 

1 unfed entirely with reference to the common algebraical 
'.unions. Some years ago Mr. Graves* asserted that the 
anihms of unity, in the most general sense of the term, 
a Id be contained in the formula 

2 irm V— 1 . , „ , — 

-= , instead of 2 vm v — 1 ; 

1 + 2 *W-1 

iiul n being any whole numbers. 

f we define a logarithm by the symbolic relation 
; * = x, where a is an arbitrary base, and if, for well- 
•\\ n reasons of a purely numerical character, we assume c 
»e t lie length of the base, we may ask what is the logarithm 
i unit inclined at the angle 0, the base being € inclined at 
in--le (p. The answer must be such a value of x as will 



or x = 


1 + k 

'. Inch if, as we may do, we increase or diminish either <£ 

' by a whole number of revolutions, we find, as in other 

s, that a line which has attained a certain position by 

number of revolutions, distinguishes itself, always in 
n, and sometimes in results, from the same line in the 
e position, attained by another number of revolutions. 
• ur unit be in the unit line after m revolutions, and the 
:» he also in the unit line after n revolutions, the loga- 
m of such a unit to such a base is what was given as the 
inthin of unity by Mr. Graves. Nor is the preceding 
•ess impossible: for it shows a set of real operations by 
<h e, inclined at an angle ^>, might be converted into a 

inclined at an angle 0. If we ask whether the f un da- 
it al properties of logarithms remain true, we shall find 
; the logarithm of a unit added to the logarithm of a 
: differently inclined, and with a differently inclined 
*, is still the logarithm of a unit, in which both the 
ios have received another alteration. If the logarithms 
t\o units inclined at angles 6 and 0', to bases inclined at 
;ul <//, be added together, the result is the logarithm of 
itt inclined at an angle 

, 9 (<ft'-<ft) a 

base inclined at the angle 

exi + ^ + a'o-t-^) 

ut these conclusions do not hold when the logarithm of 
added to that of b t a and b not being units, and the 
>s being differently inclined: nor is it necessary here to 
L- the extensions which the above formulae must receive 
.,ch a case. 

no following list contains all the recent works of which 
(-.n collect the titles, in which general algebra, or 

• •iflirulties which preceded its introduction, are con- 
:vd to any extent:— Woodhouse. ' Phil. Trans./ 1802 ; 

• 1 house, * Principles of Analytical Calculation,' 1803; 
.«, ' Phil. Trans ,' 1806 ; Argand, 'Essai sur la Meniere 
i,|)i«'>enter les Quantitcs Jmaginaires,' Paris, 1806; 

:x papers in the ' Annales de Malhematiques, for 1813, 
: G.jinperU, ' On the Principles and Application of 

l>r . f i*5snr of jurisprudence in University College, London : in a paper 
I id ill.- ' Phil. Trans.' for 1829. Thin extension, however »im ply it 
'•iiy fruin the extended definitions, excited some discussion and opposi- 
.. i .->i .uivnricril in con election with the ordinary principles of algebra. 

P. C, No. 994, 

Imaginary Quantities,' 1817 and 1818; Warren, ' On the 
Geometrical Representation of the Square Roots of Nega- 
tive Quantities/ Cambridge, 1828 (the fust systematic ele- 
mentary work based on extended definitions) ; Peacock, 
' Treatise on Algebra,' Cambridge, 1830 (the first work on 
symbolical algebra); Davies Gilbert,  Phil. Trans./ 1831, 
'On the Nature of Negative and Impossible Quantities/ 
Peacock, ' Report on certain branches of Analysis, in the 
Report of the Third Meeting of the British Association/ 
London, 1834. (This work contains the modern history of 
the extensions, and an account of several of those above 
cited.) See also a Review of Professor Peacock's 'Algebra/ 
in the ninth volume of the ' Journal of Education ;' and 
De Morgan's * Trigonometry/ 1837. On the method of de- 
termining the signs of geometrical magnitudes, see the 
* Differential Calculus,' in ' Library of Useful Knowledge/ 
chapter xiv. 

We cannot omit to mention a paper by Sir William Ha- 
milton, recently published in the 'Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy.' The author treats algebra as the science 
of time, not of magnitude ; and as far as the explanation 
of positive and negative quantities are concerned, it is not 
difficult to follow him. The symbol V (—1) however is of 
a harder character. M. Cauchy and others had previously 
considered it as merely a symbolical contrivance to express 
the coexistence of two equations ; thus 

a + b V(-D = c + d*/(-l) 
is a well-known method of implying a = c and b = d, both in 
one equation. The manner in which Sir William Hamilton 
has connected this symbol with his system would justify us 
in saying that, if his science of time were re-translated into 
a science of magnitude, his explanation of impossible quan- 
tities would fall back into the one just alluded to; and it is 
difficult to describe it more fully without entering further 
into the matter than we have room for. We are inclined to 
think that this explanation of algebra with reference to 
time may finally be admitted as one method of supplying 
the foundations of the purely symbolical science ; but we 
must confess ourselves not yet sufficiently clear upon the 
manner in which the symbol V(— D is connected with its 
definition, to hazard a positive opinion. 

NEGRO. [Man.] 

NEGROPONT. [Eubcea.] 

NEGUNDO, a genus of trees, separated from Acer be- 
cause of its pinnated leaves and dioecious apetalous flowers. 
Two species are known, one of which is a handsome hardy 
tree, inhabiting the United States of North America, and 
now common in the gardens of this country ; the other is 
a native of Mexico, and at present but little known : it may 
be a mere variety of the other. 

NEHEMIAH. [Ezra.] 

NEISSE is a principality in Silesia, the larger portion of 
which, containing 480 square miles, with 110,000 inhabit- 
ants, belongs to Prussia; the remainder, which contains 
320 square miles, with 56,000 inhabitants, belongs to 
Austria. The Prussian portion is very fertile, but the 
Austrian part is mountainous. Till 1S20 the whole prin- 
cipality belonged to the bishop of Breslau, who now possesses 
only the Austrian portion, with the title of a duchy; the 
Prussian portion is converted into a royal principality, in- 
cluding the circles of Grottkau and Neisse, in the govern- 
ment of Oppeln. 

NEissB,the capital, in 51° 25' and 17° 20' E. long., 
is situated in the Prussian portion, at the conflux of the 
rivers Neisse and Biele, in a marshy and unhealthy spot, 
574 feet above the level of the sea. It is said to have been 
built in the year 9G6, but wa3 not fortified till 1594, since 
which time it has undergone several sieges, and its works 
have been gradually strengthened and extended, so that it 
is now one of the most important fortresses in the Prussian 
dominions. In 1743 Frederick II. laid the first stone of 
Fort Preussen, on an eminence, at the foot of which is the 
newly-built and strongly fortified suburb Friedrichsstadf, 
which extends to the Neisse. The fortress is surrounded 
by broad and deep moats, and the surrounding country can 
he laid under water in case of a siege. Neisse is a clean well- 
built town. The public buildings are, a splendid episcopal 
palace, six Roman Catholic churches, a Protestant church, 
a Catholic gymnasium, a town -hall, and a synagogue. 
There are numerous schools and charitable institutions. 
The gymnasium has very fine collections of various kinds ; 
but the library of 10,000 volumes was destroyed in the 
siege in 1807. As the capital of the principality and the 

Vol. XVI.-T 

N E L 138 N E L 

He is also remarkable for having been a bounty ' ,» • . 
tor, both during his life and at his death, to m-t  • 
the education of the poor and the diffusion of i 

He was the grandson of Lewis Roberts, a r : 
London, who is believed to be the person of iha* :.. 
wrote 'The Merchant's Map of Commerce,' pM,\ . 
and whose descendants, the Roberts, Nelson, ar- ii 
were very extensively engaged in the trade to \l. I 
How far he was himself connected with corarcif 
appear ; but he was of Trinity College, Cam' 

circle, the town is the seat of the courts of justice and 
different public offices ; and the inhabitants, who are about 
11,000, gain their subsistence by breweries and manufac- 
tures of linen, woollen, ribands, and stockings, and a great 
trade in yarn. There are likewise a royal manufactory of 
arms and a powder-mill. In the environs there are quarries 
of excellent freestone, of which considerable quantities are 

nent song- writer Russia has yet produced, was born in 1 751, 
and served in the campaigns against the Turks, from the 

year 1770 to 1774, and, after the peace between the two J while a young man elected a Fellow of the R\ 
countries, accompanied the Russian mission to Constan- \ He was intimate with Hal ley, with whom he n-. 
tinople. Subsequently an office in the civil department was 1 France and Italy. 

bestowed upon him by the emperor Paul, and in 1797-8 he i It was while at Rome that he met with the '.•'. 
accompanied that sovereign in his journey to Kazan and came his wife in 168*2, Lady Theophila Lury, -. 
White Russia. Tins last mark of the imperial favour was 1 baronet and daughter of the earl of Berkeley. I 
followed by others of a more substantial nature, for an i was a Roman Catholic, having been led to enter \\. 
estate with several hundred peasants was shortly after al- by the celebrated Bossuet. 
lotted to him as tie reward of his services, besides the This circumstance was a great grief to Mr. Nt\ 
order of St. Anne, to which that of St. Alexander Nevsky i mind was much occupied with the considcra'.i .. 
was added in 1m»*i. | the practical and controversial points in divimtj. 

Though, considered singly, his songs and ballads may ap- , chief friends were eminent divines in the En: 

particularly Bull, Hickes, Lloyd, and TilUs.:. 
especially was his intimate friend. 

At the Revolution he scrupled to take the rc:!> - 
William, and remained a non-juror till the ur 
when he returned to the Church of England l> : 

He died at Kensington, and was buried in th • - 
of St. George's, Queen-square. 

pear merely elegant p. -deal trifles, and indicate no very 
Li^h literary eft" rt cr ambition, they prove him to have pos- 
sessed a decided talent fur that species of composition, and 
the p.'wer of infusing into it a gracefulness and charm for the lanz-uasre a fiord id no prevuus models. To great 
s;m; hcty they unite great tenderness and warmth of feel- 
ius: He died in ltviv, at the ajjc of 7s. 

i;:-?.:.^. 1 I The following: are his principal works:—' Pnc: 

NELLK.REEN MOUNTAINS. [Hindustan, vol. Devotion, in relation to the End as well as to tr. * 
x:i, p.Sti'O t Religion:' 'Companion for the Festivals and h-> 

NELLORE, a district of the Caroatic province, lying ' Church of England;' 'Great Duty of fro; 
between the ] 4th and Kth decrees of norih latitude." It Christian Sacrifice;' • An Account of the L:fear./ 
is b-»rr. K-d on the north by Gut: tore, on the east by the of William Kettlewell.* He also publi-hcd \*< ' 
Bi> of Bengal, m the south by the northern division of works of Bishop Bull, who had been his tutor. ".. 
Arrot, ar.J en the west by Cuddapah. The district is well count of his life and writings. 
wa'.t-re-d hy mm} stn. am s. *h. in the Eastern Ghauts " The lonsr inscription on Mr. Nelson's mor.inru 
at.d f^.i :taj the Biv el' Bengal. It is aUo tra\ersed from bv Bishop Smalndjje, mav be read in the'Lv 
west to east by the Pennar. T'je principal towns of the . dotes of the Eighteenth Century,' by John N 1 '. * 
(i>tr;r: are Ncllore, CK.cde. and Sarap:l!v. * ru 190, where is a fuller account of the «.! 

Tl.c Ryrtwary sjsum aim >st universally in article. 
Nt. re, the riiltnau.r pa>*nj the rent of the land directly NELSON, HORATIO, son of Edmund N\ ' 
into ;re hand* ef the c \crniccnt c^.lcet^r. The gross of Burnham Thorpe, and Catherine his «:?e. *"• 
rvver.ue rtTti^t*! .n l^T amv^ud to f.s>,>CV. As regards his father's re*:der.ce in Norfolk, on the £•{' s " 
the numbers of the population, very d.rTe rent statements 17o>. H;s mother died in 1767, leaving eicliti- 
are £ \^n. A:?rri."g to returns n-ale to the government ' whom an early provision was desirable, on acf 
cf \1*It^ :n I-.!., the total po; u,ati »n was 4*'.J,-;t.r; while slender income of their father. Nelson had r,e *.r 
t:,e n-:u:»er c: inhabitants acco:d.r.£ to a statement bid frame nor a hardy constitution, yet his wea* •* 
Sf np :ir..i3-;r.t in 1* ? 3 was 4>2,5«JU males ar.d 406.927 disincline h:ra to leave heme: he embraced * 
^2-,-s ;^e;>.tr V.%4'7. T.tere is evidently a great opportunity of srointr, to sea, which was onV;o«l 'h 
r- <f%e :r. cr.e ^ f these stitements: an 1 it is probable, as position in the navy which was held byhi>i< f 
:r^ *. T trcr.?e ii:-u:::s to the number of 4i\\Ui»0 exactly, Suckhrg, who had been appointed totheRu*' 
:. i: *he err r h.-j. re-u'.iei f. m the acc.deatal substitution . in which Ntlson was entered as mi«l>hipman. 1 
of r* rf - re f r ar. *her in the returns of 1S22 ; the larger liable was so^n afterward^ pad off, and <env^ ' 
: :- v . r. "^ ~J u ver. ts.:q m re crcumstantiality, has the sh-p, t » his relation was appointed, ht-: 
— i*«rr r-.i.V n .feu:;r,c>i. ' ah'.e for a b\v f i e entered the merchant sen "-• 

>• «r. r :7^:-c:^* have Ktn fjund in the district, but active employment in an outward bound U.*' 
-*'• i • >- r.7.--Tr«*\r^»> thatw.i.ait of the.r being profitably Mr. Sou:iuy says, *He returned a good jra" 
w -»- ^ Ac :> -t.-j...c -viii.t.o vf -si'.t i< made for account but with a hat:ed v^f the ktr.^'s service, a:.d - % 
r -.» r '-n -_-?::: ; e cvas: ne^r the tcv»u of Nellorw cc-mm.-n ant on j sa :*.ors, ** tfi the m >>t lrtuv. . 
I - - n .! Nsli m :s ;«.:;: ittvl »n tr.e south Kink of better man." To rem ve this hat red. hi*ur.r>r 
-"-- l.-.:iz ::>::, .n .4" -.-' N. *?.?. and m.* 3* E. Leg. on b ard hi* ci-arl -hip in the Thame-, r* 
T' - : *~ -? s-r-. ^:.-c- ". » a :;.*.d »./.L with some towers *e:vice was les^ eniert r»s:ng than ur.ghl lu'.el* 
- * -■• a* .: *e -« s I: is a p ytf. ;s rh^ce. and a con- :t wa* aiixaniajeous t3 Nel-"»n in two re-pee'*. ■' 
i ---. : l- .-* f :»_- t« i- oar:.*, i en by the ir.hat.t- hs^i to overcome hs prtj*.:d:oe acamst the ua ; 
a.* - :-t :-.:.! ? .-.-> u w: -h :> three vi carters of a acquire skill 1:1 pik'tsge, which he alterward* tur- 
ti . . _- .-*---■- '. .-•' we \-i r-.>hei >I'ops but there a.tvunt. By his ur.cie's influence he ohtane-U ' 
wz :■ : - '-. j. . ": . i >- :^ the tvwn. There is a bojnl the Carcass. Capt. Lutw.dge, in the Ni-rt:. . 
Urn h-r -s : -. iV :-:--. w._a i> here three-quarters of a pehiaen under Capt. Phipps: on his return ho 
i* fc . v '_-. y^n b:ard tt.e Seahorse, and went to the East h^* 

• - - #. ~ "."" 3/ N *i'_ zr\ * s > E. !:rr.. is trre- from whence he was invalided. Recoveri^c his • 

•he passage lrme. he was appointed acliK^-«t v - ,<r 
Worw*ter. an i >ub>eo ;:< n: I % . icu tenant of i tu* L 
». k--^_ T _ *- r-:.^ - ;» c ■■*•-."'.*- st.;::. r.ed. the Br.stol : e:a:mar. ier of the Badger, brici" 1 ; # 

a:;i rv>*; to the H.aci. in broke, June. ' 1. • 
di>t pc^ii^d k ra<**i:* in the sie^e of Fort fc- r 
iar.-. = :L.a, ar.i t.\k the is'.ar.d of St Bartol rmo * 
rciu.-ed hu c:e x freai iCv to 10 men, and N» -; 
ly d-.>ea$e. wjsvb.^ed to return home, 1>* '^ 
ha\ .n^ restored h:a, he was appointed to the X 

• i 

; -z. Pi - -ir. 

w. _a i> here three-quarters of a 

it. *~ .. * > E. !?r:r.. is trre- 

s ^t v i :".t V-;* :.: p< tvtter than 

^ i -f ?■- 

- i- i t_ .*. eh It his a f.rt. 

V* "•- »- ^ ~« *^ ^»  i • » r » m- i»»»« *'.".* 

" r "~ 

.; ...... 

. - - y. "■ "  • ". ive 1 "g been . 
' . • ?c . — ? ii. i r»^ is j^tsa. ns. 




after being thrice wounded, was blown up in his ship 
L'Orient, part of whose mainmast was made into a coffin by 
order of Captain Hallowell, and by him presented to Nelson. 
Nelson received a severe wound in his forehead from a piece 
of langridge-shot. The Culloden grounded at the commence- 
ment of the action, and was unable to take part in it. On 
this occasion Nelson was created Baron Nelson of the Nile, 
and pensions of 3000/. per annum were settled on him and 
his two next heirs male. The thanks of the parliament and 
gold medals were voted to him and all the captains engaged. 
From this time Nelson remained chiefly employed on the Nea- 
politan coasts, during which period he sanctioned that which 
must ever remain a blot on his character, and which tar- 
nished the honour of the British flag— the murder of Prince 
Carraccioli. Capua and Gaeta now surrendered to the 
naval force under Nelson's orders. In February, 1800, 
Nelson sailed for Malta, and captured the French ship 
of the line Genereux, which escaped from Aboukir, and 
also a frigate. On Lord Keith's return from England, 
Nelson came home, leaving Captain Trowbridge in com- 
mand of the squadron blockading Malta, which island 
capitulated in September, 1800. Within three months after 
his return, he separated from Lady Nelson, in consequence 
of his infatuated attachment to Lady Hamilton. He 
sailed, March 12, 1801, as second in command to Sir Hyde 
Parker, to the Baltic, with a fleet of eighteen sail of the 
line, frigates, bombs, fire-ships, &c, amounting in all to 
fifty-three sail, having on board the 49th regiment, two 
companies of rifles, and a detachment of artillery. The 
fleet arrived in the Sound, and after some time lost in ne- 
gotiation by Mr. Vansittart, anchored between the island of 
Huen and Copenhagen. Lord Nelson having offered his 
services in the attack on the Danish fleet, he was detached 
with twelve ships of the line and smaller craft, making thirty- 
six sail, 1st April, 1801, and anchored at dark off Draco Point, 
two miles from the Danish line. The formidable force opposed 
to the British consisted of eighteen vessels, mounting 628 
guns, chiefly 36 and 34 pounders, manned by 4849 men, 
moored in a line a mile in length, flanked by two batteries, 
called Trekroner, of thirty 24-pounders and thirty-eight 36- 
pounders, with furnaces, commanded by block-ships. The 
action commenced at nine a.m, and lasted five hours, when 
a truce was agreed upon by the crown-prince sending the 
Danish adjutant-general to the commander-in-chief to settle 
the terms, in reply to ' Lord Nelson's celebrated note : 
* Vice-Admiral Lord Nelson has been commanded to 
spare Denmark when she no longer resists. The line of 
defence which covered her shores has struck to the British 
flag ; but if the firing is continued on the part of Den- 
mark, be must set on fire all the prizes he has taken, with- 
out having the power of saving the men who have so nobly 
defended them. The brave Danes are the brothers, and 
should never be the enemies of the English.' The British 
killed and mortally wounded were 350 ; and the wounded 
8 o0. The Danish loss was estimated at between 1600 and 
1800 men killed and wounded: of the eighteen floating 
batteries, thirteen were taken or destroyed. 

Amicable relations having been restored between Eng- 
land and the northern powers. Lord Nelson returned in 
command of the squadron to England (Sir Hyde Parker 
having been recalled), when the thanks of parliament were 
voted to him for Copenhagen. To allay the public alarm 
excited by Bonaparte's proposed invasion, Nelson took the 
command of the shores, reconnoitred Boulogne in the Me- 
dusa frigate, attacked the flotilla in the mouth of the harbour, 
and withdrew with a loss of 172 men, having gained no ad- 
vantage. From this time he lived in retirement in Surrey, 
till he was called on to assume the Mediterranean com- 
mand, lie hoisted his flag in the Victory, on war breaking 
out in 1803. His chief employment was watching the French 
in Toulon. On the 1 7th January, 1 805, the French fleet put to 
sea under vice-admiral Villeneuve, but was driven back by 
heavy gales. Villeneuve sailed again on the 29th of March, 
received a reinforcement at Cadiz, and made for Martinique, 
wuli seventeen sail of the line, seven frigates, and four 
sloops. On the 12th May, Lord Nelson sailed for the West 
Indies in pursuit of Villeneuve with ten ships of the line and 
three frigate*, and arrived at Barbadoes on the 4th of June, on 
vthich da> Admiral Villeneuve sailed from Martinique, and 
having effected nothing except the recapture of the Diamond 
Rork, and made prizes of a convoy of fifteen sail of West 
Indiameii, returned to Europe, and arrived off Cape Finis- 
;, July 9. Lord Nelson quitted Antigua, June 18th, 

and made Cape St. Vincent, July 17th, having "jecn j» 
sixty-six days. Thus frustrated in his plans, be judn<* ; 
to reinforce the Channel squadron, lest the enemy *► 
bear down on Brest. 

With this view he joined Admiral Cornwallis off IV 
and leaving his fleet there, he went home, and sUik. 
flag. He hoisted it again in the Victory on the I i 
September, 1805, and arrived off Cadiz on the *2V. 
birth- day), to take command of the Mediterranean 
The force under him consisted of twenty-seven sail 
line, and four frigates, which he withdrew from the \ 
of Cadiz to a station sixteen or eighteen leagues * 
westward, in the hope of inducing the enemy to nut i 
On October 21st, at day-break, the combined rren- 
Spanish fleets, consisting of thirty-three sail of the }:■> 
seven frigates, were seen ahead twelve miles to lee war. 
1 1 h. 40m., while bearing down in two lines on the t 
whose position was in the form of a crescent, con ■: 
wards the British, Lord Nelson hoisted the celebrat* \ 
graphic signal, 'England expects every man to do h.» 
At ten minutes past noon Colli ngwood, in the Rowi " 
reign, commenced the action on the part of the Bw-»* 
one p.m. the Victory passed under the stern of uW B 
taur. In the heat of the action, about Hi. 2Sm, -u • 
the act of turning in his walk on the quarter-dec*. I 
Nelson received his death-wound by a musket-UL. 
from the Redoubtable, which entered his left should- 
lodged in the spine. He expired in three hours an<* 3 
The total British' loss was 450 killed, 1250 wounded s 
teen French and Spanish ships were captured, and cm . 
Admiral Dumanoir escaped to the southward with f * 
which were shortly after taken by Sir R. Strachan. A 
Gravina, with the remaining eleven ships, got into I . 

On the 9th of January, 1806, the body of NcL- 
buried at St. Paul's. His brother William was err. 
earl, with a grant of 6000/. per annum ; 10.000Z. wcr. 
to each of his sisters, and 100,000/. for the purchase 

Sir James Mackintosh says, ' Nelson seems to birc 
born with a quick good sense, an affectionate heart • 
high spirit ; he was susceptible of enthusiasm either • 
tender or the proud feelings, and easily melted or tafL- 
to say that he was fearless seems unneoessarr; be rei 
merely averse to falsehood or artifice, but ne w i:i 
highest degree simple and frank. These quahtie* f  
no small part of his genius ; they secured to htm at: it 
and confidence, and revealed to him the feelinip : 
men, that great secret in the art of command, winch * 
alone can never diselose. His understanding wa» - 
trated on his profession, and as danger always excite 
it does not disturb, by stimulating his mind in the n» . 
action it roused his genius to the highest exertions, 
sion for glory, indignant contempt of money, the >ir.-v 
his character, and energy of his sayings, distimru - 
from other modern heroes; while the murder of Ott 
and his breach of faith to the two garrisons in tfc<? " 
Naples are too atrocious to pass without notice. •' 
lieved the prisoners or their ringleaders deserved a » 
thought that the existence of the government reqr.r . . 
rible example ; by this error in judgment, by the <l~. 
ness of guilty passions, and the maddening power 
tical fanaticism, he was driven into these deplorable . 

'The death of Nelson/ says Southey, * was felt in I . 
as a public calamity ; yet he cannot be eaid to ha* . 
prematurely whose work was done, nor ought he 
lamented who died so full of honours and at the be 
human fame/ 

(James's Naval History; Southey's L\fe o/ >• 
Sir J. Mackintosh.) 

NELUMBlA'CEiE, a natural order of exogenous 
by some writers associated with NymphssaceaB, or 
lilies, which they resemble in appearance and mi- 
life, inhabiting the fresh waters of the temperate \ . 
the world, and producing large polypetalous flowed 
numerous stamens. But these orders differ in such :• 
ant circumstances that they can hardly be regarded a> - 
of very close alliance, much less as members of tiu 
order ; for Nelumbiacese have no albumen, and their - 
of female organs is broken up into its original element -^ 
in Nymphaeaceae there is an abundance of albumen, i 
female system is completely consolidated. 

Nelumbiacess are readily known by their carpels 
distinct, one-seeded, and buried in the cavities of & 



N E P 

Bat even if we cannot allow Nemesius all the credit that 
has been claimed for him, still from his general knowledge 
of anatomy and physiology (which is quite equal to that of 
the professional men of his time), his acuteness in exposing 
the errors of the Stoics and the Manichees, the purity and 
elegance of his style compared with that of his contempo- 
raries, and the genuine piety which shows itself throughout 
his work, he has always ranked very high in the list of an- 
tient Christian philosophers. The following opinions in his 
book are recorded by Sprengel {Hist, de la Med.) as worthy 
of notice: 1, He calls the substance of the lungs AfyMtK 
*&pZ, ' frothy flesh' (cap. 28, p. 256) ; 2, he distinguishes the 
nerves from' tendons, and says that the former possess the 
power of sensation, which the latter do not (cap. 27, p. 25 1 ) ; 
3, he says that the semen is prepared in the brain, that it 
descends by certain vessels (which he calls ' two veins and 
two arteries') situated behind the ears, which he says is the 
reason why ' when those veins that are near the ears and 
those near the carotid arteries (jeapcortfac, or, as some read, 
irapmrttact ' the parotid glands') are wounded, the animal 
becomes barren ;' that it is distributed throughout the 
whole body, and is deposited at last in the testicles (c. 26, 
p. 244) ; 4, he explains the senses, like Aristotle, by an 
intelligent spirit, which is propagated from the organ of 
sensation to those of the senses (c. 6, p. 176); 5, he places 
the sensations in the anterior ventricles of the Drain, 
the intellect in the middle, and the memory in the poste- 
rior (c. 13, p. 204); 6, he says that the elements com- 
posing the human body are in a manner mutually opposed 
to each other, and that the assistance of certain inter- 
mediate substances is necessary in order to effect their 
union (c. 5, pp. 151-156); and 7, that food and medicines 
only diner inasmuch as the former is similar to the ele- 
mentary particles of our body, while the latter are opposed 
to them (c. 1, p. 49). The treatise irtpi e^crewc dvOpfarov, 
' De Natura Hominis,' was first edited by Valla in Latin, 
Lugd. 1538, ap. Seb. Gryphium; the first Greek edition 
was by BUebodius, Antwerp, 1565, 8vo., ap. Christ Plantin ; 
the next was by Dr. (afterwards bishop) Fell, Oxon., 1671, 
6vo. ; the last and most complete is by Matthaei, Hato 
Magd., 1802, 8vo. There is an English translation by 
George Wither, Lond., 1636, 12 mo., and a German one by 
Odterhammer, Sahtburg, 1819, 8vo. 

NEMORHiEDUS, Colonel Hamilton Smith's name 
fur the Goral antelopes. [Antelope, vol. ii., p. 89.] 

NEMO'S! A, a genus of birds established by Vieillot, and 
placed by Mr. Swainson in the subfamily Tanagrina in his 
family Fringillidae. [Tanaorin*.] 

NE'MOURS. [Seine et Marne.] 

NE'MOURS, DUKES OF, a title derived from a town 
of France in the department of Seine et Marne. It was 
borne first by a branch of the Armagnac family, the last of 
whom, Louis d* Armagnac, duke of Nemours, held a com- 
mand in the army of Louis XII., in Italy, against the 
Spaniards under Gonsalo of Cordova, and was killed at the 
battle of Cerignola in Apulia, in April, 1503. With him 
en (ltd the line of Armagnac, which was descended from 
Oiribcrt, son of Clotarius II., who died a.d. 630. The 
duchy of Nemours was then bestowed by Louis XII. upon 
Gaston de Foix, son of Mary, the sister of the king. 
Gaston fell, at twenty- three years of age, in the battle of 
Ravenna, against the Spaniards and Italians, in 1512. The 
duchy of N6raours was afterwards given by Francis I. to 
hi* uncle Philip of Savoy, in 1528, in whose line it con- 
tinued till 1659 ; when Henry of Savoy, duke of Nemours, 
died, the last male descendant of Philip. His widow 
Mary of Orleans, daughter of the duke of Longueville, 
survived him many years. She inherited in 1694, from her 
brother the Abb6 de Longueville, the county of Neufchitel, 
in Switzerland, and died in 1707: with her ended the line 
of Orleans Longueville. [Neufchatel.1 The title of duke 
of N7*mours is now borne by the second son of the present 
king of the French, Louis Philippe. 

NEN, River. [Northamptonshire.] 

NE'NNIUS, or N1NNIUS, a monk of Bangor, in 
Wales, who lived in the first part of the ninth century, 
according to several passages of his own work, if these 
passages are genuine. Vossius (De Historicit Latinis) 
says that he lived in the early part of the seventh century, 
but he assigns no authority for this assertion. Nennius 
states himself to have been a Briton, aud not a Saxon, and 
a disciple of the holy bishop Elbodus, or Elvodug. He 
wrote a history of Britain, styled ' Eukgium Britannia, 1 


whioh, he says at the beginning, he compiled from a* 
could find ; * from the Roman annals and the) chrtmi- . 
the Fathers, as well as from the writings of the v 
and the Angli, and from the traditions of our anc« - 
The history begins with a fabulous genealogy of Br 
grandson of Ataeas, who reigned in Britain. The ? - 
afterwards relates the arrival of the Picts in North B 
and of the Scots in Ireland; and after a brief and m:.: 
narrative of the Roman conquest and empire in B~ 
he comes to the only part of the work which is desen >* 
some attention, namely, the Saxon invasion and cr~ 
subjugation of the country. It appears that Nfi 
MS. was sadly mutilated and interpolated by an i-t. 
transcriber, who signs himself ' Samuel,' and * a dis 
Beularius Presbyter,' and who acknowledges tuat lit 
out what he thought useless in Nennius's work, ana ; 
what he gathered from other writers concerning the 
and wonders of Britain. See end of chap. 64 of N 
Banchoriensis Eulogium Britannia, edited by C. rVr 
and published together with ' Gildas ' and ' Richar : 
Monk of Westminster,' 8vo., Copenhagen, 1 757. 

NEOLOGY. [Rationalism.] 

NECMERIS, a groun of articulated Coraujw : 
named by Lamouroux. [Pbeudozoaria.] 

NEOMORPHA, a new genus of birds, estab 1 .^.. . 
Mr. Gould on two species from New Zealand ; but i 
cimens wanted the feet and the greater part of the % 

Generic Character. — Bill longer than the head, 
pressed at the sides, arched, horny, solid, sharp at ibt . 
with a denticle. NoetriU open, placed in the basal h> 
carina* mandibular superioris in pontem tendente. 7 
hard, slender, bristly at the apex; angles of the mouti - 

pendent fleshy caruncles. Wings . Feet . 

as long as the body. Total length of the largest «~ 
17 J inches. (Zool. Proc., 1836, where it is an noun «. 
one of the birds from which drawings had been u&- 
Mr. Gould's great work on the Birds of Australia 
cannot find the genus either in the 1st or 2nd pur 
suppose that the figure is advisedly kept back, in the n •• 
Mr. Gould may obtain further information as to the r 
and feet, before his return from New Zealand andAua*:. 

NE'OPHRON. [Vulturidjb] 

NEOPHYTES (from a Greek word which means -n.  
planted') is the appellation given to the convemto C .: 
ianity who have just received baptism. In the early <t . 
the Neophytes, after that solemn ceremony, wore vt/> . 
ments for &ght days. They were also subject ta i • 
discipline or probation for a much longer penod. 
Jews, Mussulmans, or Pagans, who are converted to t ' 
ianity, are called Neophytes by the Catholic missior:* 
and there are houses at Rome and other places for 
reception and instruction. 

NEO'TRAGUS, Colonel Hamilton Smiths maw 
the Pygmy Antelopes, the Guevi {Antilope pfg***~i 
instance. [Antelope, vol. ii., p. 82.] 

NEOTS, ST. [Huntingdonshire.] 

NEOTTI A is a name given to a brown, leaflem - 
plant, found in woods in this country, growing pan- ' 
on the roots of other species. It belongs to tte -tf 
order Orchidacesa, and flowers in May and June. I 
only species is the Nidus /fata, or bird's nest, so calif " v 
the appearance of the entangled fleshy fibres of th* 
Some modern botanists strangely enough apply th. . 
of Neottia (itself meaning literally a neat) to plants t* 
no entanglement of the roots that can justify the apptl* 
and more generally called Spiranthes: by those 
true bird's nest is called Listers nidus avis, a perrerv 
nomenclature for which there is no necessity, and « 
no necessity could justify. This genus gives its nam* 
division in the Orchidaceous order, called alter it AV 
composed of terrestrial species, especially characters 
the anther being placed at the back of the sti^o*. 
vertically upon the end of the column, and by the r 
being pulverulent 

NEPAUL, or NEPAL, a country in Asia, *.-.. 
almost entirely within the range of the Himala>a )! 
tains, between 26° and 31° N. lat. and 80° and SS 1 £ 
It extends in length from west to east 460 miles, and 
north to south, on an average, 100 miles ; its surface it - 
45,000 square miles, or about 5000 miles less than *: 
England. On the north it borders on Tibet, on the v - 
the English province of Kumaon, on the south on the j . 
of the Ganges, and on the east on Sikim and Bootan. ' 

N E P 



due in its upper course, likewise rises on the table-land of 
Tibet, and in its south-western course surrounds a portion 
of the Dhayabung range. Afterwards it runs southwards, 
and is called Trisul Ganga ; it then runs west-south-west, 
and joins the G undue before it breaks through the Lama 
Dangra range. It does not appear that this branch is na- 
vigable. The Coosy is also formed by two branches. The 
western and principal branch rises within the Himalaya 
Mountains, in the valley which separates the Dhayabung 
range from the Salpoo Mountains, and runs first southward 
and then westward under the name of Bhotiya Coosy. Where 
it turns to the south-east at Duraja, it becomes navigable, 
and is called San Coosy. It runs about 100 miles to the 
east and south-east, until it breaks through the Lama Dan- 
gra range, where it has some falls which interrupt naviga- 
tion. The eastern branch of the Coosy is called Arun : it 
rises within the Himalaya Mountains,' but flows first north- 
wards and enters the table- land of Tibet, on which a con- 
siderable part of its course is said to lie, until it turns by 
degrees southwards and enters Nepaul, where it continues 
to How in the same direction to its junction with the San 
Coosy. Its current is too rapid for navigation. 

Towns. — Nepaul contains several considerable towns, 
which owe their origin or prosperity to the circumstance of 
this country being the principal thoroughfare by which 
the table-land of Tibet and the plains of the Ganges ex- 
change their productions or supply their wants. Other 
towns owe their origin to the fertility of the country which 
surrounds them. This is particularly the case with those 
which are found in the plain called Great Nepaul. 
This plain, which is surrounded by mountains rising from 
3500 to 4000 feet above it, is only about twenty miles 
long and sixteen miles wide, and yet it contains three 
large towns, Khatmandu, Lalita Patan, and Bhatgong, and 
several smaller towns. Khatmandu, the present capital of 
Nepaul, contains 4000 houses, and, as it is said, a po- 
pulation of 48,000 or 50,000. The great number of 
temples and steeples, built in the style of Tibet, gives to 
tlie city a considerable degree of magnificence. The palace 
of the GhorcaU princes is an extensive but irregular build- 
ing. Lalita Patan is said to be still larger, and to contain 
24,000 houses. Bhatgong. the third royal residence, is 
stated to contain 12,000 houses, and to exceed the other two 
in the magnificence and size of its buildings. It is the 
school of learning, and its temples contain large libraries 
in Sanscrit and other languages relating to the Buddhist 
literature. The plain on which these three towns are 
built is nearly 4800 feet above the sea-level. Kirkpatrick 
assigns to it a population of half a million, which Hamilton 
thinks an exaggeration, but he admits that it is cultivated 
with great care and is very populous. 

Noyacote, north-west of Khatmandu, on a high hill, near 
the banks of the Trisul Ganga, is a considerable place, 
being situated on the most frequented mountain-road which 
leads to Tibet along an affluent of the Trisul Ganga, and over 
the mountain-pass of Kheru. In 1792 the Chinese army 
invaded Nepaul by this road. Baglung Chaur, in the 
▼alley of the Gunduc Proper, or Salagrani, is a large 
place of trade, being situated on another much frequented 
road to Tibet. In the western districts of Nepaul is Chee- 
narhm, the capital of Jemlah, or Yumila, built in a plain, 
which is stated to be not inferior in extent to that of 
Khatmandu, and equally well cultivated and populous; but 
iu elevation above the sea-level is greater, and the sugar- 
cane doe* not succeed : rice, maize, and wheat are raised in 
abundance. The town is very large, but not regularly 
built. It has a great trade in horses, salt, musk, and 

In the ea%i*rn district of Nepaul, in the wide and well- 
cultivated % alley of the river Man Coosy, are several con- 
svIeraM* t/,wr,«, among which the best-known is Calesi. In 
the \ui,*y of tJ*e Arurs the principal trading place is 
Terming lar, »ij'!i h-i* 6000 inhabitants; it is situated 
f/i » y>>n vt «,.:•» %A». and nearly eighteen miles long. 
%W ». f*rit.<.'r jj'fiij, l**» alto a considerable commerce 

Wt'tt't >A-t. 

Jnii'*hth>tiU.— h*\i>iM\ in)*'* inhabit the alpine valleys of 
?»* y* ., K'tifk u'i Uj the opinion of Sir Francis Hamilton, 
tiv »tf,"* „r» A u,< \% \rAy shows that they belong to the 
M'''*/'J 'v. <."/jyh vmm of them, on account of their 
inters*. Hi'* ».•!« II »[,';*,♦, rather rctemble the Malays, who 
vj t'/nu a Ij'jii txrtwu'n the Chinese and Hindus. 
*tt fcv/»u yf 0*»* w,u» are lb* Newars, or Newari, 

who inhabit the plain of Khatmandu. They bare aft- 
themselves to one of the sects of Buddhism, but h< 
troduced the division of castes, and their pne>t-. 
depend on the lamas of Tibet. The Newari are :. 
cultivators of the soil, and exercise many arts ai.J -r 
They make coarse cotton-cloth, and work very «eil ir, 
copper, and brass, and are particularly ingenious i: 
pentry. This tribe, as well as some others, stii; . 
their own language, which is quite different from t< 
their neighbours. The higher region of the H:. 
Mountains is occupied by the Bhot, the same naii... * 
inhabits Tibet. Their language seems to be difLv 
the greater part of the table-land of Central Asia, «. 
have a rich literature, which hitherto is little ii . 
Europe. They are Buddhists, and chiefly occurs 
their herds and with commerce. The majorat 
population south of the high mountain are either H 
or a mixed race, the offspring of the Hindus, niri - 
tribes. They are called Parbatiya, because they »*•:. 
Parbatiya Basha, a dialect of the Prakrit. Tim .i .. 
continually becomes more and more prevalent, ami./ 
districts it has already destroyed the language >. 
native tribes. It is spoken by the reigning familu.v 
tribe, the Ghorkas. The Parbatiya adhere toBni::.. 
are employed by the Ghorkas in administration, id 
themselves with the culture of the ground and woe* 

Commerce. — The trade with Tibet is mostly in:*: 
of the Bhot, who transport their goods on the t.:> 
sheep or men over the mountain passes. They bra. 
Tibet to Nepaul sheep, musk, skins of the nu-. 
chowry-tails, quicksilver, borax, sal ammoniac, l: 
silk stuffs, paper, drugs, gold, and silver; and ik 
back rice, wheat, oil, iron, copper, cotton-cloth, *. 
juniper-boards (which are used in fine cabinet i 
pepper, spices, indigo, tobacco, otter-skins, sugar, aa. 
smaller articles. 

Nepaul exports to British India elephants' tectiu- 
hides, ginger, catechu, turmeric, wax, hooey, *. 
long pepper, ghee, bastard cinnamon, large ca:J 
and some smaller articles. It exports from the Br. 
minions in Bengal cottons and muslins, silks! 
sorts, raw silk, gold and silver, laces, carped I - 
cutlery, saffron, spices, sandal- wood, quicksilver, o«. 
zinc, lead, soap, camphor, tobacco, pepper, and a:* 

History, — In former times this country seem* ' 
been divided among a great number of print*, t 
whom was an independent sovereign of a valley, <!•• 
tribe. In the middle of the last century the chief 
of these tribes, the Ghorkas, Goorcas, or GhorcaV. 
to extend his dominions by conquest, and he and 
cessors were so successful, that in less than half i> 
they subjected all the countries situated within ih 
tains between Bootan on the east to the river Sutkj 
west, and they carried more than once their arms ;. s 
Lumloo, in Tibet. In 1792 their depredations 
side were stopped by the Chinese, who entered. 
with an army of 70,000 men, and, after several ' 
advanced as far as Noyacote. After that time lb* 
their ambitious views towards the plains of the Co- 
caine to a war with the English in 1814. I- -. 
British arms in the beginning were only partially >- 
the Ghorkas, by the peace concluded in 1816,*** 
to cede to the British all the countries situated M 1 * 
Sutlej and the Kali rivers, and to evacuated' 
of the Sikim Raja. Since that time they have btf 

(Kirkpatrick's^ccou/i/ of Nepaul; Sir Francis H r 
Account of the Kingdom of Nejmul; Hodgson »' 
on the Languages, Literature, and Religion ol w* ' 
has in Nepaul and Bhot/ in Asiatic Research*, ^' 

NEPENTHA'CEiE are exogenous plants iuha; 
damper and warmer parts of Asia, and having, i» ,u 
of leaves, large hollow bodies, furnished with a M.-" 
tuining water, secreted from a peculiar glandula. *\ 
with which they are lined. These bodies, or pu- 
tney are called, appear at the end of a leafy teou- 
pansion of the bark, and are considered to he a 1 » 
of the apex of the petiole of a leaf, while the In !tl ; 
them is regarded as the blade. Their flowers an* 
green or brown, apetalous, arranged in cylindntf' • 
and are succeeded by a capsular fruit filled *i lJ ••; 
form seeds, which look like very small sawdust. 
considered to be closely akin to Aristolochiacea*. 5 
them have been recently referred by the writer u( «-- 

N E P I. 

which are noticed -by Tzschucke and Schoell. The author 
however gives many details of private Ufa and manners, 
which are curious, as in the life of Epaminondas. The 
sentiments expressed by the author of the ' Vita*' are 
generous and virtuous, though often puerile and trifling. 
The sketch of the character of Alcibiades has been admired 
for ils graphic touches ; but the life of Pomponius Atlicus 
is much better both for the matter and manner than any of 
the rest, and, although too panegyrical, gives a lively de- 
scription of his character. [Atticus.] It has been trans- 
lated into English by Sir Matthew Hale, 1677, and by Ibe 
Rev. E. Berwick, 1813. 

The editions of the ' Vitas Imperatorum' are numerous: 
those of Longolius, 1543; Lambinus, 1569; Bosiua, 1657; 
VanSlaveren, 1734, 1773'; Tzschucke, 1804; Harles, 1806; 
Fischer,! 806: and lastly, B re me, 1827, are reckoned the best. 

NEPOS, FLA'VIUS JTJ'LIUS, was (he nephew of the 
patrician Marcellinus, who, in the confusion into which the 
affairs of the Western Empire had fallen after the death of 
Major iaa us, a.d. 460, made himself independent sovereign 
of Dalmatia, was acknowledged as such by Leo I., emperor 
of the East, and was afterwards killed in Sicily in an expe- 
dition against the Vandals. Leo, having given his niece in 
marriage to Nepos, named him emperor of the West, a.d. 
473, after the death of Olybrius. But a certain Glycerius, 
supported by the Burgundian and other barbarian auxilia- 
ries who were then the real masters of Italy, had already 
been proclaimed emperor at Ravenna. Nepos sailed from 
Constantinople with some troops in 474, and landing at 
Ostia, surprised Glycerius in Rome, made him prisoner, 
and, having stripped him of tin imperial garments, caused 
hira to be ordained bishop of Salons, in Dalmatia, which 
was considered as a kind of exile. Nepos made peace with 
Etiric, king of the Visigoths, bv ceding to him the provinces 
of Gaul which lay west' of the Rhone. But soon after, a.d. 
475, Orcitcs, a native of Pannonia, who had long served in 
tlic Roman armies, revolted against Nepos, and marched 
upon Ravenna, when the emperor, unable to oppose him, 
fled across the sea to Dalmatia, over which province he 
seems to have retained his authority, with the title of Au- 
gustus ; whilst Ores lea hail his own infant son Romulus pro- 
claimed emperor of the West. Nepos applied in vain to 
Zeno, emperor of the East, to assist hira in recovering Italy. 
In the year 480 he waa murdered at Salona by two 
ollicers of his court, upon which Odoacer. who then ruled 
over Italy, passed over into Dalmatia and conquered that 

Erounce. Nepos is said to have been a good and amiable 
ut weak man, and unfit fur the times. Sidonius Apolli- 
nari* praises him for the excellent choice which he made 
f those whom he empluved under him. 
NEPTJIA,* genus of alcyoniform Zoophyte, established 
by Blainville. 

NEPTU'NUS, or NEPTUMNUS. a Roman divinity, 
whose attributes are nearly the same as those of the Greek 
Poseidon (IIusiicW). Poseidon was the son of Kronus and 
Rhea, and the brother of Jupiter and Juno, and appears to 
have been one of the antient divinities of Greece ; although, 
according to Herodotus (li. 5u), he was not originally a 
Greek deity, but was imported from Libya. Poseidon was 
Ibe god or the water in general, of the sea, the rivers, and 
the fountains; but be was more particularly regarded as 
the pod of the sea, which he acquired as his share in the 
division of the dominions of his lather Kronus. Hie wife 
sai Amphitrite, and their son Triton. 

Poseidon is said to have produced the horse in his contest 
wuh Athena (Minerva) for the right of naming the city of 
Athens ; by which myth we are to understand, according to 
the interpretation of some writers, that the horse was im- 
ported into Greece by sea. But this explanation is far 
from satisfactory. It is ditficult to give a reason for the 
connection of Neptune with the horse ; but it is evident 
from several parages in the Greek writers that he waa re- 
garded as a kind of equestrian deity, as well as the god of 
 H* sea. (Aristoph., Kttiqktt, \, 4-t'J.) Poseidon had a 
tm/iiitWnt palace beneath the sea at jEgrc (//., xiil 201. 
'1 li-: animals offered to hira in sacrifice were usually black 
bulls, rim., and boar pig*. sit not originally a god of the Doric race. He 

win pnneif.ilJy worshiped by the Ionions, who were in 

m>«t place, a miriiitue people. In lime Dorian cities 

Ku«ev«r wtiu-h had acquired a love for foreign commerce, 

And that the wurthip of Poseidon prevailed extensively ; 

r instance, at Twaaiuui, whence it was curried to Toren- 


turn, at Gyrene, in iHgina, and more parlicilul 
Corinthian isthmus, and atTrmzcu, frum whirl, [{, 
worship of this god was transmitted to Pundoahi . , 
(Miillers Doriam, vol. i., p. 417, 418, tr.) 

The etymology of the names Poseidon and Xtp 
doubtful. Poseidon is written in Doric Glee;, I 
dan (HoniSav), of which we have another «ss:-.. .. 
name of Polidtea, written Poteidaia (I1«n/g«i , 
inscription, now in the British Museum, dp lb ■■- 
nians who fell before this city. The nine. i. 
to some writers, contains the same root, in lb 
syllable, as ww find in s-oroe and »«r« B o(. Nq.i 
derived by Cicero from Hondo (Nat. Dior., ti. !Ci: 
Varro from nuptu, because this god coven («bti ! . 
earth with the sea (DeLing. Lai ,,iv. 10) ;buttieitiie- 
derivations has the least show of probability. Wtu. 
pare the form of the word Nept-unusor-iw>Dii;,> 
umnus, Vert-umnus, and the word sl-umtiu* ;. 
meaning or origin of the root Nept or Sep swsbis l: 
It may perhaps be connected with the same rout i> 
tained in the Greek yivru. 

The statues of Neptune resembled in many mf ' 
of Jupiter; hut the Rnire of the former wo* muni 
and there was lesa of repose and thought fulm- 
co ii ute nance. The Greek sculptors gave a cctri 
of roughness to the statues of Neptune, which -i. 
have been regarded as appropriate to the gutl uf i p 
His hair was usually somewhat in disorder, ind '. 
of bis figure was represented as exceedingly pii 
muscular. Hence the 'chest of Poseidon' (*-,. 
laiuvoc. It., v. 479) is the poetic expression for w- 
t eristic of the deity, which is illustrated by the i 
ment from the pediment of the Parthenon in lb 
Museum. {Rritisn Museum, ' Elgin Marbles.' vl  
His right hand held the trident; and be wa« >.■ 
rounded by dolphins and other marine objecl* V 
Archaolagie der Kuntl, p. 452.) 

NERAC. [LotetGaronnx.1 

NERBUDDA. [Hindustan, vol. »i, p. «'■ 

NEREIDS(Nijpqtc'ic), nymphs of the sea,c«r-.> 
ters of Nereus and Doris. Nereus was the il ■■'■ 
Pontus and the Earth (Hesiod, TA*qj, 1331: '-'■ 
was one of the daughters of Oceauus. TLtN" 
said by most antient writers to bave been fin.' - 
but Propertiua makes them a hundred (iii. i,  
most celebrated of them were Amphilriie. ik 
Poseidon; Thetis, the mother of Achilles; Galahi.? 

The worship of the Nereids was general!; c 
might be supposed, with that of Poseidon. Tbiii ' 
worshiped in Corinth, where PoseidonwsshriJ .:■ 
honour, and in other parts of Greece. (Pauv.i 
compare ih. 26, } S ; 1. 1 9, $ 2.) The NereiJi • 
nally represented as beautiful nymphs [Nvv;.' 
they were afterwards described as beings with ;'■■ 
and with the lower part of their body like tU- 
(Plin., Hill. Nat., ix. 4.) 

NE'REIS (Zoologyj, Cuvier'a name for a p** 


lovo for Poppasa, whom he had seduced from Otho, led him 
into more serious crimes. Poppies, who was ambitious of 
sharing (he imperial throne, perceived that she could not 
hope to obtain her object while Agrippina was alive, and 
accordingly induced Nero to consent to the murder of 
mother. The entreaties of l'oppsea appear to have been 
supported by the advice of Burma and Seneca ; and the 
philosopher did not hesitate to palliate or justify the murder 
of u mother by her son. (Tac, Ann., xiv. 11 ; Quint., Inst. 
Oral., viii., c. 5. 

In the eighth year of his reign Nero lost his best coun- 
sellor Burrus.and Seneca had the wisdom to withdraw from 
the court, where his presence had become disliked, and 
where his enormous wealth was calculated to excite the 
etivv even of the emperor. About the same time Nero 
divorced Ota via anil married Puppton.and soon after put to 
death the former oti a false accusation of adultery and treason. 
In the tenth year of his reign, ad. 64, Rome was almost 
destroyed by fire. Of the fourteen districts into w 
the city was divided, four only remained entire. The 
Are originally began at that part of the Circus which 
contiguous to the Palatine and Ctelian hills, and raged with 
the urealest fury for six days and seven nights ; and after it 
was thought to have been extinguished, itburst forth again 
and continued for two days longer Nero appears to have 
acted on this occasion wiih the greatest liberality and kind- 
ness ; the cily was supplied with provisions at a very mo- 
derate price; and Ihc imperial gardens were thrown open 
to the sufferers, and buildings were creeled for their accom- 
modation. But these arts of humanity and benevolence 
were insufficient to screen him from the popular suspicion. 
It was generally believed that he had set (ire to the cily 
himself, and some even reported that he had ascended the 
top of a high lower in order to witness the conflagrati 
where he amused himself with singing the destruction 
Troy. From many circumstances it appears improbable that 
Nero was guilty of ibis crime. His guilt indeed is expressly 
asserted by Suetonius and Dion, but Tacitus admits that 
he was not able to determine the truth of the accusa 
In order however to remove the suspicions of the people, 
Nero spread a report that the Christians were the authors of 
the fire, and numbers of them were seized and put to death. 
Their execution served as an amusement to the people. 
Some were covered with skins of wild beasts, and were torn 
to death by dogs, others were crucified, and several were 
smeared with pitch and olher combustible materials, and 
burned in the imperial gardens in the night: 'Whence,' 
■ays Ihe historian, ' pity arose for the guilty, though they 
deserved the severest punishments, since they were put to 
death not for the public good, but to gratify the cruelty 
of one man.' (Tac, Ann., xv. 44.) 

In the following year, a.d. 65, a powerful conspiracy was 
formed for Ihe purpose of placing Piso upon the throne, but 
it was discovered by Nero, and the principal conspirators 
were put to death. Among others who suffered on this 
or<-a4i,,n were Lucau and Seneca; but the guilt of the latter 
» <i -.uMful. In the same year Popptea died, in consequence 
of a ki'k ahich she received from her husband, while she 
wa* .n an ailianccl Mate of pregnancy. 

bur.ns; ir« la tier part of his reign Nero was principally in >heatnraf performances, and in contending for 
t;i« pr,z«a at ihe public games. He had previously appeared 
»j tn V-nt upon the Roman stage; and he now visited in 
t..w«.-rt the chief cities of Greece, and received no less 
f.ta •:■•<> crowns for his victories in the public Grecian 
r -;.■* On his return to Italy he entered Naples and 
fcvne as a conqueror, and was received with triumphal 
l.-,ri',uri. But while he was engaged in these extravagancies, 
V index, who commanded the legions in Gaul, declared 
against bis authority; and his example was speedily fol- 
lowed by Galba, who commanded in Spain. The Prestorian 
eohorls espoused the cause of Galba, and the senate pro- 
nounced sentence of death against Nero, who had tied from 
Rome as soon as he heard of the revolt of Ihe Praatorian 
cohorts. Nero however anticipated ibe execution of the 
sentence by requesting one of his attendants to put him to 
6*ath, arter making an ineffectual attempt at suicide. He 
fl-*'L A.r». 68, in the thirty-second year of his age, and Ibe 
I-. .neenlh of his reign. 

I* « difficult to form a correct estimate of the character 

J •;. a emperor. Thai he was a licentious voluptuary, and 

- scrupled at committing no crimes in order to gratify 

ir strengthen his power, is sufficiently proved ; but 

8 NER 

that he was such a monster as Suetonius and Dmi 
described him, may reasonably admit of doubt It, 
session of absolute power at so early an age tends! 
forth all the worst passions of human nature. »L . 
example and counsels of his mother Agriopiiu m ;■■ 
stilt further tended to deprave his mind. Though h, . 
death bis adoptive brother, his wife, and hi< ;r 
his character appears to have been far from > i: . 
ary ; hia general administration was wise inri ey 
and he never equalled in hia worst actions either IU , 
cious cruelty of Caligula or the sullen ferocity of IV 
Nero was a lover of the arts, and appears to have a 
more laste than many of the emperors, who od; -■• 
bim in their profuse expenditure. The Apollo 'fic.-- 
supposed by Thiersch (Epoehen der hildendm Km-: 
den Griechen, p. 312), and some other writers, to hi ■. . 
made for this emperor. 

His government seems to have been far from dp 
He was anxious to relieve the people from oppress - 
and to protect the provinces from the rapacity of it- 
nors ; and it may be mentioned as an instances! i> 
larily, that there were persona who for mint ;«-. : 
his tomb with spring and summer flowers, and u 
sequence of a prevalent rumour that he had nr-i - 
death, several impostors at various times sssuraf-i 
of Nero and gave no small trouble to the reign,: 
(Tac, Hilt* i- 2 5 ii- 8 ; Suet., Wero, e. 57, and L 
note.) During the reign of Nero, the Roman « 
joyed in general a profound state of peace. In loci 
Parthians were defeated by Corbulo ; and in Iht '■'■ 
Britons, who had risen in arma under Boadiwa, in- 
reduced to subjection by Suetonius and Paulina . 

(Tacitus; Suetonius; Dion Caasius.) 

Kenrwt or Coin. «f Nno. 

NERO'CILA. [Isopoda, vol. xiii, p. 52] 

NEROS. [Sarm.1 


Roman emperor, was bom at Narnia, in Urnl* 11 
27, according to Eutropius (viii. U or in **.*■ 
cording to Dion (lxviiL 4). His family ongns . 
from Crete ; but several of his ancestors rose to lb' 
dignities in the Roman state. His gtiud/nttor, '. 
Nerva, who was consul, a.d. 22, and was a great toy 
the emperor Tiberius, waa one of the most Celebris 
of his ago. We learn from Tacitus that he put >■■ 
' s own life (Ann., vi, 28). ,. N 

Nerva is first mentioned in history as a favourite . 
who bestowed upon him triumphal honours, *■>■ "" 
he was praetor elect. The poetry of Narva, which 
'loned r"* ' "" ' - "" 




one much larger and more distinct than the rest ia con- 
tinued as a double cord, extended along the under surface 
of the body. The ganglion on the upper part of the nervous 
ring around the pharynx constitutes the first trace of a 
brain, from which in many genera nerves proceed to the 
antenna?, the eyes, &c. The cords or columns proceeding 
along the body are more or less approximated and often 
united to each other. Each is composed of two distinct 
tracts, on the lower of which there are ganglia over which 
the upper tracts pass without communicating with them ; 
the lower ganglionic tract supplies the sensitive, the upper, 
not ganglionic, the motor nerves, a relation similar to that 
which exists in the vertebrata, if we allow for the generally 
inverted position of the organs iq the articulata. Besides 
these tracts another is placed between the motor columns 
and the viscera, which has no connection with the ganglia, 
and whose nerves are principally distributed to the respira- 
tory organs. The first trace of a distinct sympathetic sys- 
tem is found in a few nervous filaments passing off from the 
oesophageal ganglia and distributed around the dorsal artery 
and the adjacent viscera. 

The size of the ganglia on the longitudinal cord of the 
articulata and of the nerves connecting them and given off 
from them is directly proportioned to the volume and com- 
plexity of the sensitive or motor organs adjacent to and 
supplied by each. Thus in those which exercise important 
motions and have their chief organs of sense about the 
head, the supraoesophageal ganglion is very large, as in the 
rotifera and the complete insects ; while in those in which 
the chief nervous influence is required for lateral limbs that 
ganglion is small, but the ganglia and cords along the 
whole or some particular part of the trunk are developed 

Eroportionally to the organs adjacent to them. In the 
igher genera of this class the nervous cords are contained 
in a cavity separate from that which encloses the other vis- 
cera, as they are also much more distinctly in all the verte- 

The most striking character in the nervous system of the 
preceding classes is the repetition of similar elements ia the 
several similar parts of the animal. In both classes the 
animal is made up of a number of similar parts, which in 
the radiata are arranged round a common centre, and in 
the articulata are placed longitudinally. Each of these 
parts in both receives its nerves from a distinct ganglion, 
and therefore possesses to a certain extent an independent 
nervous system, and an independent life. In higher ani- 
mals, in which particular portions nf the body contain organs 
for special functions to be performed for the benefit of the 
whole, this repetition and equal distribution of central ner- 
vous organs no longer exists. 

Iu the mollusca, or cyclo-gangliata, the nervous oesopba- 

§cal ring is still present, and is often provided with numerous 
istinct ganglia, whose size bears a direct proportion to the 
organs of sensation placed near the mouth, and to the acti- 
vity and complexity of the masticatory apparatus. The 
columns continued along the abdominal portion of the ani- 
mal are usually, like itself, short; and except when active 
motions are performed by a foot or other locomotive organ, 
they bear but few and very small ganglia. 

The nervous system of the mollusca is thus chiefly con- 
centrated about the head, and its development is propor- 
tioned to that of the organs of sense and motion which are 
subservient to nutrition, while the nerves of the body are 
but little developed. In the articulata, on the other hand, 
in accordance with the greater proportionate development of 
their locomotive powers, the part of the nervous system 
belonging to the trunk becomes predominant. In the ver- 
tebrata, or spini-cerebrata, which possess both nutritive and 
locomotive powers more highly developed than either of the 
preceding classes, the types of both are united ; the cerebral 
mass being a more highly developed form of the large supra- 
cesophagcal ganglion of the higher mollusca, while the spinal 
chord, with the ganglia on its sensitive roots, corresponds 
with the long ganglionic cords of the articulata. 

The most essential part of the nervous system of the ver- 
tebrata is the spinal chord, with its continuation in the cra- 
nium as far as the crura cerebri and cerebclli, and the gan- 
glia formed upon them, which together constitute that 
which is termed the cerebrospinal axis. This axis is always 
enclosed in an osseous sheath placed in the posterior part of 
the bodv, and it is never as iu the invertehrata, traversed 
by the alimentary canal. 

The sympathetic system of nerves distributed to the vis- 

cera, which m its simplest form, in the aunelidi, U c • . 
of a few filaments from the supra-eBsophsgeal gan ;'.■.,. 
pass along the dorsal artery, preserve* in all the c!^ 
same separation from the sensitive and motor cords 
same general distribution about the viscera. It uv: . 
complexity in the same degree as the cerehro-spir. .. 
and acquires in the vertebrate an extensive an.l >. 
creasing development. It forms in the highest : 
numerous and complicated plexuses, with mam u. 
large ganglia* which follow the course of the n 
blood-vessels, and are distributed to all the organs! 
life ; it still communicates but little with the ce*\l:  
axis, sending oqly small filaments, which mingle •> 
spinal and some of the cerebral nerves near their r 

The part of the nervous system of the vertebra. 
subject to most alteration is the brain. The chid .: 
in its form depend on the degree in which the h< ; 
of the cerebrum and cerebellum are developed. I 
these are usually smaller than the ganglia on the . 
the optic nerves ; but ascending in the scale, thi 
move and more predominant iu size over the r?>: 
nervous centres, and appear to have a certaiu rcU 
development of intelligence in the animal. In :..• . . 
animals and in man the lobes of the cerebrum r . 
lum are by for the largest of all the nervous iw 
surfaces are convoluted and furrowed, the qu... 
grey matter upon them augmented, and the (\ / 
their structure greatly increased. But as s sper ... 
devoted to this subject [Brain], it need not be i-:. 
sidered here ; for similar reasons we shall here ir . 
the general phenomena and laws of the actions o,' 
as they are observed in man, and the cerebro-sp.  
only in reference to the nerves of common §e.: ; 
motion ; referring for the description of the sper • « 
the articles Eye, Ear, &c, and for the peculiar , " 
the nervous system in the most important or:,;\ 
articles devoted to them. [Hkabt ; Stomach, fcc 

The constant functions of the cerebrospinal ' 
to convey impressions, made on the points in *li r - 
distributed, to the brain, where they are perceive - • 
tions, or to the spinal chord, where they are per* 
out sensation ; and to convey the influence of ik f 
the brain, ot some involuntary influence from it •' ^' ' 
chord, to the muscles by which some motion » '• 
formed. The influences that thus pass to a-_ f ' 
brain are conveyed through distinct nervous ' 
though the filaments subservient to each art* :- 
enclosed in the same sheath, and appear to f ,v c 
and simple nerve. The filaments which conn* 
sions to the nervous centres are called sensitive 
petal ; while those conveying impressions from tl 
to the muscles are named motor or centrifugal fib' ' 

The spinal chord, in which all the nerves o! s- 
have their apparent origin, is composed of two !aN"« '• 
symmetrical in form and size, and united together 
of their inner surfaces at the median line. Tui- 
tion of the chord is composed of white nervous n- 
inner of grey, an arrangement the reverse ot : 
brain, in which the cortical substance is grey, ami 
lary or central white. Each lateral half of the s : 
is again obscurely divided by superficial furr ^ 
anterior and a posterior column, and a smaller n. 
tion between them. All the nerves by which ser.^ 
pressions pass, arise from the groove between tin 
and middle columns; and all those (with the ev 
the spinal accessory nerve [Brain]) by which tl* 
to muscular motion are conveyed, arise from the ; 
tween the anterior and middle columns. They -•• 
what are called roots, that is, by a number of n> 
threads or narrow bands attached to the grooves * 
ing for a short distance into the substance ot ' 
which, as they proceed outwards, converge and u 1 
single cord or nerve. There is an important •.- 
however between them ; the roots of the p» terl "' 
tive nerves have a ganglion at their union j u ^* . 
are leaving the vertebral canal, while those of tn' 
or motor nerves unite without any ganglion m« ■* • 
cord, which passes over, but does not communis ' 
ganglion on the posterior roots. Beyond this p- 
anterior and posterior roots unite in a common » 
which their filaments, though they continue uw 
discriminate^ mixed ; and in this manner ' » 
through the varied branchings of the sheath w  

N E R 


N E R 

the extent of surface touched we form our ideas of the 
sharpness or ohtaseness of bodies. 

Perceptions of temperature are also the peculiar attri- 
butes of the nerves of common sensation, hut they do not 
admit of our forming very accurate ideas of the heat of 
bodies, because our sensations depend rather on the rapidity 
with which heat is abstracted from or added to our bodies, 
than on the quantity which we lose or receive. Hence we 
feel marble, which conducts heat rapidly, as if it were much 
colder than a slowly-conducting carpet of the same tempe- 
rature ; and when the difference of temperature between 
the hand or any other part of the body and that which it 
touches is very great, we lose all power of judging, and can- 
not directly tell whether it is in contact with (for example) 
ice or boiling water. Peculiar states of the circulation in 
and around the nerves give rise to very different sensations 
of heat, as in fever or in shivering, in which, though the 
skin feels as if it were burning or freezing, the actual tem- 
perature of the surface does not in either case differ more 
than five or six degrees from that which is natural to it 

The acutenessof the common sensibility of parts probably 
depends, ceteris paribus, in the healthy state, on the close- 
ness with which they are beset with the terminations of 
sensitive nervous filaments. £. H. Weber (Annot. Anatom. 
et Phys.) has suggested a mode of estimating the degrees 
of sensibility of different parts of the surface of the body 
by touching two adjacent points of it at the same instant, 
and observing at what distance from each other the two 
contacts can be discerned as two distinct impressions. This 
may be effected by putting small pieces of cork on the points 
of a pair of compasses, and pressing both at the same in- 
stant on the part to be examined; the angles which the 
legs of the compass form will thus measure the distances at 
which the two impressions are distinguished or are con- 
founded into one. By this method of examination it is 
found that the tip of the tongue is the most sensible of all 
the surface of the body, being able to distinguish two 
impressions when the distance between the points on which 
they are applied is not more than j, of an inch, a result 
which might have been anticipated, from the accuracy with 
which the tongue perceives and estimates the characters of 
the smallest portions of foreign matter in the mouth, and 
from the great share which the sense of touch takes in 
what we confound in the general idea of taste. The 
balls of the fingers can distinguish double impressions from 
^ to J of an inch apart ; the palm at about half an inch, 
and other parts of the skin at various greater distances. 
Applied to the skin at the back of the neck, of the upper 
arm, the thigh, and some other parts, such double impres- 
sions are confounded into one when the points touched are 
upwards of two inches asunder. 

Numerous circumstances have the power of modifying 
or increasing the sensibility of parts, giving rise to varieties 
of agreeable and painful sensations. Most parts moreover 
have certaiu sensations peculiar to themselves; thus no 
other tissue than the skin is ever the seat of the sensations 
of tickling, or itching, or burning heat, &c. ; the muscles 
alone feel fatigue; the pain of disease in different tissues is 
as varied as any other of its phenomena. Certain parts also 
arc insensible to any but particular impressions; the tendons 
and other similar tissues may be cut or burnt, or in any way 
injured without exciting any sensation, unless they are 
pulled or twisted, or subjected to any other of those mecha- 
nical influences which it is their office in the animal economy 
to resist. Other parts again, as most of the internal organs, 
the bones and cartilages, are insensible during health, but 
in disease excite severe and peculiar pain. For all these 
differences however no explanation is yet known. It is 
known that certain nerves (the motor) never, under any 
circumstances, convey sensible impressions ; that others 
(the nerves of the sympathetic system) are, if ever, only 
occasionally conductors of sensations ; that others (the nerves 
of the peculiar senses) convey only the impressions of those 
agents for (he reception of which certain organs are pecu- 
liarly adapted; and that others have the constant office of 
conveying impressions of contact, heat, &c; but upon what 
differences or structure or arrangement these varieties of 
function depend no reasonable opinion can at present be 

Many of the phenomena illustrative of the mode of con- 
duction of the nervous influence in the sensitive nerves are 
repeated in the motor filaments, with this difference, that 
while in the sensitive nerves impressions always proceed 

j • 

.*■ \ 

from the circumference to the centre, or from the ter 
tion of the nervous filament in any tissue, to its terra 
in the brain or spinal cord ; in the motor nerves t * ' 
pressions always pass in the opposite direction, t: 
from the centre to the circumference, or from the L: 
spinal chord to the muscle or other contractile t 
When the motor filaments of a nerve are irritated :. 
part of its course, no pain is felt, but the muscles t 
it is distributed contract; when a similar nerve 
through (or otherwise prevented from con veying the f 
influence), all the muscles to which the filaments tl 
off from it, beyond the injured portion, are distnb j* 
the power of being acted upon by the will, and v 
of being excited by any stimulus, while those from t 
the injured part and the brain retain their power. I 
end of that portion of a divided motor nerve wh:c'.. 
connected with the nervous centre be irritated, n > \ 
tible effect follows ; if the end of the other portm:. * 
is now separated from the brain, be irritated, the r 
to which its filaments proceed will for a time o.:*i 
contract The same observations on the necessity .« . 
tinuity of nervous substance, on the absence of anr r - 
nication between adjacent filaments, by which cr< ~ 
assume the office of another, and on the samenes .: 
whatever part of a nervous filament is irritated, ? •■ 
made of the motor as of the sensitive filament*. A> 
far the greater number of nerves, sensitive and c 
ments are contained within the same sheath, the ph*-r 
which have been described separately, will, in th« 
injury or other affection of such nerves, be combir .► c. : 
when the nerve of any limb is irritated, sudden pa.- 
and coincident convulsions ensue; when a similar -- 
divided, the limb becomes both senseless and ra<>*. 
if the upper part of the divided nerve (that still c 
with the brain) be irritated, pain is felt, but no n- 
exited ; if the lower part be irritated, convuUio .> 
limo take place, but no pain is felt. 

Of the nature of the influence which, passing a! 
nerves, excites motion, and of the manner in whirl 
in motion, nothing whatever is known. Throe.:. 
nerves it can be transmitted at will, and the mu> - - - 
plied with these are therefore called voluntary; 
others the will has no influence in sending xbeeir :. 
motion, and the involuntary muscles to which thvn ;• - 
entirely removed from any connection with them\r.rl. * 
in the excitement of violent passion or grief, or tv 
alted mental affection. Whatever stimulus is appt:<- . 
motor nerves, the same effect is produced ; whether t 
stimulus of the will, or of any mechanical, cb<r- 
electrical application, the same muscular contract. - 
ing only in degree, is produced. The mind alor.c.--.- 
power of determining the strength and extent of ::. 
contraction, and this it effects by an operation a 
scarcely appreciates; for even one who knows a 
the position and the mode of action of each musclr 
except in certain cases, order the act of a single m.* 
to produce a certain kind or strength of motion, is 
exert coincidently all the muscles that can mini-:: 
motion. Thus there are two muscles, at least, thi' 
fore-arm, and no person can make one of them art « 
other remains inactive; the will can only determir 
effects, but it cannot determine the muscles by »h. . 
shall be accomplished. 

In all the phenomena hitherto considered, the rn " 
a part ; but in some circumstances an impres&i >r. - 
along a sensitive nerve to the nervous centre, and - 
no sensation may have been produced, an influx . 
return conveyed back from the centre through j 
nerve, and motion is produced, either in the muscle* 
to the part first impressed, or in those of some other - 
the body. The phenomena of this class are those or - 
called me re/lex function ; a term which is derived f* 
idea that the impression, passing centripetal! t, ts - 
from the centre as soon as it arrives there, and rna-Iv* * 
from it centrifugally. 

For the occurrence of these reflex actions, it is t— 
that the nerves acted upon should retain their en., 
with the spinal chord or with the brain. The spir » 
is sufficient for some of these actions, and the { 
therefore often spoken of as if it belonged exclusit 
but it is evidently possessed by the whole cere) r - 
axis. Thus, if the hind-leg of a reptile or any otbvr . 
be separated from the body, and the skin of any f s. 




the nerves kflows the Mtne rule as that of exercise of the 

muscle* or any other tU«ue; by it, within cetlain limits, 
the power of perceiving impressions and of exciting no- 
tion U progressively increased; the excitability of earh 
organ or of the whole »>%tem being. within those limits, ca- 
pable of adaptation to the need of the in 'ividual ; hence the 
power b> practice of attaining to perfection of touch, or of 
rtt-a iug. -r *.gh , or any other acn«e. I nv res* ions are dis- 
f i net I) felt by the piacti-ed *en*e wheh are completely im- 
perceptible to that which has been only casually employed. 
In like manner, when the organ of one sense is destroyed, 
and thus one outlet for excitability is closed, the rest 
acquire increased auteness: hence the accuracy of 
the hearing and touch in the blind, of the sight in the 
deaf. Sic 

The system of the great sympathetic nerve is that whose 
branches are distributed to all the organs of organic life, the 
heart, lungs, digestive canal and glands. &c. t chiefly follow- 
ing the course of the blood vessels, bearing numerous and 
lar^e ganglia in all parts of their course, and communicat- 
ing with the brain and spinal chord or their nerves only by 
few and small filaments. The ports to which the branches 
of the sympathetic nerve are distributed have but rogue if 
any sensibility, unless under peculiar circumstances of dis- 
ease; and the motions which some of them possess are usu- 
ally quite independent of the mind. Numerous experi- 
ments of irritating the ganglia of the sympathetic to see 
whether it produces pain, have had unsatisfactory results; 
nor would any results of apparent insensibility be conclu- 
sive, because the ganglia might, like part of the brain, be 
unsensible to injury, though fully capable of perceiving the 
impressions transmitted to them through their nerves. But 
the pain of the diseases of internal organs is amply suffici- 
ent to prove their sensibility, though it does not determine 
whether the impression of pain is conveyed through fila- 
ments of the sympathetic system or through those few of 
the cerebrospinal system which are mingled with the former 
in the common sheath. In the same manner, in extraordi- 
nary cases, the brain and spinal chord have an evident influ- 
ence on the motions of the organs supplied by the sympa- 
thetic nerve, as io the effects of strong passion and other 
mental affections on the circulation, the digestive functions, 
ficc. The impressions conveyed from the viscera to the 
brain and spinal chord may also be reflected either to the 
voluntary mu«cles, as in the convulsions of children with 
disordered digestion, or to the involuntary muscles, as in 
the increased rapidity of pulse, the sickness, &c. which 
occur in \arious diseases. 

In the natural state however, the organs chiefly supplied 
by the sympathetic nerves are entirely independent of the 
cerebrospinal system, and will maintain their actions for a 
time even after their removal from the body. Thus the 
peristaltic motion of the intestines, the contractions and 
dilatations of the heart of some animals, and some other 
similar actions, will continue for a considerable time after 
they are separated from the body, or after all the nerves 
parsing to them have been divided. Many other facts 
prove also that the internal organs are much less dependent 
on the influence of the sympathetic nerve than the external 
animal organs are on that of their cerebrospinal nerves: 
severe irritation of the sympathetic nerves, such as, if ap- 
plied to the cerehr«vsptnal motor nerves, would excite 
sudden and violent convulsions of their muscles, gives rise to 
but weak and slow contractions of the viscera; and these 
follow at perceptible intervals after the application of the 
stimulus, so that it is often difficult to say whether the 
irritation have exerted any influence at all. 

The office of the numerous ganglia placed in the course 
of the sympathetic nerves is perhaps the most obscure 
point in the whole range of physiology. Some have re- 
garded them as so many brains, by which impressions are 
received through the branches of which each ganglion is 
the centre, and from which excitements to motion arc sent 
out ; others have believed that they exercise a power of 
isolating the organs they supply from the influence of the 
mind or of obstructing the constant passage of impressions 
to and from the brain ; and many other functions have been 
supposed to bo performed by them : but for each and all the 
evidence ii altogether unsatisfactory. 

The sympathetic nerve or system of nerves has received 
Its name from the idea that it is of ultimate importance in 
the phenomena of what is called sympathy, in which one 
part of the body is affected in consequence of some pecu- 

liar condition of another. A great number of the * 
mena which were formerly regarded as the efa:» - <\ 
pathy are now more clearly explained by the re- 
action of the cerebro-spinal axis : many others der- - 
some generally operating influence, as a peculiar r r 
of the blood, &c. ; and in those that remain it is q ^ 
able whether the sympathetic system of nerves tv 
any peculiar power. The universality of its fry- 
among the viscera is the only ground on vhiefa ;t . . 
believed to possess this property of exciting impre*> - 
actions in one, in consequence of being itself exeud 
condition of another. 

It exerts a more evident influence in the v&rioc< <• 
tions of the glands and other surfaces which it «y 
In some instances the excitant to secretion is comer 
manly from the brain, either directly, as in the fl .r . 
tears in grief, &c, or by a reflex action, as in the fr-> 
. flow when the mucous membrane of the nose i* - 
or as in the flow of saliva in a strong irritation of the - 
brane of the mouth, in the sweating of fear or '. 
agony, fee. In the more constant secretions the r: 
of the sympathetic nerves is in some degree assra. 
there are sufficient facts to prove that their injt,* .• • 
soon followed by a suppression or modification of. • 
tion in the organ to which the injured nerves uti 
The ccrebro- spinal nerves also exercise an influtr 
secretion and nutrition of the parts which they <■--■ 
its amount is indistinct, in consequence of the in'- * 
of other circumstances favourable to those proce*- 
same injury which cuts off the secretory power cf :1 
as the loss of exercise of the muscles, &c 

The best general account of the physiology of 6 • 
is in Miillers ' Physiol ogie,* translated by Dr. BaN 
that relates to the distinct functions of the n-'- 
nerves, the several works of Sir Charles Bell (by/ 
most important discovery was first made) may for - 
and with them the physiological treatises of Mr. M: 
M. Magcndie. On the reflex actions, the best v :• 
Prochas kit's 'Physiologic,' in which it is first : 
announced, though long before alluded toby GL«- 
de Ventricido et Intestinio), and the works <rf P* 
shall Hall, by whom the subject has been row: \ 
trated and raised to its just importance, and of.Vr 6 
and Dr. Volkmann. The electrical theory eft*' 1 * 
fluid is most extensively illustrated in the wr.v..'z ; ' 
Wilson Philip. The best account in English of' 
paratlve anatomy of the nervous system will be 1 
Dr. Grant's ' Outlines of Comparative Anatom?.' 

NE'SEA. Lamouroux gives this name to w 
articulated Corallines. 

NESS, LOCH, is a lake in Scotland, sitoateJ 
57° 10' and 57° 27' N. lat. and between 4° 20 if- 
W. long. It is 22 miles long : its breadth varies fr: 
and a quarter to three-quarters of a mile. Itex* 1 
south-west and north-north-east over a consider' 
of Glenmore, through which the Caledonian Can. 
The depth of the water is from 106 to 129 fcti "' 
middle parts ; but near the ends of the lake it «K 
85, 75, and much less. At the north-east end t. 1 
reduced to 7 and 9 fathoms. This lake is ne*.: 
with ice. At its south-western extremity it R'"' 
waters of the small river Oich, which issue* fr" 
Oich, which lies farther south. From its twr'.-- 
extremtty issues the river Ness, which, after a cc'^ 
miles, discharges its waters into Moray Frith, t 
is enclosed on both sides by lofty, rugged, steep, a'* 
mountains, which attain an average height of '' 
The highest mountain-masses are on the we*tcrn»* 
near the middle of the lake, where they rise in t>» 
summit of the Meal four vouny. This mountain » * : 
be 2730 feet high, but it is probably higher, if lb*/ 
true that not far from its summit there is a «b* 
which is always frozen. On the north and n>u:.^ 
enormous mass of rocks two pastoral glens open • r 
lake. Glen Urquhart and Glen Morison, and |' 
which drain them bring a large quanlity of « !r 
lake. The mountains south and north of ^<&i* 
are much less elevated: this is also the case with i v 
which skirt the eastern snores of the lake. The* r>'^ 
cut by deep gullies and frightful precipices, and i  
Farrigag and Feachloin rush violently into the Uk' 
two narrow fissures. These rivers drain Strath r 
pastoral valley, which is moro than 400 feet above i-« 







ft liO sea, and extends parallel to the lake for about fifteen 

 ,!es. It is a beautiful tract of country, and its charms are 
•reaped by the cataracts of Foyers or Fyers, which the 

ver Keachloin forms in breaking through the line of ele- 

i'v(\ rocks which divide tbo strath from the lake. It 

-aU iu beauty the waterfalls of the Clyde and of the 


{Parliamentary Beports on the Caledonian Canal; Sin- 

uis Statistical Account of Scotland; and MacCulloch's 

 i: hi, i mis and Western Islands.) 

> KSTOR (Ornithology). [Psittacid*.] 

NKSTORIANS, the name of an important and early 

• t of Christians, which is derived from Nestorius, a Syrian 

v hit th, who became patriarch of Constantinople in 428, 

iltr the reigu of Theodosius II. He showed himself very 

nous against the Arians and other sectarians; but after 

• .ue time a priest of Antioch, named Anastasius, who had 

• ■lowed Nestorius to Constantinople, began to preach that 
u-io were two persons in Jesus Christ, and that thoWord, 

divinity, had not become man, but had descended upon 
if man Jesus, born of the Virgin Mary, and that the two 
i'u i us became morally united as it were, but not hyposta- 
' all y joined into one person ; and that when Jesus died it 
.^ i lie human person and not the divinity that suffered. 
..> doctrine, being not only not discountenanced, but sup- 
i :rd by Nestorius, was the origin of the Nestorian schism. 
i-vurius refused to allow to the Virgin Mary the title of 
iu-uiukos, or mother of God, but allowed her that of Chris- 
or mother of Christ. Nestorius met with nu- 
ous opponents, among others Eusebius of Dory la? urn ; 
il the controversy occasioned great disturbances in Con- 
iiniuople. Cyril, bishop of Alexandria in Egypt, with 
> characteristic violence, anathematised Nestorius, who 

his turn anathematised Cyril, whom he accused of de- 

 i in lt the divine nature and making it subject to the 
inn i ties of the human nature. [Cyril ok Alexandria] 
•j emperor Theodosius convoked a general council at 

: hesus to decide upon the question, a,d. 431. The council, was attended by 210 bishops, condemned the doctrine 

Nestorius, who refused to appear before the council, as 

my Eastern bishops, and John of Antioch among the 

-i, had not yet arrived. Upon this the council deposed 

•-("il us. Soon after John of Antioch and his friends 

lie. and condemned Cyril as being guilty of the Apolli- 

, inn heresy. The emperor, being appealed to by both 

•nos, after some hesitation, sent for Nestorius and Cyril, 

>( it appears that he was displeased with what he con- 

"• red pride and obstinacy in Nestorius, and confined him 

a monastery. But as his name was still a rallying word 

i taction, Theodosius banished him to the deserts of 

. in Egypt, where he died. His partisans how- 

i spread over die East, and have continued to this day to 

:n a separate church, which is rather numerous, espe- 

i> in Mesopotamia, where their patriarch resides at 


i tie Nestorians at one time spread into Persia, and from 
..<e to the coast of Co ro man del, where the Portuguese 

 ihI a community of them at St. Thome, but they perse- 
< d tlu'ra and obliged them to turn Roman Catholics. 

' Utstnirc du Nesturianisme, by Father Doucin, a Jesuit, 

 s : and a Dissertation on the Syrian Nestorians, in the 
i \oluuie of the Bib Hot he ca Orientalis of J. S. A*se- 

j.utyches. in his zeal to oppose the Nestorians, fell into 

.' opposite extreme of saying that there was only one 
uif in Christ, namely, the divine nature, by which the 
.in nature had become absorbed. [Eutychians.] 

MOTHERLANDS, THE. This kingdom as now con- 
.i*h1 consists of the territory of the antieut republic of 

_ V-\eii United Provinces and of some portions of the pro- 

«■ of Limburg, but not including the grand duchy of 

. i- milium, which the king of the Netherlands possesses, 

n ihe tale of grand-duke, as a part of the German Con- 

«• i'lun. The kingdom of the Netherlands is situated 

- .» ten JU° 44' and 53° 34' N. lat. and 3° 30' and 7° 10' E. 
_:. Il is bounded on the east by Germany, on the north 
: west by the German Ocean or North Sea, and on the 

• i 

:i by Belgium. The frontier line which divides it from 

. mm is described in the article Belgium, as fixed 

ti.e treaty of loth November, 1&31, which has now been 

led j ml ratified by both parties. The area of the king- 

. o ul> >ui 11,000 square miles; the population, on the 
i ut January, 1639, was 2,5S3,271. 

a into tei 

l provinces:— 


Sq. miles. 






















The kingdom is now divided into ten 

North Brubaut 
North Holland 
South Holland 
Zealand . 
Utrecht . 
Groninuen . 
Drenthe • 

Total . . . 11,164 2,583,271 

That part of Limburg (with 147,527 inhabitants) which 
is restored to the kingdom of the Netherlands is annexed 
in perpetuity to that crown, but is constituted as the duchy 
of Limburg, and is to form a part of the German confede- 
ration, in lieu of that part of Luxemburg which the German 
diet consents to cede to Belgium ; but Maestricht and Venloo 
remain an integral part of the kingdom of the Netherlands. 
Face of the Country ; Soil; Climate.— The Netherlands 
are part of the great plain of Northern Europe, and are 
not separated from Germany on the north-east by any 
natural boundaries. The provinces about the mouths of 
the Schelde and the Rhine, and the country to the north 
of them, Zealand, North and South Holland, Fries! and, 
Groningen, Drenthe, and Overyssel, are indeed most ap- 
propriately called the Netherlands, that is, the Lowlands, 
They form one unbroken flat without a hill or rock, without 
forests or running waters, they tie in part even below the level 
of the sea, against the inroads of which they are protected 
partly by immense dikes, and partly by sandhills or dunes 
from 80 to 180 feet high, which have been cast up by the 
ocean, and, running paiallel with the coast, protect it against 
the element to which thoy owe their origin. Nothing can 
be more dreary than this ocean of sand ; it is a perfect linage 
of aridity and barrenness; some broom scarcely green, some 
stunted shrubs growing at intervals in the hollows, where 
they are protected from the wind, alone interruj t this 
dreary solitude. From the Holder to the mouth of the 
Maas, a distance of 75 miles, these gloomy though protecting 
deserts everywhere extend between the cultivated country 
and the sea. The land thus rescued from the sea, consisting 
of moor and mud, is traversed by numberless canals, 
are absolutely necessary to drain it and render it fit for cul- 
tivation. The labour is amply rewarded, for the land is 
extremely fertile and covered with the richest pastures. 
The lowest parts are called polders. When a marsh is to 
be drained, it is first enclosed with a rampart or dike to 
prevent any water from Mowing into it. Windmills are 
then erected on the ed^e of the dike, each of which works 
a pump. As the mills raise the water, it is discharged into 
a canal, which conveys it to the sea or to some inland piece 
of water. But in general the operation cannot be performed 
at once; where the marshes are too deep below the sur- 
rounding country, two or three dikes and as many canals 
are made at different levels, rising by degrees to the upper 
canal, iu which the whole terminates. The girdle o wind- 
mills, which announces at a distance the position of the 
polder, has the appearance of sentinels placed to guard the 
entrance. All the polders have an extremely rich slimy 
soil, which is generally used for pasturage, but in some 
places produces rich crops of corn. The eastern provinces 
nearest to Germany contain many meres and marshes, and 
especially the great series of turf moors which extend from 
the mouth of the Schelde eastward to the Maas, and there 
join the great morass called the Peel, on the east frontier 
of North Brabant, which is 10 Leagues long and from 1 to 
3 leagues broad. 

This marshy country, which is so wholly artificial that it 
has justly been said ' the Dutch built Holland,' is one of the 
best cultivated, the most wealthy, and the most populous 
in Europe ; and it would be difficult to find elsewhere, in so 
small a compass, such a number of large and well-built vil- 
lages, towus, and cities. The atmosphere iu these low 
tracts is for the most part damp, thick, and heavy ; fogs and 
storms are very frequent; but both the heat and the cold 
are more moderate than in Northern Germany. The climato 
is unhealthy, especially for foreigners. The want of good 
spring water is very sensibly felt. The climate is more 
healthy in the eastern pi ounces, which are raiher more 





N T E T 

elevated, and contain some hills, which the inhabitants 
dignify with the name of mountains. 

Bays, Rivers, Canals, and Lakes. — The whole coast, 
which is much broken and indented with considerable 
bays, large inlets of the sea, and the mouths of great 
rivers, would measure near 500 miles, or about 1 mile of 
coast for every 22 square miles. The German Ocean, or 
North Sea, which borders Belgium and the Netherlands 
from the frontier of France, a few miles east of Dunkirk, 
to the mouth of the Ems, has produced in the lapse of 
ages great physical revolutions in the maritime provinces. 
The most remarkable of these revolutions have been 
the retreat and encroachment of the sea, and the changes 
in the course of the Rhine. The whole country probably 
once belonged to the ocean, bat the oldest accounts that we 
possess represent the land as more extensive than at pre- 
sent. The Yssel. it appears, ran into an inland lake called 
Flevo, from which a river pursued its course for fifty miles 
to the sea. That lake, with the adjacent continent, has been 
covered for many centuries by the Zuyder Zee, the only re- 
mains of the continent being the islands of Texel, Vlieland, 
Schelling, and Ameland, which lie in a curved line, convex 
towards the ocean, in front of and protecting the entrance of 
the Zuyder Zee. This inland sea, which is enclosed by the 
islands and the provinces of Holland, Utrecht, Guelder land, 
Overyssel, and Friesland, resembles a great lake : it is 80 
miles' long from north to south, and its breadth varies from 
20 to 30 and 40 miles. On account of its great extent, the 
navigation is dangerous in stormy weather for small vessels, 
which however cross it from South Holland to Friesland 
rather than go all round the foast. The entrances between 
the islands being much obstructed by sand-banks, the trade 
of Amsterdam derives infinite benefits from that noble 
work the Norih Holland Canal. The Lauwer Zee, between 
Friesland and Groningen, and the Dollart, between Gron- 
ingen and the German province of East Friesland, were 
formed by similar irruptions of the sea in the thirteenth 
century ; and so late as the fifteenth century a great salt- 
water lake, called the Bies Bosch, was suddenly formed to 
the south-east of Dort, by the sea bursting through a dam 
and overwhelming 72 villages, with 100,000 inhabitants. 

The principal river is the Rhine, which, coming from Ger- 
many, enters the Netherlands at Lobith, where it is 2300 
feet broad ; but in traversing this country it is divided into 
three arms, and before it reaches the sea even loses its 
venerable name. Soon after crossing the frontier it divides 
into two branches, the larger and left arm forming the Waal. 
The right or northern arm iiows to Arnheim, where it again 
divides into two branches ; one, ealled the Yssel, flows north- 
wards to the Zuyder Zee ; the other runs to Wijk, where 
it again divides into two streams, the larger, called the Leek, 
joining the Waal above Rotterdam, and the smaller, now 
reduced to an insignificant river, passing by Utrecht to Ley- 
den and the sea. Till the beginning of this century, this 
branch was lost in the sand, the mouth being completely 
choked up; in 1804 works were commenced to reopen 
this mouth of the river near Katwyck, and the operation 
was happily completed in 1»07. The other principal rivers 
are, the Maas, Maese, or Meuse, which comes from Bel- 
gium, and joins the Waal at the fort of St. Andries ; and the 
Schelde, which, likewise coming from Belgium, enters Hol- 
land below Antwerp, and divides into two arms, the East 
and the West Schelde ; the West Schelde falls into the 
ocean at Flushing, and the East Schelde between the 
Zealand islands of Schouwen and North Beveland. Of 
the canals the most important is the North or Holder 
Canal. [Holland, North.] The greatest lake is that 
of Haarlem, which it has now been resolved to drain. 


Natural Productions.— The horses, which are a large 
strong breed, well adapted for draught and for heavy cavalry, 
are about 200,000 in number. The horned cattle are mostly 
remarkable for their size and beauty, and amount to about 
a million. Vast numbers of lean cattle from Denmark and 
Germany are fattened in the rich pastures of North Hol- 
land. There are about 700,000 sheep. The swine are of 
the German breed, and are most numerous in the provinces 
next to Germany. The only kind of game is hares, which 
are rare ; wild rabbits however are very numerous among 
the sand-hills. Domestic poultry is plentiful. There are 
wild geese and ducks, snipes, woodcocks, and plovers. 
This is the paradise of storks, it being considered a great 
offence to kill one. Accordingly they build their nests 


on the house-tops, and walk about unmolested at <i 
concerned. Fish is abundant on the coasts and .- 
rivers ; the cod fishery on the Doggerbaak and the G 
land whale fishery are very productive. But the h»-' 
fishery on the coast of the Shetland islands, formerh - 
source of the wealth of the Dutch, has greatly dV. 
In 1601 there were 1500 vessels employed in the 1*. 
fishery ; in the years from 1795 to 1807 and 1808 therr 
only 30 ; but the number has since increased to neam .A 

Sufficient corn for home consumption is not raised ,L.i 
and flax are grown in great abundance. 

There are no minerals, except a little bog-iron in 0\*~ * 
and Guelderland: there are brick-earth and potter* . 
in most of the provinces. Fullers' earth (bat mix*. • 
too much sand) is got in pretty considerable quantity . 
Tilburg; and immense quantities of turf are du» •«■ [' 
land and Friesland : some sea-salt, but in small qu-; * 
is made on the coasts of Holland and Friesland. 

Trade. — The history of the commerce of the Net?* •' 
properly begins with Bruges in Flanders, in the f u: 
century. From Bruges the trade was for the c.-. - 
transferred at the end of the fifteenth century to .<:•.- 
which became the greatest emporium in the wc«r \ 
the ravages of the war with Spain and the capture cf ' 
after the memorable siege in 1585 drove the wealir. ■• 
habitants to the northern provinces, especially to A 
dam. The new republic of the * Seven United Pr;v 
founded on principles of civil and religious liivr" 
came a sure asylum for the oppressed, while reh.r • 
sentions and persecutions prevailed in many other \ 
Europe. Poor as the country then was in natural n^ 
it was necessary to find for the rapidly increasing po; . 
employment beyond the seas. The republicans, * •• 
at first driven by necessity to become bold corsairs aj? • 
Spanish squadrons, soon became excellent and in tr . 
men, and enterprising indefatigable merchants, who \u 
every sea, for whom no source of gain was too reci : 
to whom no obstacle was insurmountable. The com re- - 
Antwerp, Cadiz, and Lisbon fell into their hands a ' 
in the middle of the seventeenth century, the l*i .:«. - > 
vinces became the first commercial state and the c « 
maritime power in the world, and the trade of A?.*\ 
acquired an unparalleled degree of prosperity. Ti/* t* - 
India Company, founded in 1602, with a capiu\ M 
6,500,000 florins, conquered kingdoms and island* v 
With 200 ships it traded with China and Japan; ii 
furnished Europe with the costly productions of t * s 
Islands ; the gold, the pearls, and the diamonds of :. 
passed only through its hands. The prosperity ot A 
dam remained almost unimpaired till towards tar 
end of the eighteenth century, when the French ro- 
in 1795 gave it the death-blow, and its rival. L>r, 
came the commercial capital of the world. Reduce . * 
condition of a vassal and afterwards of a province «:*K 
and consequently engaged in a constant war w uh £ .. 
Holland lost its ships, its colonies, its commerce. - 
public credit. After recovering its independent 
expulsion of the French in 1813, the commerce of : 
revived in a remarkable manner, but is still very !-< - 
its former magnitude. During the union of the i 
and southern provinces, under the name of the k*r.. . 
the Netherlands, both Holland and Belgium fit - 
Holland indeed lost the colonies of Bcrbice, Demerol 
Essequibo, with the Cape of Good Hope and Ce>U ?. 
very profitable contraband trade formerly carried t r. 
Spanish America has also been destroyed, since those r 
declared themselves independent The trade with I 
has undergone a great change, not only by the lov : 
Cape and Ceylon, but by the fall of the East Ind.~ i 
pany and the throwing open of the Bast India trade 
the subjects of the Netherlands, excepting that to th~ » 
luccas and to Japan. On the other hand the imptw. « 
ministration of Java has led to a vast increase of the p~ 
tions of that fine colony, and new and profitable channel 
been opened to Dutch commerce in Bratil, Cuba, and i 
The precarious state of affairs from the time of the ?v\ 
the southern provinces in 1830 till the confirmation if 
independence by the treaty of peace concluded in Apr 
(1839), was certainly a great check to the progress of 
merce; yet it continued to improve even during 
period, and there is little doubt that it will again tv 
very flourishing, and more so perhaps than during the - 
with Belgium, 




";e following official tables, for the year 1837, show:— 

1 he number of ships cleared inwards, to what coun- 

s they belonged, how many to each country, and their 

:a-c. II. At what ports in Holland they arrived* how 

>\ at each port, and how many under the flag of the 

htrhnds. III. From what countries they came; how 

> from each country, and how many under the Nether- 

is flair. IV. How many ships cleared outwards, and 

■*r what flags:— 

Ships cleared Inwards. 
Table I. 

or what Nation. 


English . 

North American 



Russian • 

Swedish . 


Prussian . 
Lubeck . 
Bremen • 
Rostock . 
Austrian . 
Sicilian . 
Spanish • 



Table II. 

Arrived at Ships. 

Amsterdam . . 1987 

Minden . . 5 

Zaandam . • 151 

Knkhuizen • 3 

Medcmblik . . 38 

Edam . , 120 

Monnikendam . 32 

Alkmaar . • 45 

Ilelder . . - 20 

Torn hilling . . 8 

Quomenude . 68 

Bridle • . 6 

Mnassluis . . 10 

llclvoetsluys . 3 

Rotterdam . . 1439 

Pel fs haven . . 8 

Schiedam • • 145 

Vlaardingen • 58 

Dordrecht . . 244 
Vhessingen (Flushing) 30 

Veere . . 1 

Zierekzee . • 4 

Brouwershaven • 4 

Middelburg • 36 

Lc turner • • 17 

"VVorkam . . 68 

Harlingen . . 431 

Dock urn . . 26 

Kampea • • 5 

Zwelle . . 30 

Delfzyl . . 282 

Termunterxyl . 176 

Croningen . • 236 

Oude Pekelet . 20 

Lan<rlekkerschan8 9 

Zoltkamp . . 28 

Total • 5787 

Table III. 

Prom what Countries. 

The Kleine Oost, Meck-l 
lenburg, and Lubeck J 
Hanover  • 

Tons. Ballast. 




Neth. Flag. 












• • 


























Neth. Flag, 

From what Countries. 


Prussia . 

Russia . 

Sweden and Norway 

Great Britain . 

France . . . 

Portugal . . 

Spain . . • 


Levant, Egypt, and) 

Barbary / 

Canaries, Azores, and I 

Cape Verd f 

Guinea Coast . 
Cape and East Indies 
China . 
South America and I 

West Ocean / 

Brazil . 

Berbice and Demerara 
North America 
Greenland and Davis 1 

Straits > 



Neth. Flaf . 
































• • 











IV. Ships cleared Outwards. — 5784 ships, 776,300 tons : 
with cargoes— 3526 ships, 497,174 tons; the remainder in 
ballast. Dutch flag, 2720 ships, 327,481 tons. English, 
1200 ships, 202,807 tons. North America, 65 ships, 20,598 
tons. French, 94 ships, 14,462 tons. Norway, 463 ships, 
100,589 tons. Denmark, 242 ships, 13,692 tons. Hanover, 
492 ships, 26,230 tons. 

Of which there were bound to Great Britain, 1692 ships, 
83,769 tons; Russia, 239 ships; Denmark, 104 ships; 
Sweden and Norway, 1095 ships, 153,524 tons; Cape and 
East Indies, 135 ships, 72,032 tons. 

The inland trade employs 5600 of the vessels called trek- 
schuyts, and 15,000 boats. 

The exports consist, 1st, of colonial produce from the 
East and West Indies, coffee, sugar, spices, tea, silks, and 
other articles from China and Japan ; and 2nd, chiefly of 
the productions of the country, among which they export 
to England annually 18 million pounds of butter and 27 
million pounds of cheese ; likewise flax, hemp, and corn, 
where the importation is permitted; tobacco, madder, 
flower-roots (especially hyacinths and tulips), cattle, and 
horses : 3rd, the produce of their fisheries, especially herrings, 
and of their distilleries and manufactories. The chief 
articles of importation are corn, salt, wine, timber in very 
large quantities, partly from Norway and partly from Ger- 
many, whence it is floated down the Rhine ; stone, such 
as blocks of granite from Norway for the dikes, and free- 
stone for building; marble, and various manufactured 
goods ; besides colonial produce of every kind from the 
possessions in Asia, Africa, and the West Indies. After the 
separation of the seven provinces from Spain, the Dutch, 
in the seventeenth century, held in their hands the greater 
portion of the carrying trade of Europe, and Holland was 
a general magazine of the productions of all countries ; at 
that time a list of its exports and imports would have been 
an encyclopaedia of merchandise ; and though this cannot 
be now said, it is still true in a great degree. 

Manufactures.— The principal manufactures are, linen of 
the very best quality ; woollens, once the most celebrated 
in the world; silks, and leather. The sugar refineries 
have increased of late years in a very extraordinary degree. 
Tobacco-pipes are made in large quantities, both for home 
consumption and exportation. The distilleries of Geneva, or 
Hollands, of which there are 200 at Schiedam, have long- 
been celebrated. It is remarkable that the distillers last year 
petitioned the government for a reduction of the excise-duty, 
on the ground that their exportation to the United States of 
North America has greatly aiminished in consequence of the 
establishment of Temperance Societies in that country. 
Since the revolt of the Belgian provinces in 1 830, great efforts 
have been made to establish manufactures, especially of cot- 
tons, in the northern provinces, which appear to have been 
very successful ; so that in a few years the kingdom of the 
Netherlands, as now constituted, may probably be placed in 
the rank of manufacturing as well as commercial nations. 




Religion. — The established religion k Calvinism, or, as 
it is called, the Reformed religion ; bat a general toleration 
has so long prevailed, that religious sects of almost every 
kind enjoy the free exercise of their own forms of worship. 
The exact proportions at this moment have not been pub- 
lished, but in 1837 it was estimated that there were— 
Calvinists, 1,700,000; Lutherans, 357,000; Mennonites, 
120,000; Remonstrants, or Arminians, 40,000; Anabap- 
tists, 2500 ; some other Christian sects, 15,000 ; Roman 
Catholics, 280,000 ; and Jews, 50,000. The proportions have 
probably not much altered since. 

Education is very generally diffused throughout the 
kingdom. Besides the parish schools, under the protection 
of the government, private boarding-schools are as nume- 
rous as in England. No person is allowed to set up a 
school without a licence, which he cannot obtain without a 
previous examination by a special commission. There are 
four classes of licences, according to the branches of edu- 
cation to be taught ; and no person is permitted to under- 
take a higher branch than that for which he has passed his 
examination. For the higher branches there are seminaries, 
called Royal Schools, where the antient and modern lan- 
guages, mathematics, rhetoric, and drawing are taught ; of 
these there is one in every large town. The universities are 
those of Leyden, Utrecht, and Groningen, the first of which 
was formerly one of the most illustrious in Europe, and can 
boast a long and splendid list of learned men who have been 
educated within its walls. There are likewise schools for 
particular branches of education, such as military and naval 

The Constitution of the kingdom of the Netherlands is 
contained in the Grond Wet* or fundamental law of the 
kingdom of the Netherlands, promulgated by a royal ordi- 
nance of 24th August, 1815. This constitution resembles 
in many particulars that of Great Britain. The crowu is 
hereditary in the male line, and, in default of male 
descendants, in the female line. The executive power is in 
the hands of the king, whose person is inviolable, his 
ministers being responsible. The legislative power is in 
the king and the states-general, consisting of two chambers : 
the members of the first chamber are appointed by the king 
for their life; the second chamber is elected by the pro- 
vincial assemblies, and one-third of the members go out 
annually by rotation, but they may be reelected. All new 
laws are proposed by the king to the second chamber. The 
sittings of the second chamber are open to the public ; those 
of the first are not. Each province has its own provincial 
assembly, which has various important local duties, such as 
the superintendence of religious worship and charitable in- 
stitutions, the care of the roads and bridges, and the elec- 
tion of the deputies to the second chamber. This constitu- 
tion, having been made for the kingdom of the Netherlands 
as constituted in 181 5, is to undergo various alterations and 
modifications, in consequence of the separation of the north- 
ern and southern provinces. 

Finance*.— This is a subject of extreme intricacy, ren- 
dered still more complex by the union with Belgium, and the 
precarious state of the country, which was neither at war nor 
at peace with Belgium, after the revolt of the latter in 1830, 
till the final separation of the two countries. The whole must 
be amply discussed in the present session of the states-general. 
We can here only state that the budget presented by the 
minister of finance on the 25th of October, 1839, proposes 
an expenditure for the year 1640 of 56,378,600 florins, of 
which 214 millions are for the interest of the national debt, 
above 14 millions for the army, and 5J millions for the navy. 
The ways and means are estimated at 56,386,298 florins. 
One of the items worth notice in the ways and means is the 
sum of 11,220.000 florins from the revenues of the colonies. 

Army and Navy. — The amount and the organixation of 
the army cannot at present be fully known. A very great 
reduction has already been made since the peace by dis- 
baiiding the militia and volunteers. The navy consists of 
about eighty vessels*of which twelve are ships of the line. 
The*e are however of lower rates than in the British navy, 
theie being only one 00 -gun ship. 

Colonies.— The Dutch still possess many important co- 
lon uj* : in Asia~Java, Amboyna, Banda, Ternaie, Macassar, 
and settlements in Sumatra, Borneo, and Coxomandel ; In 
Africa, thirteen foru on the coast of Guinea ; in the West 
Indies, the ulands of Curacao, St Eustatius, and part of St. 
Martin, and, on the continent of South America, Surinam, 
»nd a right to send stores and receive produce from Iteme- 

ran, Essequibo, and Berbice, formerly their coW N 
now in the pos s ess ion of Great Britain. 

Zfcfiory.— Julius Caesar, in prosecuting bis cm<;.c 
Northern Gaul, advanced as far as the Rhine. Ti< 
bitants of the north bank of the Rhine were calk 
and considered as belonging to Germany. The> w 
gaged in many wan, either with the Romans, or a tu : . 
We afterwards find them partly as trading, par., . 
raring people, and as pirates, who were in the end > 
by the Romans. In the fifth century the Bati'~ > 
in the sixth the Belgss, were conquered by the Fr« . 
the Frieslanders not till the seventh century. At i:. 
of Verdun, in 643, Batavia and Friesland were imr 
with the newly created kingdom of Germany, «. 
Ludwig (i>. Lewis), surnamed the German, «u 
king, and were under governors, who afterwards mi 
selves independent. From the year 1000 to ikec 
eleventh century, the country was divided wl 
counties, and imperial cities. Utrecht became « i . 
and extended its temporal power oyer Groningen a;: 
yssel. Of all these princes the counts of Flanks r. . 
most powerful, and their country having become 
1363, to the still more powerful house of Bu:./ 
latter made itself master of almost the whole .1 
therlands. Charles the Bold, the last duke of B>. 
fell in a battle with the Swiss, an£ his only daw 
heiress Maria marrying Maximilian, son of Fraitr . 
duke of Austria, and emperor of Germany, (be .V. 
came under the dominion of the house of Austria. 
milian's grandson, Charles V., by the Pragmatic " 
in 1 548, united all the seventeen provinces for r 
Spain ; they however retained the name of thecih < 
gundy, and were attached to the Gerjnan empne. Dt 
reign of Charles V., the Protestant religion begin 1 < 
these provinces, though grievously oppressed, fw l 
of persons in the seventeen provinces put to deaic . 
as heretics is estimated at several thousands. H * - 
successor Philip II. not only deviated from the y 
father, who had respected the antient liberties u :. 
but introduced the Inquisition, and carried on .*!-. 
secution with a cruelty before unknown. T£<;< 
the people was exhausted, and they rose in^-' 
which the atrocities of the bloodthirsty AlbtOhU \ '» 
The heads of the noblest of the nation, anMS v ' r - 
Egmont and Horn, fell indeed under the aft «t ''»> 
tioner. The prince of Orange, who escaped* Ion; at 
an unequal combat, and though often dtWu; 
John of Austria and Alexander duke of Pin*, * 
triumphed in the cause of liberty and the Protesu. 

The struggle would certainly have been wow * 
easily ended, but for the jealousies between the*' 
vinces and the nobles, and the unfortunate rtr.f 
trust of the Protestants and the Roman Ca^ . * 
true that almost all the other provinces cowu* 
Holland and Zealand, the convention of Gt>ec, 
and formed a still closer alliance in the fcll ->■»■* 
the Union of Brussels. But the consummate . 
the prince of Parma succeeded in bringing all t << 
provinces under the authority of Spain. In K 
provinces of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Gucii.* - 
Friesland concluded the celebrated Union of I ' 
which they declared themselves independent 1 
They were joined in 1580 by Overyssel. th 
July, 1531, they renounced their allegiance tu 1; • 
tyrant,' and being joined in 1594 by Groningen, *' : 
celebrated republic of the Seven United Provinces' 
afterwards generally called Holland, from thai * 
which exceeded the others in extent, populate* 
and influence. Though Philip in. was obliged u < 
in 1609, a thirteen years' truce, called thepe^ 
werp, and the independence of the provinces**"'' 
by all the European powers except Spain, it va* 
secured till the peace of Miinster, at the close of 4 
Years' War, in 1 648. Towards the end of the * < 
century, they were engaged in war with France and*- 
and at the beginning of the eighteenth century. ,D ' L " 
the Spanish succession. Holland was weakened 
efforts, while republican jealousy of the anem? 1 
House of Orange to increase its authority sow*. 
of party rage and civil war. In 1 747 the Ho** J 
triumphed, and William IV. obtained thshcxed^ 
of stadtholder in all the seven provinces. I* : 
republicans again raised their .heads, but uV •* ' 




v *» began to mould it into rhythm, if not always into 
fwtrr. Contemporary with our Roger Bacon, Jacob van 
Mjeo:t (121^-13-:**. who has been called tbe Father of 
ire Pjets of the Netherlands, may be said to have preceded 
CciLicer by an entire century, as the latter lived from 1326 
v> 14'.->. Hb most celebrated productions are his 'Rijrn- 
l.bei T a»l * Spiegel Historiael ' for Historic Mirror). Nei- 
ther was he tbe only writer in the language of that age; 
for MelB Stoke, Jan Tan Heln, Thomas ran Ghessaert, 
Hesjcric ran Holland, and others of less note, belong to 
the same century. In the following one sprung np tbe 
Lterarr societies known by the name of the ' Kamers der 
Redenjkers,* or 'Chambers of Rhetoric,' but which, so far 
from adtancng poetry, rather corrupted the language 
itself; besides which, the party and aril dissensions that pre- 
vailed during the 14th and 15th centuries were exceedingly 
unfavourable to the progress of literature. It was in the 
last -mentioned period however that Holland distinguished 
it*e*.f by two most important inventions, that of oil-painting 
and that of printing. It is true that as regards printing 
rival claims to tbo«e of Haarlem in behalf of Laurence 
Ko*fer hare been made by both Maine and Stra^burg in 
favour of Guttenber?; but if even Koning's work on the 
'subject has not completely established the former, neither 
are the arguments hitherto adduced to the contrary suifict- 
cient to completely invalidate them. 

Of the services of Erasmus both to letters and to religious 
liberty, or of the share which Holland took in tbe Reforma- 
tion, it is not our purpose to speak ; neither can we bestow 
any notice on those writers of the 16th century who ob- 
tained celebrity by works of erudition or science. The 
period we now arrive at may be considered as not merely 
the dawn but the morning of Dutch literature; and one of 
the first who contributed towards purifying and refining 
the native tongue was Dirk Volkertzoon Koornhert, who 
was born at Amsterdam in 1522, and became private secre- 
tary to the States of Holland in 1572. Among other con- 
temporary names of note appear those of Philip van Marnix, 
Peter Heijns, Spieghel, and Roemer-Visscher. The last- 
mentioned has been styled the Martial of Holland, but be is 
now chiefly indebted for celebrity to the fame of his daugh- 
ters Anna and Maria, who, on account both of their learning 
and poetical talents, obtained the title of the 'Dutch 
Muses.' By the end of the century a new generation 
had begun to spring up, who not only greatly surpassed all 
their predecessors, but suddenly advanced both the language 
and literature in an extraordinary degree. The sera from 
the commencement of the seventeenth century to 1679, the 
time of Vondel's death, comprises some of the most illus- 
trious names in the literary annals of Holland — those of 
Hooft, Cats, Decker, Kamphuysen, Anslo, and An ton ides 
van der Goes. Referring to the respective articles in this 
' Cyclopaedia* for some biographical account of the three 
first-mentioned, we shall briefly sum up their literary 
merits. It is difficult to decide whether the prose or 
the poetical compositions of Hooft did most for the re- 

Snoraent of the language. His versification is particularly 
uent and melodious, and, as far as his own talent is 
concerned, his poetry may deserve the preference ; yet, by 
cultivating a prose stvle, he furnished a model which was 
tlum most wanted. Together with Vondel, he may be con- 
sidered the chief founder of the Dutch tragic theatre. Of 
Cuts it is difficult to comprise an adequate eulogium in a 
fuw words; yet, if ever there was a truly national and po- 
ular wrilor— one who has addressed himself to all the best 
'ruling of his countrymen— one whose works are prixed bv 
nil i«la«*cs for whom ho wrote— that writer is * Father Cats? 
The popularity which his works enjoy is as honouiable to the 
character uf his countrymen as to his own fame, for a vein of 
morality, benevolence, and strong religious principle runs 
through them all. If Decker's poems are not of the highest 
class on account of their subjects, they exhibit superior talent, 
and contributed very much to the imnrowment of the lan- 
guage. Kauiphm sen's productions display great poetical 
power, both in regard to the ideas and the expression, 
and his religious pieces breathe intense devotional ardour. 
Reitutr Annlo was greatly admired in his own time and 
pruned for his talents by Votulel himself; and oven now his 
iiooint muy bo poruned with interest, especially his * Pest tot 
SUpc)* 1 (<>r Plague at Nuples), the horrors of which are 
<|e«cithod by turn with great power. 

Heroic we eottto to »peuk of Vondel himself, there arc 
lovoral uatnes which U would bo utijuit to pass by wholly 


tr*w literature of their countrr, their repute v 
chiefly upon their latin predactieas. Haig d* G 
Hesns, Rasper Tan Baerie, soar sen ltn-.j- 
names, hot those of Grotms, Heasrai, u4 B. 
certainly — the first two at le ast o f Eur^r 
Constantine Hurjgeus was not one of the '.**• ; 
least remarkable writers of this period, Koce re- 
productions are stamped by originality bc'Ji :■' :, 
expression. He was employed upon mis>v zs : 
courts, and came over to this country on ooe u> i: 
and afterwards, although then greatly adva--?; 
visited Italy, chiefly lor the purpose of beb . : : V. 
Jan Vos, originally a glazier at Amsterdam, «. ~ 
born in 16:20, was a man of some ab.ln? a* : 
writer, but his taste was by no means equa! »  
for his 'Aran en Titos' and his 'Medea' are i • . 
travagances ; yet his versification is masterly, v, 
his comic pieces possess strong humour. The t« 
of Roemer-Visscher have already been ca-v 
few particulars relative to them may be acrer. 
the elder of them, was highly esteemed b -:.i < 
by Grotius, the latter of whom translated ' 
poem on his escape from prison. Maria, it-. . . 
by far tbe more gifted, was not only one of itr. -. • 
but one of tbe most accomplished females *! ' - 
was she less admirable for the excellence of hj * 
She enjoyed the friendship of Hooft, \\> r A. ':. 
and other eminent literary men. Her poea*:. 
merit, and a translation by her ofTassoVJr.v 
greatly extolled by her friends, but appears b :. 
never completed nor published. 

Referring for fuller particulars to the ar*:- ' 
we can now merely take a glance at one of «... 
has just cause to be proud, for never ha* re- 
displayed itself more forcibly or with grei'c • 
than it does in all his best productions. He *-■ 
those superior spirits who give celebrity to !:.•• ' 
and to their age; and if Camoens sing 1 .) tu- 
tor' the literary glory of Portugal, Vonici t . 
be sufficient to confer fame upon tbe land n: 
did not actually give him birth— for be it . 
Cologne— was tnat which reared and chen>kl k ^ 
tragedies are confessedly his master-picte s >: :: 
exhibit much of dramatic quality, of K""> '■• 
and passion, but rather on account of to- < ! * ' '■ 
with which they abound, more especially ii " 
nisses, they being all moulded upon the an >,: 
and some of them, such as his * Lucifer/ ' A<hn •■ 
scbap,' * Abraham,' ' Jephtha,' not at all adapicd 
on account of their subjects. They therefore a. 
racterised rather as dramatic oratorios without u 
dramas. Among his productions of this class h > - 
stands pre-eminent, and has given rise tocomptf - 
the genius of Vondel and that of Milton ; n - 
be proper to observe that it preceded' Para* 1 * • 
fourteen years. As may be supposed from »& : 
been said, his odes and lyrical pieces abound 
but he was scarcely inferior as a satirical p- 
character however he displays far more of 
Juvenal than of Horace. Defects avoided b v ' ; 
writers may he detected in all his productions,^ 
are of first-rate order. t 

Jan Antonisz, or Anton ides van der Goes, «h- 
only to Vondel's time, but also to his scho" '•• 
his friend and pupil, was gifted with great po«^' 
tion. and his ' ljstroom' is considered one of '• 
scrip tive poems in the language. Ofhist»^ : 
Buysero and Jan Pluymer, the former was rat^' 
of literature than a writer by profession, but he «" 
dramatic pieces; the latter was director of t> 
Amsterdam, and author of 'Inez de Castro' and ? - 

Towards the close of the seventeenth ce:.t-" 
literature began to find imitators, and for a ' 
originality was checked. Vollenbove, an«'.' 
friend of Vondel's. author of the sacred ^ 
the •KruUtriomf (or Triumph of the <>; 
some miscellaneous poems (1686), was stu 
was likewise Lucas Kotgans, who had pn»u- 
poem, of which our own William III. was the * 
two tragedies, which have been highly ext<>- 
Effctu ^Bliabeth Boofinan, or, Recording to t- - 




Stijl was a popular writer, more especially in the last-men- 
tioned class of composition. Peter Leonard van de Kasteele, 
the pensionary of Haarlem, and Van Alphen's friend, showed 
considerable poetical talent, both by his original compo- 
sitions, chiefly on religious and devotional subjects, and his 
translations from Klopstock and Wieland, besides his version 
of Ossian in hexameter verse. As a humourous and satiric 
writer, Arend Fokke stands without a rival in the language, 
and is styled by Van Kampen the Callot and Hogarth of 
Dutch literature, a distinction to which he is well entitled 
by his 'Boertige Reize' (Comic Journey through Europe), 
his • Ironical Comic Dictionary,* &c. ; while his ' Catechisms 
of the Arts and Sciences,' in 11 vols., show him to have 
been also a man of solid and extensive information. 

Rhynvis Feitb, Helmers, and Bilderdijk, are writers of 
whom any country might be proud. Both as a poet and 
as a critic, Feith is entitled to admiration. His 'Grave' 
(which first appeared in 1792, and has been translated 
into German), is a masterly production, with equal beauties 
and perhaps fewer defects than Young's ' Night Thoughts.' 
His 'Thirza,* 'Lady Jane Grey,' and 'Inez de Castro/ 
exhibit his powers as a tragic poet ; while his ' Letters,' 
his * Essay on Heroic Poetry,' &c. place him in a high 
rank as a prose writer. Helmers, a merchant by profession, 
affords a striking proof that the pursuits of commerce are 
not uncongenial to or incompatible with those of literature 
and taste, since, apart from their other merits, his poems 
breathe the most noble and generous sentiments, and are 
replete with striking ideas and imagery. Of Bilderdijk, 
one whose varied powers exhibited themselves with equal 
success upon the most opposite subjects, to attempt to 
speak here appears almost an injustice, since we have 
no space even to particularise any of bis numerous pro- 
ductions, except it be to express regret that so fine a 
poem as his • Ondergang der eersten Wereld' (the De- 
struction of the first World) should never have been con- 
tinued beyond the fifth book. Kinker, who, though born in 
1 764, is, we believe, yet living, is another excellent poet, and 
has produced admirable translations of Schiller's 'Maid of 
Orleans* and • Lady Jane Grey.' Loots, Loorjes, Tollens, 
Immerzeel, Van Hall, Da Costa, Van Lennep, all of them 
still or till very lately living, are writers who do honour to 
the literature of their country, which has recently lost in Van 
Kampen its historian, one to whose labours we are in- 
debted for much of the information contained in this article, 
or rather which is here merely pointed at. To those who 
care for more than the necessarily imperfect outline of the 
subject here presented to them, we can recommend Van 
Kampen's 'Beknopte Geschiedenis der Letteren,' &c. as a 
most interesting guide in the study of the literature of the 
Netherlands ; nor does he confine himself to the literature 
alone, but takes a view of all that his countrymen have 
achieved in every branch of science ; and if territorial ex- 
tent, and we may add population, can be taken as a standard 
in such matters, the Netherlands have certainly contributed 
infinitely more than their share towards the general civili- 
sation and enlightenment of Europe. 

The table here appended, which might have been made 
much more complete, will be useful as a chronological map, 
wherein are supplied, as far as authority for them could be 
found, those dates which are not mentioned in this brief 
historical sketch. It is arranged according to the dates of 
the deaths. 

Bora. Died. 

Brederode . 1585 1618 

Roemer-Visscher . 1620 

Kamphuyzen . 1626 

Groot, Huig de (Grotius) 1583 1645 

Hooft, Pet. Corn. . 1581 1647 

Roemer-Visscher, Maria 1594 1649 

— ~ Anna 1584 1651 

Heinse, Dan. (Heinsius) 1580 1655 

Brune,Jande . 1585 1658 

Cats, Jacob . 1577 i 660 

Van der Veen . ig60 

Dekker, Jeremias . 1610 1666 

Anslo, Reinier . J622 1669 

Vondel. Joost van . 1587 1679 

Rotgans, Lucas 
Poot, Hubert Corn. 
Van Effen, Justus 
Hoogvliet, Arnold 
Schim, Hendrik 
Smits, Dirk 
Boddaert, Peter 
Marre, Jan de 
Feitama, Sybrand 
Steenwijk, Frans 
Voet, J. Eusebius 
Van Haren, Willem 
On no 




IT 1 





i; ; . 










Anton ide* von derGoe3, Jan 1647 1684 

Brandt, Gerard . 1626 1685 

Huytrcns, Conatantine 1596 1686 

Brockhiuzen, Jau . 1649 1707 

Vollenhove, Jau # 1631 1708 

Nomsz, Jan 

Van der Vlict 

De Lannoy, Jul. Cornelia 

Trip, Lucas 

Bellamy, Jacob 


Nieuwland, Peter 
/Van Merken, Lucretia 
t Van Whiter 

Bakker, Huizinga 

Van Alphen 

Bekker, Eliz, 

Deken, Agatha 

Stijl, Simon 

Kasteele, Pet. Leon. 

Fokke, Arend 

Feith, Rhynvis 

Helmers, Jan Fred. 

Moens, Petronilla 

Bilderdijk, Will. 

Van Kampen 

Loots, Cornelius 

Kinker, Johan 

Loosjes, Adrian 

Tollens, Hendrik Com. 
NETSCHER, CASPAR, was born in !6>.rP 
berg, from which place his family removed to Ar 
this city he was adopted by Dr. Tuliekena, « ndt ;  
who placed him first under Koster, a paioHr^f •-•■' 
dead game, and afterwards under GhewiTerk';.!* *■ 
venter. He afterwards set out on histrate^v 

Sass some time in Italy, but he got no farther s. 
eaux, where be married, and after the birth i  
son, in 1661, returned to Holland and settled at*-'! 
C. Netscherwas one of the best painters of '? - 
school on a small scale. The necessity of pro-. . . 
numerous family obliged him to devote a cona- 
tion of his time to portrait-painting, in which 1* 
great reputation, though he had talents for mo- 
ments of the art. His most admired works are : • 
sation pieces. His colouring is true to naturv. P 
perfect master of chiaroscuro ; bis touch is eitr-r 
cate; above all, he is remarkable for hii skill 1 • 
ing linen, white satin, silks, and velvet, the 
which are cast in large and elegant folds. A 
sories, the furniture, ornaments, Turkey can*' * 
painted with inimitable truth and minuteness, bj: 
do not divert attention from the figures, with « 
form a delightfully harmonious whole. King Csi" 
vited him to London, but he declined that honour - 
the enjoyment of an established reputation it. 
country. He died in 1 684, aged forty-three year* 
Theodore Netscber, his eldest son, who was b..r 
was his father's disciple. He went at an earlv av' 
where he remained twenty years, highly es!*-" 
acquiring considerable wealth by possessing «'«* ' 
of taking an agreeable likeness. He was empl " 
a vast number of portraits of the principal p«- 
the court, especially the ladies. 

In 1715 he came to London as paymaster vi *' 
forces, and was introduced to the court bv S-; v 
Decker. He remained in England six years," arrf " 
™*B" * um « of money by his painting. After he " 
the Hague he lost a considerable sum throujh - ' 
ficiency in his accounts, and retired in disgust • 
where he died in 1732. 

Constantine Netscher, the second son of Ca>fu: 
1 670, closely imitated the style of his father, roar * 
portraits he copied in order to form bis hand, but L<  

n e a 


N E U 

bank, an insurance company, a bible society, and a mission- 
ary society. There is no other town of any importance in 
the canton, but there are many large villages, and the val- 
leys of the Locle and La Chaux de Fond contain a great 
number of scattered habitations occupied by manufac- 

Neufcbfitel is a principality of which the king of Prussia, 
as representative of the house of Brandenburg, is the sove- 
reign prince, but it has a representative assembly or legis- 
lative body consisting of eighty- five members, of whom 
seven ly-five are returned by the electors of the various dis- 
tricts, and ten are named by the prince. They are appointed 
for six years. All the native or naturalized subjects of Neuf- 
ch&tel who are twenty- two years of age, and not paupers or 
bankrupts, are electors. The candidates for the legislative 
body must be possessed of landed or house property of the 
value of 1000 francs. The laws are proposed by the executive, 
and also by the members of the legislature. The king or 
his representative gives or refuses his sanction to the bills 
which have passed the legislature. All the officers in the 
administration must be natives, except the governor, who is 
generally a Prussian officer of rank, and receives a salary 
of 10,000 francs annually. The civil list of the prince 
amounts to 70,000 francs. 

The county of Neufchatel was a fief of the old kingdom of 
Burgundy, and it had its line of counts until a.d. 1288, 
when it passed into the house of Chalons, from which it 
came into that of Longueville. Mary duchess of Nemours, 
the last of this house, dying in 1707, Frederic I., king of 
Prussia, claimed the succession as heir of the house of 
Chfilons, and the assembly of the three estates of the county 
recognised his claim. Bonaparte obliged the king of Prussia 
to surrender NeufchStel in 1806, and he cave it to General 
Berthier, but in 1814 the county returned to the allegiance 
of the house of Brandenburg, and it was at the same time 
received as a canton into the Swiss confederation, of which 
it had already been for a long time an ally. 

The Lake of Neufchdtel, called also the Lake of Yver- 
dun, is twenty-five miles in length from north-east to 
south-west, and about five miles in its greatest breadth ; 
but it is much narrower in its southern part, being not 
quite two miles wide near the town of Y verdun, which 
is at its south-west extremity. Its greatest depth to- 
wards the middle is about 400 feet. Its feeders are, 1, 
the river Orbe from the south-west, which has its source in 
the Jura, and crosses a great part of the Canton de Vaud; 
2, the Broie, which comes from the lake of Morat in the 
canton of Friburg ; 3, the Reuse, which flows from the 
Val de Travers in the canton of Neufchatel ; and 4, the 
Seyon, which comes from the Yal de Ruz, also in the same 
canton. The outlet of the lake of NeufchaHel is the Thiele 
at the north-east extremity, which carries its waters into 
the neighbouring lake of Bienne, from whence there is an 
outlet into the river Aar. [Bienne.] The lake of Neufchatel 
abounds with fish. A steam-boat of 20-horse power plies 
on this lake, and proceeds also by the Thiele into that of 
Bienne as far as the town of that name, and occasionally it 
also ascends by the Broie into the lake of Morat. The 
country lying between these three lakes is called Seeland, 
and is mostly low, and in seasons of great floods part of it 
is inundated, so as to form only one lake. This was the 
case in 1816. The basin of the lake of Neufcmttel belongs 
to the water-system of the Rhine, and is divided from that 
of the lake of Geneva by the ridge called Jorat, which runs 
from south-east to north-west, through the centre of the 
Canton de Vaud. The level of the lake of Neufchatel is 
nearly 200 feet above that of the lake of Geneva. (Leresche, 
Dictionnaire Gcographique de la Suisse.) 

NEUHAUS (in Bohemian, Gindrzichu Hradecz) is a 
well-built town in the circle of Tabor, in Bohemia, 68 miles 
south-south-east of Prague. It is the chief place of a lord- 
ship belonging to Count Czerny, whose palace is a very 
magnificent edifice. It has one of the finest churches in 
Bohemia ; a gymnasium, which formerly belonged to the 
Jesuits ; a school ; and extensive manufactories of woollens, 
linen, paper, and playing-cards. The population of the 
town and suburbs amounts to nearly 6000. A great part 
of the town was destroyed by fire in 1801. Fine topazes 
are found in tbe vicinitv. 

NEUHOFF, THEODOR VON, known at one time as 
King Theodore, a German adventurer, was born towards 
the end of the seventeenth century, of the noble family of 
the counts of La Mark in Westphalia. His father was an 

officer in the French service, and be himself obtu* 
lieutenant's commission in the regiment of Alurt 
afterwards went to Spain, and gained tbe favoured 
dinal Alberoni, who gave him the rank of coloit 
the Spanish service. In Spain he married a M. 
honour of the queen, whom he deserted, and carried J 
jewels. He then travelled through various <v?v 
under different names and titles, Sweden, Holland, i. 
and at last was put in prison for debt at Leghorn « 
coming out of prison, he met with several Corsican leu* 
among the rest with the canon Orriconi, who bad 1 . 
him at Genoa in 1 732, and he proposed to underui* 
cause of the Corsicans. who were then at war ijij 
Genoese ; he spoke of his high connections and hi* e • 
of being useful in various ways. The Corsicans wot . 
in the predicament of drowning men catching it »v 
Orticoni believed or seemed to believe the adrentur - 
promised to use his influence to have him named k : 
Corsica, on condition that he should first bring sub* 
assistance to his countrymen. Neuhoff upon this u • 
Tunis, where he succeeded in persuading the Bey: > 
him arms and ammunition, promising him in nan 
exclusive trade of the island and a station that it * 
piratical vessels. The Bey entered into his vienn^ 
him ten pieces of cannon, four thousand m*tov' 
ammunition, shoes, corn, and about ten thoiwr. : 
sequins. It is a subject of astonishment how TMz" 
trived to get so much from the Moorish chief, but the i- 
authentic. He sailed from Tunis on board anEoglat - 
with his cargo and a retinue of sixteen persons, m 
two French officers, and several Turks, and arrived * 
12th of March, 1736, in the roads of Alesia, onth^ 
coast of Corsica. In the following April the general* 
bly of Corsicans elected Theodor for their king, it- 
swore to the draft of a constitution for tbe Mite:-* 
which was then proclaimed. (Botta, Storia iliak. «• 
The rest of the story is briefly told under Corsica J ' 
many vicissitudes, Theodor died in London, to Dm: 
1756, and was buried in St. Ann's churchyard, Veto?' 
where the epitapb on his tombstone records tbe un- 
even ts of his life. 

NEUILLY. [Seine.] 

NEUKIRCH, BENJAMIN, a German poetofd*** 
teenth century, was born at Reinke, a viOip » ^ l J* : 
March 27, 1665. His earlier productions prtA* <^ 
bad taste which stamps that period of German liter.:.* 
yet although he ereatly improved after bis lita^ * 
quaintance with Canitz at Berlin, and was coasV 
reformer in poetry during his own day, he possesses - 
the requisites that recommend a writer to postern?, n * 
though deserving a notice in literary history, it * ^ 
on account of having contributed to bring a net 8 -' 
writing into vogue. His poetical translation of fc #> 
' Telemacbus ' may be classed with the Russian one <>' 
diakovsky, a work of most unenviable celebrity in '> - 
guage to whicb it belongs. His best production* »* 
satires and poetical epistles. He died at AnspacU-* 
15, 1729, in his fifty-sixth year. . , 

NEUKIRCHEN is a town in the Saxon Volg^ 1 J 
a population of 1200 inhabitants, among wboo^" 
90 manufacturers of violins and violoncellos, 40 n>" 
wooden and 36 of brass wind-instruments, above* * 
facturers of catgut-strings, and 45 makers of vwtf 
besides many other persons also employed in ' * ' 
pegs, bridges, finger-boards, &c. They have row* 
year (including the village of Adorf) 6220 b*> 
violin and violoncello strings, 241 dozen of string 
ments, 177 dozen of violin bows, 109 dozen ofvwW" T 
bows, 316 clarionets, 46 oboes, 522 flutes, 46 bas»c> 
octave flutes, 12 piccolo flutes, 13 basset-horns, 2W t» 
horns, 172 trumpets, 17 pair of kettle-drums, and.' 
and bugle horns. , . , * 

NEURA'LGIA, a word of modern origin (ten™: 
vtvpov, a 'nerve/ and oXyoc, 'pain 1 ), first empw^ 
Chaussier to designate a certain class of diseases oM 
the characteristic symptom is a most acute pain f^ 
the course of a nerve in one or more of its rami w~ 
subject to paroxysms and intermissions, in most c? 
attended by either heat, redness, or swelling, *& 
without any apparent lesion at all. - , 

Although from the nature and causes of tbeancc^ 
have every reason to believe that neuralgia n 1151 
isted in all ages, still (historically speaking) it ■**- 


Sr e v 


n Eir 

kinds of pain commonly called ' rheumatic' (MM. Jolly 
and Piorry, quoted in Raciborski). To these have been 
added torticollis, lumbago, angina pectoris, neuralgia of the 
arteries, gastralgia, enteralgia, hepatalgia, nephralgia, bys- 
teralgia, neuralgia of the heart, testicle, bladder, urethra, 
diaphragm, &c. (Raciborski, Rowland, Elliotson, &c.) It 
may perhaps be rather fanciful to give the name ' neuralgia' 
to all these cases, and it would take up too much space to 
describe each separately; but they are all more or less 
characterised by the same peculiar sort of pain, coming on 
and leaving off suddenly, extremely acute while the paroxysm 
lasts, and subject to intervals of complete cessation. 

Of the remote or predisposing causes of neuralgia 
very little is known, but it has been supposed to attack 
females more frequently than males, the rich than the 
poor, those that live in towns rather than the inhabitants 
of the country. It is also most common among persons 
of a nervous temperament, and both infancy and old 
age are comparatively safe from its attacks. The im- 
mediate or exciting causes are very numerous, and some- 
times extremely obscure. Among the most common may 
be mentioned, exposure to wet and cold, mental excite- 
ment and agitation in persons of an irritable temperament, 
and a deranged state of the digestive organs, though with 
respect to this last it should be noticed that some eminent 
pathologists seem inclined to think that this is seldom if 
ever the case. Local injuries of various kinds are another 
very frequent cause of the disease ; such as the lodgement 
of any foreign body in the branch of a nerve, wounds, con- 
tusions, cicatrices, the too great distension of a nerve, 
carious teeth, &c. Sir Henry Halford has published in his 
' Essays * five cases showing that sometimes ' the disease is 
connected with some preternatural growth of bone, or a 
deposition ofJ)one in a part of the animal economy where it 
is not usually found in a sound aud healthy condition of it, 
or with a diseased bone ;' and Sir Benjamin Brodie, in his 
' Lectures on Local Nervous Affections/ mentions several 
where the pain was occasioned by the pressure of an aneu- 
rysmal or other tumour. Several other causes are enume- 
rated by Dr. Rowland in his treatise on neuralgia* vis. dis- 
eases of the urinary orgaus, disorder of the heart and large 
vessels, uterine disorders, spinal irritation, organic diseases 
of the brain and spinal marrow, malignant diseases, chronic 
inflammation, malaria, and anaemia. In many cases how- 
ever no exciting cause whatever can be discovered either 
during life or after death. 

With regard to the seat of neuralgia, there can be little 
doubt but that it is in the nerve itself; but it is equally 
certain that the part where pain is felt is not always 
the part diseased. The pathology of the disease is ex- 
tremely obscure and uncertain, chiefly from the diffi- 
culty of deciding the question of its supposed identity 
with neuritis; and this difficulty is much increased by an 
examination of the contradictory evidence brought forward 
on each side, by the men most eminent for talents and ex- 
perience. Larrey (' On the Use of the Moxa') speaking of 
tic douloureux, describes it as ' a chronic aud inflammatory 
turgesoence of the neurilema, which envelopes the nerves of 
the part affected ;' Sir Astley Cooper on the other hand, in 
his ' Lectures on Surgery,' admits that it is difficult to say 
what is the real nature of the disease, but goes on to declare 
that ' the nerves are not in an inflamed state most cer- 
tainly, for under the most horrid suffering they are found of 
a natural colour ; they are not increased either in their 
usual sisa, but on the contrary are found to be rather dimi- 
nished.' Upon the whole, the truth seems to be that, in 
general, no signs of inflammation are found either during 
life or after death ; but at the same time we cannot refuse 
to believe the positive evidence brought forward to show 
that in some cases the nerve has been found larger than 
usual and of a deeper colour, and the neurilema unnatu- 
rally thick and distended by serous infiltration. (See the in- 
stances collected by Dr. Rowland, Treat, on Neur.) Where 
these morbid appearances have been occasioned by acute 
neuritis, the course of the disease is so different from that of 
neuralgia, that the two affections can hardly be considered 
to be identical ; where the case has been one of chronic in- 
flammation, it may still be doubted whether we should not 
consider this to be one of the causes of neuralgia, rather than 
thedtiease itself to be of an inflammatory nature. ' 

The diagnosis of neuralgia is not in general very difficult, 
t even when it does not follow the course of a nerve, it say 

uaonjy be distinguished from every other disease by the 

peculiar character of the pain, its excessive violence <!. 
the paroxysm, and the absence of all symptoms of few I 
inflammation. It may sometimes be difficult at tis 
to distinguish neuralgia from neuritis, inasmuch a* iL 
diseases resemble each other in some of their mo*t r 
nent symptoms; but by observing the following di^ 
signs (derived from the general character of in (Uu: 
in all parts of the body), the danger of confound.^ 
may be avoided. In neuritis the pain is continual,* • 
case in all inflammations ; in neuralgia it is never c .. 
but is subject to paroxysms and intermissions. In :■.. 
the pain is aggravated by the slightest pressure: .- 
ralgia, on the contrary, it is sometimes alleviated b) 
these it may be added that in neuritis we shall:. 
usual attendants of inflammation, viz. heat, re4-- 
swelling ; while in neuralgia (as noticed above) C > . 
rarely if ever present. 

The prognosis will of course depend very a 
the nature of the exciting cause of the disease, be: • 
a general rule it is extremely uncertain. S:i 
when every remedy has been tried in vain, a wre . 
effected by time alone, for it seems that all the as*: 
of the nervous system is liable to become du'^.. 
powers by a long series of irritation ; yet even lb. 
not be depended on, as there are some cases on recxi 
by Dr. Rowland) where the disease has continued tu 
age of eighty-five. 

With regard to the treatment of neuralgia i: 
appear quite superfluous to say that it must be rt. 
by the circumstances of each particular case, if  
not notorious that no disease has been treat* 
blindly and empirically. The favourite remedy a: ' 
is the sesquioxide of iron, which was first b:.- 
notice by Mr. Hutchinson of Nottingham ('Cass* 
algia Spasmodica, &c./ Lond., 1820), and which ..• 
pies a place in public favour that has been success. 
for a longer or shorter period by almost ereru ' 
powerful substance in the ' Pharmacopoeia.' V" 
practitioner will readily be able to imagine cases ^ 
has not met with them in his own practice, vher 
hibition of this medicine must be entirely uselefc- 
disease is there more truth in the maxim 'w^ 
tollitur effectus.' When any foreign body pi***-? : 
nerve, or when the pain can be distinctly traced •'*- 
tooth, the removal of the source of irritation »& "- 
be sufficient to cure the disease ; though the f- 
should be especially warned against the danger of: 
ing neuralgia with the tooth-ache, an error duu ' 
likely to occur in some cases of tic douloureux, t 
that has often occasioned the loss of several in- 
patient without any good effect When (as s »mtu 
case) the disease appears to be occasioned by the .- 
arising from an old cicatrix, it will be exnediecu - 
effect of applications to the cicatrix itself, vix. tri- 
nitrate of silver, or the actual cautery, or a blister. ' 
cial incision over the part, or even its removal bf y 
And in the same way, when it can be distinctly i* " 
any other of the exciting causes enumerated ik • 
removal of that will probably be followed by tb* ^ 
ance of the disease. But, as already observed, * - ' 
quently happens that the exciting cause cannot be <** < 
aud in these cases the treatment must neos*^ 
great degree empirical. When the paroxysms u< * 
in their duration and recurrence, perhaps the sesq--- 
iron is the best remedy at present known : it »»! * 
in doses of half a drachm three times a day in '' 
weight of treacle. When the pain recurs after or*- 
lar intervals, those medicines which are found to > - 
efficacious in the treatment of ague may be exb;t:'. - 
advantage. The disulnhate of quina may be gi"£ - " 
of four or five grains three times a day, though